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Extracting Value from Open
 Licensing Arrangements:
    CC 3.0 and beyond

Dr. Prodromos Tsiavos
EnCoRe
                  ...
Data         Licence




four elements


  Value          Flow
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
|                          |
    DATA
|                          |
|                          |
­...
What do we mean by -DATA-?
    <legal>
Copyright vs. Database Right
Public Sector Information
Data Protection
Freedom of I...
Where should I look for
         governance
        instruments?


                
International
                          treaties
           EU directives
    Laws

Policies   Organisational
            ...
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
|                             |
    VALUE
|                             |
|                    ...
Four
    ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
    |                                   ...
No. One
    Value does not
    necessarily
    mean
 
    £££     
Types of value identified per case study


                              BL ASR       BMAGIC   VoB   BBC Century   MyExper...
No. Two
    Value
    does not
    always         model
    follow
    the
                
the

        model
     
i
    give
           u
                
u
                 give
    £       me
         
network

    Value
    may
    follow
    the
                 model
              
In the network
    I don't
    sell

                    model
                 
I don't
    sell

               
In the network

I create
value from
relationships
                    model
                 
Think of:




                 
No. three
    cost
           and
                 openness
             
Free as in Free Beer




                (You get it for free)
Free as in Free Speech




                         (You speak your
                              mind)
Free as in FreeDom of Information




                 (Free access to public
                      information)
Free as in Free Puppy




    (You get it for free...
         ...and you have to pay it for
         the rest of your lif...
No. Four
    Value
            requires
                  clarity
                
No. Four
    clarity
              requires
                     rules
                  
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
|                                        |
    LICENCES
|                             ...
[1]
Human-Readable:   Commons Deed
                         [2]
                         Lawyer-Readable:
                ...
schematic
Prodromos Tsiavos © 2010 CC_BY_ND
                     Is Commercial Use Allowed?

                         Yes           ...
Licence Species


                                 Six Basic licences
                                 based on the
      ...
Licence Species


                                 Six Basic licences
                                 based on the
      ...
Creative Commons licensing operation




           [modules]
Understanding the operation of
the licences




                                  Basic Template


 Dual Structure



    ...
The operation of the basic
template I (freedoms)




                                To reproduce the
                    ...
The Licensor may
The operation of the basic                             license the work under
                           ...
Licence elements




                     Attribution

                   Non Commercial

                   No Derivative...
Combinations

           Attribution

          Attribution – Share Alike

         Attribution – No Derivatives

        ...
Licence elements




                     Attribution

                   Non Commercial

                   No Derivative...
Combinations

           Attribution

          Attribution – Share Alike

         Attribution – No Derivatives

        ...
Additional Features




        [CCUK 3.0]
+ from CC 2.5
* single licence for all three jurisdictions (EW/ NI/ SC)
* Clarifications (collective work/ licensor/ restr...
The ShareAlike element




                          Share Alike




  • It refers to the derivative works
  • When the li...
The ShareAlike element and the GFDL licence




      •As of 03.11.08, the CC_BY_SA and GFDL licences are
      compatible...
Remember:
    - know your value
    - clear your rights
    - standardise
    - use mixed models
               
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
|                                        |
    fLOWS
|                             |
|...
Types of
  Open
 Access
1



Horizontal
  open
 access
Examples
Shallow Open Access
          User 1


                               •There  is  a  central 
                            ...
Why Shallow Open 
                               Access
          User 1


                                 * Content cont...
User 1




User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ




          User IV
User 1       Organisation




User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ




          User IV       Access Point
User 1       Organisation




        User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ




Flow of content   User IV       Access Point
User 1       Organisation
Flow of permissions




          User ΙΙ               User ΙΙΙ




 Flow of Content      User ...
Key licence elements 
                               Ι
                               Limitations on: 
                   ...
Key Licence 
                                Elements ΙΙ
                                Rights/ Freedoms: 
           Use...
Key Licence 
                               Elements ΙΙΙ
                               Other important elements: 
       ...
Why is horizontal 
                               access also shallow?
                                 Horizontal      ac...
2




Vertical
 Open
Access
cases
User 1       Organisation
Flow of permissions




          User ΙΙ               User ΙΙΙ




 Flow of Content      User ...
User 1




         User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ



User V




                   User IV
User 1




         User ΙΙ               User ΙΙΙ



User V




                   User IV
                             A...
User 1




         User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ



User V




                   User IV
                                ...
User 1




         User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ



User V




                   User IV   End-User Access
              ...
User 1




         User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ



User V




                   User IV
User 1




         User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ



User V




                   User IV
Licensing forms
                     -Users  normally  exchange 
                     content  with  each  other 
        ...
The
Models
Flows of rights

  Flows of
  content




[flow models]
The nomad
model


              © Casas-Rodríguez Collection, 2009




            [A]
              CC_NC_ND
1990                           2000                       2009




          Org 1                      Org 2             ...
1990                   2000                        2009



                           Rights Collection
                  ...
Clean Hands




          [B]
National Centre for eResearch (MyExperiment/ OMII)
National Library for Health eLearning Object Repository (LOR)
User 1




         User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ



User V




                   User IV
User 1




         User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ



User V




                   User IV
Key points
                      ­  While  the  content  is 
          User 1      deposited  in  a  common 
             ...
User 1




         User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ



User V




                   User IV
User 1




         User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ



User V




                   User IV
Licensing forms
 ­  The  content  ownership 
 varies:  it  may  belong  to  the 
 distributing  organisation  or 
 third p...
Walled Garden
models


                © Recursion see recurcion 2006 CC_NC_SA




          [C]
Model
One
Full
Rights
Transfer
Open
Release
Commercial
                 Release
* Necessary
for selling
* difference
between code
and data
licences
* GPL-type
licence...
Model
Two
No
Rights
Transfer
No
    Rights
X   Transfer




X
...but
* membership
agreement
* no actions
agreement


Standards
Protocols
Info-
structures
3




Open
Meta-
Access
Cases




        100
User 1       Organisation
Flow of permissions



        User ΙΙ                 User ΙΙΙ




Flow of Content       User I...
User 1




User ΙΙ             User ΙΙΙ




          User IV



                               102
User 1




          DATA SET I

                           DATA SET II
User ΙΙ                                  User ΙΙΙ
...
User 1
                                                     Flow of Rights
Data Flow                                      ...
Flow of Rights
Data Flow                                    over Data



                DATA SET I

      User ΙΙ        ...
User 1
                                                     Flow of Rights
Data Flow                                      ...
Open Meta Access I 
                        ­  Meta­Data  and  Content  follow 
                        the same path
    ...
Open Meta­Access II
                                          ­  Meta­data  flows  do  not  follow 
                      ...
Open Meta Access III
                                     ­  The  most  important  users  of 
                            ...
DATA SET I

User ΙΙ




                       110
DATA SET I

   +
                         DATA SET I

               User ΙΙ
DATA SET III

   =

DATA SET IV




         ...
Open Meta­Access IV
                                        ­  The  user  downloads  meta­data 
                          ...
Open Meta­Access V
                                                      ­ Other users may have access to 
               ...
User V



                                       User 1
                                                DATA SET IV




DA...
+                  =                  User V
  DATA SET IV         DATA SET V       DATA SET V



                        ...
+                  =                  User V
  DATA SET IV         DATA SET V       DATA SET V


                         ...
+                  =                  User V
  DATA SET IV         DATA SET V       DATA SET V


                         ...
+                  =                  User V
  DATA SET IV         DATA SET V       DATA SET V


                         ...
+                  =                  User V
  DATA SET IV         DATA SET V       DATA SET V


                         ...
why          * low transaction costs
             * simplicity
             * no liability
             * more users 
Is g...
*** 
          Q + A
           ***
    p.tsiavos@lse.ac.uk

    Prodromos Tsiavos
    EnCoRe Research Officer
    The Lon...
Prodromous Tsiavos
Prodromous Tsiavos
Prodromous Tsiavos
Prodromous Tsiavos
Prodromous Tsiavos
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Transcript of "Prodromous Tsiavos"

  1. 1. 0    
  2. 2. Extracting Value from Open Licensing Arrangements: CC 3.0 and beyond Dr. Prodromos Tsiavos EnCoRe     UKOER2010 23_07_10
  3. 3. Data Licence four elements Value Flow
  4. 4. ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ |                          | DATA |         | |                          | ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ 1    
  5. 5. What do we mean by -DATA-? <legal> Copyright vs. Database Right Public Sector Information Data Protection Freedom of Information Transparency INSPIRE </legal>    
  6. 6. Where should I look for governance instruments?    
  7. 7. International treaties EU directives Laws Policies Organisational procedures Funding Employment contributors agreements contracts agreements Licence Agreements
  8. 8. ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ |                             | VALUE |         | |                             | ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ 2    
  9. 9. Four ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ |                                                                                    | Uncomfortable Truths |         | |                                                                                    | ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­    
  10. 10. No. One Value does not necessarily mean   £££  
  11. 11. Types of value identified per case study BL ASR BMAGIC VoB BBC Century MyExperim BECTA NEN OMII Share ent Repurpose Non Monetary Educational X X X X X X X Reputation building X X Quality Improvement X X X Audience Creation X X Increasing relevance of X X X X X material Collective Memory X X X X Research X X X X X X Building on existing X X X Knowledge Culture dissemination X X X X and preservation Monetary Revenue Creation X Sustainability X X X Securing future funding X X X X X
  12. 12. No. Two Value does not always model follow the    
  13. 13. the model    
  14. 14. i give u    
  15. 15. u give £ me    
  16. 16. network Value may follow the model    
  17. 17. In the network I don't sell model    
  18. 18. I don't sell    
  19. 19. In the network I create value from relationships model    
  20. 20. Think of:    
  21. 21. No. three cost and openness    
  22. 22. Free as in Free Beer (You get it for free)
  23. 23. Free as in Free Speech (You speak your mind)
  24. 24. Free as in FreeDom of Information (Free access to public information)
  25. 25. Free as in Free Puppy (You get it for free... ...and you have to pay it for the rest of your life)
  26. 26. No. Four Value requires clarity    
  27. 27. No. Four clarity requires rules    
  28. 28. ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ |                                        | LICENCES |         | |                                        | ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ 3    
  29. 29. [1] Human-Readable: Commons Deed [2] Lawyer-Readable: Legal Code [three expressions] [3] Machine-Readable: Logo + Link Meta Data
  30. 30. schematic
  31. 31. Prodromos Tsiavos © 2010 CC_BY_ND Is Commercial Use Allowed? Yes No Can the User Make  Changes? Yes No Yes No CC_BY_ND CC_BY_NC_ND st the Derivative Work Be Distributed Under the Same Terms and Condition Yes No Yes No CC_BY CC_BY_SA CC_BY_NC CC_BY_SA_NC 31 Open Closed
  32. 32. Licence Species Six Basic licences based on the combination of three licence elements Creative Commons CC Sampling Licence Licences Public Domain Founders’ Dedication Copyright Developing Nations Licence Music Sharing
  33. 33. Licence Species Six Basic licences based on the combination of three licence X elements Creative Commons CC Sampling Licence Licences T Public Domain Dedication X Founders’ Copyright X Developing Nations Licence X Music Sharing
  34. 34. Creative Commons licensing operation [modules]
  35. 35. Understanding the operation of the licences Basic Template Dual Structure Variable Licence Elements The licensor retains her copyright and autonomy Licence principles: The licensee is the recipient of a number of freedoms the licensor chooses to award
  36. 36. The operation of the basic template I (freedoms) To reproduce the work Basic Freedoms To include the work in a collective work To distribute copies To modify the work Display publicly, so that the rights perform publicly, may be exercised in to perform publicly all media formats/ by means of digital platforms audio transmission
  37. 37. The Licensor may The operation of the basic license the work under different terms and template II (licensor’s conditions autonomy) Licensor reserves all rights not explicitly granted The licensor retains autonomy/ No sublicensing is control allowed The licensee is obliged to carry all notices regarding the copyright of the licensor The licensee cannot impose The licensee is any additional legal obliged to restriction or obstruct the attribute the dissemination of the work original author (e.g. using Digital Rights Management)
  38. 38. Licence elements Attribution Non Commercial No Derivatives ShareAlike
  39. 39. Combinations Attribution Attribution – Share Alike Attribution – No Derivatives Attribution – Non Commercial Attribution – Non Commercial - ShareAlike Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivati 39
  40. 40. Licence elements Attribution Non Commercial No Derivatives ShareAlike
  41. 41. Combinations Attribution Attribution – Share Alike Attribution – No Derivatives Attribution – Non Commercial Attribution – Non Commercial - ShareAlike Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivati 41
  42. 42. Additional Features [CCUK 3.0]
  43. 43. + from CC 2.5 * single licence for all three jurisdictions (EW/ NI/ SC) * Clarifications (collective work/ licensor/ restrictions/ TPM/  Attribution * No Endorsement * Express Moral Rights Acknowledgement * CC Notice  * SA features * Differentiation between derivative and original * Sui Generis Database Right
  44. 44. The ShareAlike element Share Alike • It refers to the derivative works • When the licensor creates a derivative work, she has to further license it under the same terms and conditions as the work it was based upon • Particularly relevant when multiple authors create a work in a virtual environment (e.g. wikis, sampling sites)
  45. 45. The ShareAlike element and the GFDL licence •As of 03.11.08, the CC_BY_SA and GFDL licences are compatible •Wikipedia transition •Huge step in reducing fragmentation of the commons •URL: http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/10443
  46. 46. Remember: - know your value - clear your rights - standardise - use mixed models    
  47. 47. ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ |                                        | fLOWS |         | |                                        | ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ 4    
  48. 48. Types of Open Access
  49. 49. 1 Horizontal open access
  50. 50. Examples
  51. 51. Shallow Open Access User 1 •There  is  a  central  acces point only •  Super­distributions  (p2p) is not possible  User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ •  The  licences  used  are  essentially  expressions  of  limitations  (exceptions,  fair use, fair dealing) User IV
  52. 52. Why Shallow Open  Access User 1 * Content control * Quality assurance * provenance *  de  facto  control  of  User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ commercial uses *  Limited  issues  of  rights  clearance  User IV
  53. 53. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User IV
  54. 54. User 1 Organisation User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User IV Access Point
  55. 55. User 1 Organisation User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ Flow of content User IV Access Point
  56. 56. User 1 Organisation Flow of permissions User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ Flow of Content User IV Access Point
  57. 57. Key licence elements  Ι Limitations on:  (a) Use User 1 ­ Private ­ Non Commercial -For Educational purposes only­ - No Derivative Works (b) User -Teachers  / Educators - Academics User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ - Students ­  Staff  of  other  organisations  (HE  – FE – MLA) (c) Location ­ Membership ­ Country / region campus ­ Members of specific organisation  (d) Moral rights User IV ­ Attribution ­ Integrity ­ Non Endorsement
  58. 58. Key Licence  Elements ΙΙ Rights/ Freedoms:  User 1 (a) Use ­ Private (b)  Communication  to  the public -Educational -NonCommercial User  ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ (c) Reproduction -Private -Non Commercial -Educational User IV
  59. 59. Key Licence  Elements ΙΙΙ Other important elements:  (a)  the  licences  are  either  User 1 contracts  that  require  offer,  consideration  and  acceptance  (e.g.  British  Museum)  or  “naked”­ “bare” licences (b)  there  are  licence­specific  definitions on: User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ ­  non­commercial  –  private  –  educational use (c)  there  are  specific  provisions with regards to -Personal data (PD) -Registration with the ICO -Policies about PD handling  User IV -Protections of minors -Cultural Heritage provisions -Public  Sector  Information 
  60. 60. Why is horizontal  access also shallow? Horizontal  access  is  normally  shallow  as  well  User 1 because: ­  Public  and  private  organisations  feel  more  comfortable  with  this  mode  of content disseminations ­  The  content  is  accessible  User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ and  may  be  easily  used  even by users with minimum  ICT skills User IV
  61. 61. 2 Vertical Open Access
  62. 62. cases
  63. 63. User 1 Organisation Flow of permissions User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ Flow of Content User IV Access Point
  64. 64. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User V User IV
  65. 65. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User V User IV Access Points
  66. 66. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User V User IV Access Point
  67. 67. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User V User IV End-User Access Point
  68. 68. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User V User IV
  69. 69. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User V User IV
  70. 70. Licensing forms -Users  normally  exchange  content  with  each  other  using  some  form  of  open  licensing schemes -  The most wide spread CC  licences: • CC_BY_SA_NC User ΙΙ • CC_BY_SA User V
  71. 71. The Models
  72. 72. Flows of rights Flows of content [flow models]
  73. 73. The nomad model © Casas-Rodríguez Collection, 2009 [A] CC_NC_ND
  74. 74. 1990 2000 2009 Org 1 Org 2 Org 3 Permissions Content Permissions Content Permissions Content
  75. 75. 1990 2000 2009 Rights Collection point Org 1 Org 2 Org 3 Permissions Content Permissions Content Permissions Content
  76. 76. Clean Hands [B]
  77. 77. National Centre for eResearch (MyExperiment/ OMII)
  78. 78. National Library for Health eLearning Object Repository (LOR)
  79. 79. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User V User IV
  80. 80. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User V User IV
  81. 81. Key points ­  While  the  content  is  User 1 deposited  in  a  common  repository  the  flows  of  permissions  (or  rights)  follow a different trajectory -  When  CC  licences  are  used,  the  permissions  flow  User ΙΙ directly  from  the  rights­ owner to the content  User IV
  82. 82. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User V User IV
  83. 83. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User V User IV
  84. 84. Licensing forms ­  The  content  ownership  varies:  it  may  belong  to  the  distributing  organisation  or  third parties  User ΙΙΙ ­ The distributing organisation may  make available only the content for  which  either it has obtained rights  or  the  rights­holders  allow  it  to  be  stored on its servers.
  85. 85. Walled Garden models © Recursion see recurcion 2006 CC_NC_SA [C]
  86. 86. Model One
  87. 87. Full Rights Transfer
  88. 88. Open Release
  89. 89. Commercial Release * Necessary for selling * difference between code and data licences * GPL-type licences offer protection
  90. 90. Model Two
  91. 91. No Rights Transfer
  92. 92. No Rights X Transfer X
  93. 93. ...but * membership agreement * no actions agreement Standards Protocols Info- structures
  94. 94. 3 Open Meta- Access
  95. 95. Cases 100
  96. 96. User 1 Organisation Flow of permissions User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ Flow of Content User IV Access Point 101
  97. 97. User 1 User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ User IV 102
  98. 98. User 1 DATA SET I DATA SET II User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ DATA SET III User IV 103
  99. 99. User 1 Flow of Rights Data Flow over Data DATA SET I User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ DATA SET II User IV 104
  100. 100. Flow of Rights Data Flow over Data DATA SET I User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ DATA SET II 105
  101. 101. User 1 Flow of Rights Data Flow over Data DATA SET I User ΙΙ User ΙΙΙ DATA SET II User IV 106
  102. 102. Open Meta Access I  ­  Meta­Data  and  Content  follow  the same path ­  Meta­Data  are  normally  accompanied  by  a  set  of  permissions  that  follow  the  same  trajectory as the meta­data DATA SET I User ΙΙ 107
  103. 103. Open Meta­Access II ­  Meta­data  flows  do  not  follow  the same trajectory as the content ­  A  user  may  download  content  while uploading meta­data DATA SET I User ΙΙ DATA SET II User IV 108
  104. 104. Open Meta Access III ­  The  most  important  users  of  meta­data  collections  are  organisations,  such  as  aggregators  (e.g.  Europeana)  or  collaborative  sites  (e.g.  Wikimedia) DATA SET I User II DATA SET II 109
  105. 105. DATA SET I User ΙΙ 110
  106. 106. DATA SET I + DATA SET I User ΙΙ DATA SET III = DATA SET IV 111
  107. 107. Open Meta­Access IV ­  The  user  downloads  meta­data  which  are  then  combined  and  enriched  with  meta­data  she  provides -This  behavioral  patterns  relates  to the need of the user to identify  DATA SET I with  the  content,  to  combine  it  + with  other  content  for  cultural  DATA SET I reasons  or  in  general  to  User ΙΙ contextualise  it  in  order  to  DATA SET III customise it to her own benefit = DATA SET IV DATA SET IV 112
  108. 108. Open Meta­Access V ­ Other users may have access to  the  same  content  but  enriched  User 1 with additional meta­data. DATA SET I + DATA SET IV DATA SET I User ΙΙ DATA SET III = DATA SET IV DATA SET IV 113
  109. 109. User V User 1 DATA SET IV DATA SET I + DATA SET IV DATA SET I User ΙΙ DATA SET III Open Meta­access VI ­  Provided  that  the  licensing  = schemes  allow  it,  meta­data  may  DATA SET IV flow  outside  a  specific  content  DATA SET IV repository -Most  licences  used  allow  such  alternative  flows  under  certain  conditions  (private/  educational/  non commercial use) 114
  110. 110. + = User V DATA SET IV DATA SET V DATA SET V User 1 DATA SET IV DATA SET I + DATA SET IV DATA SET I User ΙΙ DATA SET III Open Meta­Access VII ­  When  the  flow  of  meta­data  = occurs  outside  the  repository  the  DATA SET IV enrichment  may  take  place  on  a  DATA SET IV peer­to­peer basis 115
  111. 111. + = User V DATA SET IV DATA SET V DATA SET V DATA SET V User 1 DATA SET IV DATA SET I + DATA SET IV DATA SET I User ΙΙ DATA SET III Open Meta­Accss VIII ­  The  most  important  users  of  = meta data are other organisations  DATA SET IV or collaborative platforms DATA SET IV BBC/BL OR  wikipedia/ myExperiment 116
  112. 112. + = User V DATA SET IV DATA SET V DATA SET V DATA SET V User 1 DATA SET IV DATA SET I + DATA SET IV DATA SET I User ΙΙ DATA SET III Open Meta­access IX ­  Such  organisations  package  = third­party content with meta­data  DATA SET IV created by their user­base DATA SET IV 117
  113. 113. + = User V DATA SET IV DATA SET V DATA SET V DATA SET V User 1 DATA SET IV DATA SET I + DATA SET IV DATA SET I User ΙΙ DATA SET III DATA SET V = DATA SET IV Open Meta­access X DATA SET IV Provided  the  relevant  infrastructure  (technical,  legal,  organisational)  is  in  place,  different  organisations  may  share  meta­data  either  directly  or  through a common user base. 118
  114. 114. + = User V DATA SET IV DATA SET V DATA SET V DATA SET V User 1 DATA SET IV DATA SET I + DATA SET IV DATA SET I User ΙΙ DATA SET III DATA SET V = DATA SET IV Open Meta­Access XI DATA SET IV ­  The breaking  down of streamed  content  in  increasingly  smaller  units,  the  enrichment  of  meta­ data  with  content  and  the  use  of  open  licences  for  the  reuse  and  repurposing of meta data leads to  119 an  indirect  deepening  of  horizontal open access.
  115. 115. why * low transaction costs * simplicity * no liability * more users  Is good 4U * more data 120
  116. 116. ***  Q + A *** p.tsiavos@lse.ac.uk Prodromos Tsiavos EnCoRe Research Officer The London School of Economics and Political Science Houghton Street London WC2A 2AE UK    
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