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JISC Webinar - An introduction to free and open source software

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http://www.jisc.ac.uk/events/2012/03/webinarfreeopensource …

http://www.jisc.ac.uk/events/2012/03/webinarfreeopensource

This webinar will introduce the ideas behind free and open source software, both for users and for developers. We will tour the basic licence types and discuss the development and membership of communities around free and open source software. We will also look at how to assess open source solutions that you may be considering.

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  • 1. Introduction to Free and Open Source Software Sander van der Waal 14/3/2012
  • 2. Agenda Introduction FOSS Licenses Evaluating FOSS
  • 3. What is OSS Watch? Funded by Joint Information Systems Committee
  • 4. What is OSS Watch? Funded by Joint Information Systems Committee We advise UK Higher Education and Further Education sector
  • 5. What is OSS Watch? Funded by Joint Information Systems Committee We advise UK Higher Education and Further Education sector We advise on the use and creation of free and open source software
  • 6. What is OSS Watch? Funded by Joint Information Systems Committee We advise UK Higher Education and Further Education sector We advise on the use and creation of free and open source software We provide education, consultancy and training
  • 7. What is OSS Watch? Funded by Joint Information Systems Committee We advise UK Higher Education and Further Education sector We advise on the use and creation of free and open source software We provide education, consultancy and training We are non-advocacy
  • 8. Who are these people? (a) Eric Raymond and Richard Stallman (b) Bill Gates and Eric Raymond (c) Richard Stallman and Eric Raymond (d) Bill Gates and Richard Stallman
  • 9. What is (F)OSS? (For OSS Watch) Software made available under an OSI-approved licence
  • 10. What is (F)OSS? (For OSS Watch) Software made available under an OSI-approved licence Software that we have the rights to freely adapt and distribute
  • 11. What is (F)OSS? (For OSS Watch) Software made available under an OSI-approved licence Software that we have the rights to freely adapt and distribute Adaptation by giving users access to the softwares source code
  • 12. What is (F)OSS? (For OSS Watch) Software made available under an OSI-approved licence Software that we have the rights to freely adapt and distribute Adaptation by giving users access to the softwares source code These rights are transmitted via licensing
  • 13. What is (F)OSS? (For OSS Watch) Software made available under an OSI-approved licence Software that we have the rights to freely adapt and distribute Adaptation by giving users access to the softwares source code These rights are transmitted via licensing It is often available at minimal or no cost
  • 14. What is (F)OSS? (For OSS Watch) Software made available under an OSI-approved licence Software that we have the rights to freely adapt and distribute Adaptation by giving users access to the softwares source code These rights are transmitted via licensing It is often available at minimal or no cost It is often maintained and developed by a community of interested partieswho may or may not be salaried for their work
  • 15. What is (F)OSS? (For OSS Watch) Software made available under an OSI-approved licence Software that we have the rights to freely adapt and distribute Adaptation by giving users access to the softwares source code These rights are transmitted via licensing It is often available at minimal or no cost It is often maintained and developed by a community of interested partieswho may or may not be salaried for their work Some ethical and political differences in community
  • 16. How does this work? Releasing code developed in an institution will require sign-off
  • 17. How does this work? Releasing code developed in an institution will require sign-off Consider the licensing of code you are reusing
  • 18. How does this work? Releasing code developed in an institution will require sign-off Consider the licensing of code you are reusing The following categories are broadly defined
  • 19. How does this work? Releasing code developed in an institution will require sign-off Consider the licensing of code you are reusing The following categories are broadly defined Always read and understand your chosen licence!
  • 20. Staying mainstream The Open Source Initiatives list of Licenses that are popular and widelyused or with strong communities
  • 21. Staying mainstream The Open Source Initiatives list of Licenses that are popular and widelyused or with strong communities Increasing the chances that your conditions will be understood
  • 22. Staying mainstream The Open Source Initiatives list of Licenses that are popular and widelyused or with strong communities Increasing the chances that your conditions will be understood Apache License 2 BSD (2 and 3 clause versions) GNU GPL (v2 and v3) GNU LGPL (v2.1 and v3) MIT License Mozilla Public License 2.0 Common Development and Distribution License Eclipse Public License
  • 23. Don’t adapt the licence texthttp://java.dzone.com/articles/jsonorg-license-literally-says
  • 24. Permissive and copyleft The main axis of variation between FOSS licences
  • 25. Permissive and copyleft The main axis of variation between FOSS licences A distinction based on what happens to modified code
  • 26. Permissive and copyleft The main axis of variation between FOSS licences A distinction based on what happens to modified code Permissive licences seek to make conditions about just the code theycover
  • 27. Permissive and copyleft The main axis of variation between FOSS licences A distinction based on what happens to modified code Permissive licences seek to make conditions about just the code theycover Copyleft licences also seek to make conditions about some or all worksbased on the code they cover (modified version, larger works, derivativeworks etc)
  • 28. Permissive and copyleft The main axis of variation between FOSS licences A distinction based on what happens to modified code Permissive licences seek to make conditions about just the code theycover Copyleft licences also seek to make conditions about some or all worksbased on the code they cover (modified version, larger works, derivativeworks etc) Permissive licences allow reuse in closed source software
  • 29. Strong and weak copyleft Copyleft is further subdivided
  • 30. Strong and weak copyleft Copyleft is further subdivided Strong copyleft licences impose no artificial limitations on which modifiedworks they seek to control
  • 31. Strong and weak copyleft Copyleft is further subdivided Strong copyleft licences impose no artificial limitations on which modifiedworks they seek to control Weak copyleft licences do, at various levels – file, library, module
  • 32. Strong and weak copyleft Copyleft is further subdivided Strong copyleft licences impose no artificial limitations on which modifiedworks they seek to control Weak copyleft licences do, at various levels – file, library, module Weak copyleft attempts to strike a balance between the extremes ofpermissive and strong copyleft, but in doing so introduces some additionalcomplexity
  • 33. Permissive<->Copyleft Apache License 2 - Permissive BSD (2 and 3 clause versions) - Permissive GNU GPL (v2 and v3) – Strong copyleft GNU LGPL (v2.1 and v3) – Weak copyleft (library level) MIT License - Permissive Mozilla Public License 2.0 – Weak copyleft (file level) Common Development and Distribution License – Weak copyleft (filelevel) Eclipse Public License – Weak copyleft (module level)
  • 34. Permissive and copyleft The main axis of variation between FOSS licences A distinction based on what happens to modified code Permissive licences seek to make conditions about just the code theycover Copyleft licences also seek to make conditions about some or all worksbased on the code they cover (modified version, larger works, derivativeworks etc) Permissive licences allow reuse in closed source software
  • 35. Strong and weak copyleft Copyleft is further subdivided Strong copyleft licences impose no artificial limitations on which modifiedworks they seek to control Weak copyleft licences do, at various levels – file, library, module Weak copyleft attempts to strike a balance between the extremes ofpermissive and strong copyleft, but in doing so introduces some additionalcomplexity
  • 36. Permissive<->Copyleft Apache License 2 - Permissive BSD (2 and 3 clause versions) - Permissive GNU GPL (v2 and v3) – Strong copyleft GNU LGPL (v2.1 and v3) – Weak copyleft (library level) MIT License - Permissive Mozilla Public License 2.0 – Weak copyleft (file level) Common Development and Distribution License – Weak copyleft (filelevel) Eclipse Public License – Weak copyleft (module level)
  • 37. Other distinctions Patent retaliation clauses
  • 38. Other distinctions Patent retaliation clauses Choice of jurisdiction
  • 39. Other distinctions Patent retaliation clauses Choice of jurisdiction Enhanced requirement to attribute (badges)
  • 40. Other distinctions Patent retaliation clauses Choice of jurisdiction Enhanced requirement to attribute (badges) Network code copyleft (aka the privacy problem)
  • 41. Other distinctions Patent retaliation clauses Choice of jurisdiction Enhanced requirement to attribute (badges) Network code copyleft (aka the privacy problem) Specifying no promotion
  • 42. How to choose a licence? Consider options discussed Use the licence differentiator tool http://oss.ly/licdif Contact OSS Watch info@oss-watch.ac.uk
  • 43. More than a licence..“Open source is a development method for software thatharnesses the power of distributed peer review andtransparency of process.” http://www.opensource.org
  • 44. Open Development Key attributes include:  User engagement  Transparency  Collaboration  Agility
  • 45. Agility in Open Development Many agile practices evolved from or alongside open development, e.g.  Collective code ownership  Incremental design and architecture  Real customer involvement  Revision Control
  • 46. Agility in Open Development Some Agile methods are not appropriate  e.g. Does not require co-location Does allow anyone to participate  NOTE: this does not mean that anyone has the right to modify open source code in the core repository
  • 47. Platform for collaboration Common tools used in open projects:  Mailing Lists / Forums for communication  Website / blog / wiki  Issue tracker  Version Control System (GIT, SVN, Mercurial) Community development
  • 48. The User’s Perspective Overwhelming amount of projects available  More than 300,000 on SourceForge alone How to tell if you should use it?  Will it be around 3 years from now?  Can I contribute?  Will development continue? All to do with sustainability of software project
  • 49. Evaluating open source projects Informal techniques Capability Maturity Model Reuse Readiness Rating QSOS (Qualification and Selection of Open Source software) Openness Rating Software Sustainability Maturity Model
  • 50. Openness Rating Assess projects along five axis:  Legal  Data Format and Standards  Knowledge  Governance  Market Helps you consider issues relevant to you and your use case
  • 51. Legal Licence recognised as Free and Open Source? Project dependencies documented? Patent licence granted? Who can view / adapt / redistribute the code?
  • 52. Data Formats and Standards Does the project rely on closed proprietary standards? Is there a costs associated with any standards used? Are standards approved by a recognised standards body?  W3C, IEEE, IETF, OASIS, or ISO Is a standard project management process used  XP, SCRUMM, PRINCE 2? Is unicode support through encoding like UTF-8?
  • 53. Knowledge Which publicly available communication mechanisms are used? Are project decisions made in a non-public environment? Who is able to access all (non-private) project knowledge? Are there any financial barriers? Are there technological barriers? Who can contribute to project knowledge?
  • 54. Governance Is there a clear leadership in the project? Are the structure and policies of the project clearly and publicly documented? Are contributors required to sign a document stating they have the necessarypermissions to make their contributions? Is the software release cycle predictable and consistent? Is there an avenue and structure for recourse beyond the project maintainers?
  • 55. Market Are there any costs or barriers to setting up a business around the project? What proportion of the core developers are from the one company, institution ordepartment? How many contributors have some or all of the time they spend on the softwarepaid for? Is the project applicable to more than one industry? Which revenue models are available to a new business looking to build a revenuestream around the project?
  • 56. Openness Rating results Are there any costs or barriers to setting up a business around the project?
  • 57. Software Sustainability Maturity ModelCombining different techniques:  Openness rating  Reuse Readiness Levels  Capability Maturity Model Still under development – feedback welcomed! Read more at http://oss.ly/ssmm
  • 58. Summary Open Source is much more than a licence; it’s a methodology There are many FOSS licenses, but focus on those that are OSI-approved Many techniques available for evaluating open source projects Important areas to consider for selecting open source:  Legal, Open Data and Standards, Knowledge, Governance, and Market Interested in applying the Openness Rating?  Contact OSS Watch at info@oss-watch.ac.uk Learn more at http://www.oss-watch.ac.uk

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