These 3 maps of the US representing 1990, 1999, and 2008 show the tremendous increase in the prevalence of obesity. It is estimated that 1/3 of adults in the US – and 16% of children are obese. The rate of obesity since 1980 has doubled in adults and tripled in children.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States. The survey is unique in that it combines interviews and physical examinations. The survey examines a nationally representative sample of about 5,000 persons each year. These persons are located in counties across the country, 15 of which are visited each year. Another source of data, is the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBSS) which is conducted every 2 years and it monitors 6 categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth; two of which are unhealthy dietary behaviors, and physical inactivity. There are state specific info r/t the results of this survey on the CDC website. According to YRBSS (2007), only 53.6% of students had PE classes, 35.4% watched TV for > 3hrs per day, 13% were obese, 15.8% were overweight, 21.4% had eaten fruits and vegetables 5 or more times a day, and 33.8% had drank soda at least once a day.
Know the facts . Health promotion : Educate children and their families. Be culturally and socially sensitive . Be aware of resources in the area you practice.
Policy affects a much larger group therefore, it’s a more efficient way of making change. There are many examples of important public health victories in the US: Reduction in lead exposure Motor Vehicle safety Tabacco regulations: reduction in rates of smoking Increased vaccination rates Some examples of policies in different states: Minnesota: state graduation standards include physical activity. Maine: a significant portion of the tobacco settlement funds are being used to support “healthy Maine Partnerships”. The state employs school health coordinators to promote physical activity, nutrition,…. In Los Angeles , CA: Sale of soft drinks are banned in all school districts. In Michigan: “Building Healthy Communities” project was designed to improve the environment and change policies to make it easier for residents to be healthy. Some of the achievements were, conducting 129 community fitness classes, providing residents with walking maps, coupons to low-income families to redeem for fruits and veggies, and creating community and school gardens. sliding scale fees for gyms/parks and rec classes, schools offering their gym spaces to the community) and good nutrition (corner stores stock healthier foods, incentives/grants for stores to make infrastructure changes to offer healthier foods)
Referral for speech problems. Definitions, in the sense of dictionary definitions
THE SCHOOL AGE CHILD KATHRYN KUSHTO-REESE, MS.RN.
Growth and Development Overview • Spans age 6-12 years • Begins with shedding of first deciduous tooth ends with puberty and final permanent teeth. • Height and weight, slower but steady pace • Caloric needs decrease • Organ growth matures
PHYSICAL GROWTH• Body systems mature• Average school age child grows• 2.5 inches ( 6-7cm.) per year and 7 lbs (3-3.5 kg) per yearIn early school-age, boys and girlsheight and weight are similar. In later school age years, most girls surpass boys in height and weight
Prepubescence/Preadolescence• Late school age years• Occurs 2 years before puberty• Characterized by the development of 2nd sex characteristics, a period of rapid growth for girls and continued growth for boys.• Early development vs. delayed development
Nutrition• Caloric needs diminish• Need well balanced diet• Food preferences set• Pattern based largely upon family’s• “Junk food” / Peer influenceTEACHING/PREVENTION• Nutrition education/ School Nurse• Oral health ( dentition, cavities) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=08HVcfxRg-k&feature=related
OBESITY RISK FACTORS1.Genetic factors/predisposition2.Dietary intake3.Physical activity4.Family Patterns/habits5.Sedentary life style
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 1999, 2008 (*BMI ≥30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 1990 1999 2008No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
Prevalence of Obesity* Among U.S. Children and Adolescents (Aged 2 –19 Years) National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys*Sex-and age-specific BMI > 95th percentile based on the CDC growth charts.
View and reflecthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nM6NDe3hQM&feature=related What do you think?
OBESITY PREVENTION Healthy People 20201. Diet Nutrition/School based programs limit sugared/sweetened drinks eliminate foods of low nutritional value, free water available.2. Increase physical activity: limit, screen (TV, computer) time, set a required # minutes spent in physical activity. Screen all children for development of overweight as indicated by BMI for their age.3. Policy and environmental changes
Implications for Nursinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXvDI3Lh9xQ&feature=fvw
Major TheoristsDevelopmental Tasks/Milestones for this period ● Erickson (Psychosocial development) ● Piaget ( Cognitive development) ● Kohlberg ( Moral development)
Erikson – Industry vs. Inferiority• Goal is to achieve a sense of competence, mastery and success• Intrinsic motivation increases with competence in mastering new skills• Expectations of adults too high, child will develop a sense of inferiority and incompetence.• Children with mental/physical limitations at risk
Piaget – Concrete Operations• 7-11 years progress from what they see(perceptual thinking) to what they reason(conceptual thinking)• Decrease in egocentricity• Reversibility• Principles of Conservation• Classification of objects
Kohlberg –Moral development• The school age child is at the conventional stage of moral development. 7-10 year olds are in stage 3, Interpersonal Conformity “Good Child/bad Child) Adults are Right.
Kohlberg –Moral development• • 10-12 year olds progress to the “law and order stage” actions are good or bad, based upon the reason not just consequences. Actions are guided by cooperation and respect for others• Spiritual Development becomes more important
Gross motor skills/ Fine Motor SkillsGross Motor: Fine MotorBike riding WritingJumping rope MusicalSwimming InstrumentsBall game skills Constructing Refinement of motor skills occur models 18
Language• Vocabulary expands. Reading skills improve.• Bilingual children may speak English at school, primary/secondary language at home.• Experiment with profanity, role modeling important 19
Social Development • Explore environment beyond family • Parent’s influence still primary • Peer approval • Same sex friendships • Question parent’s values • Formalized groups or “Clubs” • Bullying, Gang Violence ● Follow rules, judge those who do not
Play/Peers• Cooperative Play/ Team Play/Skill development• Sports, Debate Team, Spelling Bee• Importance of group goals, dividing tasks• Nature of Competition• Stimulation of cognitive growth• Complex board games, computer games and reading for pleasure
Pain Assessment• Subjective “self report” is best1. Assess using Pain scale Faces 0-52. Visual analog Pain Scale 0-10• Behavioral scales and observations important for child with cognitive impairment