Overview of Health Promotion
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  • Individually based health education programs had failed to impact health of the public WHO- late 1970’s – converged social medicine, public health, and self care Ottawa– “new public health movement” – wider primary care and community development processes 1990’s- equating health education and health promotion--- are they the same? 2000’s– shift from a focus on life style to more structuralist concerns Relationship between health promotion and public health Broader approaches now- fiscal, ecological, cultural factors “ environmental engineering” New terms– population health, primary health care , community development Updates- Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalised world Globalization of health through national capacity Whitehead , 2009
  • General Health Status Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being Determinants of Health Disparities 39

Overview of Health Promotion Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Overview of Health Promotion January, 2012 Joan Kub
  • 2. Objectives
    • To define the concept of health
    • Describe three levels of prevention
    • To differentiate health education from health promotion
    • Differentiate primary care from primary health care
    • Discuss the historical development of health promotion
    • Describe the spectrum of prevention
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. What is health?
  • 6. Clinical Dimensio n
    • Absence of signs or symptoms of disease or disability
    • Illness extreme
    • Presence of signs and symptoms
    • Physiologic systems with interrelated functions
  • 7. Role performance dimension
    • Performance of social roles
    • Failure in performance of roles
    • Adds social and psychological standards
  • 8. Adaptive dimension
    • Flexible adaptation to the environment
    • Alienation of the person from environment
    • Ability to adjust and cope
  • 9. Eudaimonistic dimension
    • Exuberant well-being
    • Health is condition of actualization and realization of potential
    • Goals, positive self-concept, body image, involvement, harmony
  • 10. What is Health Promotion and Disease Prevention?
  • 11. Levels of Prevention
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Tertiary
  • 12. Primary Prevention
    • Interventions carried out before a response or disease occurs; avoidance of an illness through health promotion activities and specific protective actions( nutrition, hygiene, immunizations)
  • 13. Secondary & Tertiary Prevention
    • Secondary
    • Focuses on the detection of symptoms and support of a positive reaction to an illness
    • Early treatment
    • Tertiary
    • Involved with an illness and assisting an individual to achieve some stability.
    • Purpose is to limit disability and to rehabilitate
  • 14. Health Promotion
    • Process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health
    • Umbrella term that includes disease prevention, improvement of health, and enhancing well-being
    • Focus: Protection and Promotion
  • 15. Historical Aspects of Health Promotion
    • Term was coined in mid-1970’s in Canada
    • WHO Health for All strategy- Alma Ata Declaration, 1978
    • 1986- Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
    • WHO-2004– Promoting Mental Health
  • 16. Principles of Health Promotion
    • Focus on health not illness
    • Empowering clients
    • Recognizing that health is multidimensional
    • Acknowledging that health is influenced by factors outside individual control
  • 17. Consider
    • Diseases and conditions
    • Lifestyles (smoking, unhealthy eating, drug use)
    • Wider social issues (poverty, housing, pollution)
    • Professional practice issues (evaluation, funding, shortages)
  • 18. Other aspects of Health Promotion
    • Socioenvironmental Approach-interconnectedness of individual and environments
    • Societal/Policy Approach—equity, power, and scope
  • 19. Primary Health care
    • Is essential health care;
    • Based on practical, scientifically sound, and socially acceptable methods and technology;
    • Universally accessible to all in the community through their full participation;
    • At an affordable cost; and
    • Geared toward self reliance and self-determination (WHO, 1978)
  • 20. Eight Essential Elements of PHC
    • Education for the identification and prevention/control of prevailing health problems
    • Proper food supplies and nutrition
    • Safe water and sanitation
    • Maternal child health including family planning
    • Immunizations against major infectious diseases; prevention and control of endemic diseases
    • Appropriate treatment of common diseases
    • Promotion of mental health
    • Provision of essential drugs
  • 21. Where does social justice fit into the equation?
    • Adams and Armstrong (1996) see that the concept of health promotion needs constantly to be contrasted against a medical reductionist model towards a more appropriate model of health integral to and a result of social justice. Whitehead, 2009
    • Health for All (1978) was based on the principles of equity and social justice
  • 22. Spectrum of Prevention?
  • 23. The Spectrum of Prevention
    • Influencing policy and legislation
    Changing organizational practices Fostering coalitions and networks Educating providers Promoting community education Strengthening individual knowledge and skills
  • 24. Integrative Nursing
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9vE6tAtPVI
  • 25. Self Study of Healthy People 2020
    • What are the four foundation health measures that will be used to monitor progress?
    • What is new for Healthy People 2020?
    • Find your area of particular interest –look at overview and objectives.
  • 26. References
    • Declaration of Alma–Ata-http://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf
    • Healthy People 2020 http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx
    • Naidoo, J. & Wills, J. (2005) Public health and health promotion. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall
    • Whitehead, D. (2009). Reconciling the differences between health promotion in nursing and ‘general’ health promotion: A discussion paper. International Journal of Nursing Studies, doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.12.014.