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Overview of Health Promotion

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  • Individually based health education programs had failed to impact health of the public WHO- late 1970’s – converged social medicine, public health, and self care Ottawa– “new public health movement” – wider primary care and community development processes 1990’s- equating health education and health promotion--- are they the same? 2000’s– shift from a focus on life style to more structuralist concerns Relationship between health promotion and public health Broader approaches now- fiscal, ecological, cultural factors “ environmental engineering” New terms– population health, primary health care , community development Updates- Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalised world Globalization of health through national capacity Whitehead , 2009
  • General Health Status Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being Determinants of Health Disparities 39
  • Transcript

    • 1. Overview of Health Promotion January, 2012 Joan Kub
    • 2. Objectives
      • To define the concept of health
      • Describe three levels of prevention
      • To differentiate health education from health promotion
      • Differentiate primary care from primary health care
      • Discuss the historical development of health promotion
      • Describe the spectrum of prevention
    • 3.  
    • 4.  
    • 5. What is health?
    • 6. Clinical Dimensio n
      • Absence of signs or symptoms of disease or disability
      • Illness extreme
      • Presence of signs and symptoms
      • Physiologic systems with interrelated functions
    • 7. Role performance dimension
      • Performance of social roles
      • Failure in performance of roles
      • Adds social and psychological standards
    • 8. Adaptive dimension
      • Flexible adaptation to the environment
      • Alienation of the person from environment
      • Ability to adjust and cope
    • 9. Eudaimonistic dimension
      • Exuberant well-being
      • Health is condition of actualization and realization of potential
      • Goals, positive self-concept, body image, involvement, harmony
    • 10. What is Health Promotion and Disease Prevention?
    • 11. Levels of Prevention
      • Primary
      • Secondary
      • Tertiary
    • 12. Primary Prevention
      • Interventions carried out before a response or disease occurs; avoidance of an illness through health promotion activities and specific protective actions( nutrition, hygiene, immunizations)
    • 13. Secondary & Tertiary Prevention
      • Secondary
      • Focuses on the detection of symptoms and support of a positive reaction to an illness
      • Early treatment
      • Tertiary
      • Involved with an illness and assisting an individual to achieve some stability.
      • Purpose is to limit disability and to rehabilitate
    • 14. Health Promotion
      • Process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health
      • Umbrella term that includes disease prevention, improvement of health, and enhancing well-being
      • Focus: Protection and Promotion
    • 15. Historical Aspects of Health Promotion
      • Term was coined in mid-1970’s in Canada
      • WHO Health for All strategy- Alma Ata Declaration, 1978
      • 1986- Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
      • WHO-2004– Promoting Mental Health
    • 16. Principles of Health Promotion
      • Focus on health not illness
      • Empowering clients
      • Recognizing that health is multidimensional
      • Acknowledging that health is influenced by factors outside individual control
    • 17. Consider
      • Diseases and conditions
      • Lifestyles (smoking, unhealthy eating, drug use)
      • Wider social issues (poverty, housing, pollution)
      • Professional practice issues (evaluation, funding, shortages)
    • 18. Other aspects of Health Promotion
      • Socioenvironmental Approach-interconnectedness of individual and environments
      • Societal/Policy Approach—equity, power, and scope
    • 19. Primary Health care
      • Is essential health care;
      • Based on practical, scientifically sound, and socially acceptable methods and technology;
      • Universally accessible to all in the community through their full participation;
      • At an affordable cost; and
      • Geared toward self reliance and self-determination (WHO, 1978)
    • 20. Eight Essential Elements of PHC
      • Education for the identification and prevention/control of prevailing health problems
      • Proper food supplies and nutrition
      • Safe water and sanitation
      • Maternal child health including family planning
      • Immunizations against major infectious diseases; prevention and control of endemic diseases
      • Appropriate treatment of common diseases
      • Promotion of mental health
      • Provision of essential drugs
    • 21. Where does social justice fit into the equation?
      • Adams and Armstrong (1996) see that the concept of health promotion needs constantly to be contrasted against a medical reductionist model towards a more appropriate model of health integral to and a result of social justice. Whitehead, 2009
      • Health for All (1978) was based on the principles of equity and social justice
    • 22. Spectrum of Prevention?
    • 23. The Spectrum of Prevention
      • Influencing policy and legislation
      Changing organizational practices Fostering coalitions and networks Educating providers Promoting community education Strengthening individual knowledge and skills
    • 24. Integrative Nursing
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9vE6tAtPVI
    • 25. Self Study of Healthy People 2020
      • What are the four foundation health measures that will be used to monitor progress?
      • What is new for Healthy People 2020?
      • Find your area of particular interest –look at overview and objectives.
    • 26. References
      • Declaration of Alma–Ata-http://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf
      • Healthy People 2020 http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx
      • Naidoo, J. & Wills, J. (2005) Public health and health promotion. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall
      • Whitehead, D. (2009). Reconciling the differences between health promotion in nursing and ‘general’ health promotion: A discussion paper. International Journal of Nursing Studies, doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.12.014.