History of Poland English2


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The presentation by Ms Kasia Smentek (history teacher); translation JH4 English language department.

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History of Poland English2

  1. 1. History of Poland
  2. 2. <ul><li>Once upon a time, over a thousand years ago, when the area of today’s Poland was covered with thick and wild forests, there lived three brothers. Their names were Lech, Czech and Rus. </li></ul><ul><li>One day they decided to leave their parents and village and, accompanied by their servants and warriors, look for a new place to settle down and start a new life. </li></ul><ul><li>For many days they wandered together, but finally understood that they could never find a piece of land that would please all three of them. They decided to choose separate paths. Czech took the path leading to the south, Rus – to the east and Lech went westwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Lech and his people made their way through the forests and they observed that with each day the landscapes became more and more beautiful. Finally, after many days, they came to an exceptionally charming spot. As it was getting late, he ordered the camp to be put up for the night around a huge oak tree. Suddenly, the sun started to set and covered the sky with its red flames and some strange noise could be heard, as if of the huge wings breaking the forest’s silence. The warriors raised their heads and saw a huge, white eagle approaching its nest in the oak tree. </li></ul><ul><li>Lech understood that the place was not only beautiful, but also abundant in goods of all kinds and very safe. He thrust his sword in the ground under the oak tree and said: “Here I will build my kingdom and around this magnificent oak tree its capital will appear. Because the eagle’s nest is in the oak’s branches, the city will be called Gniezno (“gniazdo” is a Polish word for “nest”) and the symbol of our country will be the white eagle in the red sky.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. 966 The Polish state was born with the baptism of Mieszko I, duke of the Slavic tribe of Polans and founder of the Piast dynasty. His conversion from Paganism to Christianity was Poland's first recorded historical event.
  4. 4. <ul><li>Mieszko's son Bolesław the Brave built on his father's achievements, for the first time uniting all the provinces that subsequently came to comprise the traditional territory of Poland. In 1025 he became the first king of Poland. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1138 A Period of Fragmentation <ul><li>After Boleslaw the Brave died in 1138, however, the kingdom was divided among four of his sons, ushering in a period of fragmentation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1226 <ul><li>In 1226, Konrad I of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights to Poland to help him fight the pagan Prussians on the border of his lands. After exterminating the Prussians, the Knights turned their attention to Poland and Lithuania, waging war with them for most of the 14th and 15th centuries. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1320 The End of Regional Division <ul><li>The regional division ended when Władysław the Elbow-high united the various principalities of Poland. His son Kazimierz the Great, the last of the Piast dynasty, considerably strengthened the country's position in both foreign and domestic affairs. Before his death in 1370, the sonless king arranged for his nephew, the Andegawen Louis of Hungary, to inherit the throne. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1364 . The First University in Poland Originally founded as Cracow Academy by Casimir III the Great
  9. 9. 1385 T he Union of Krewo was signed between Louis' daughter Jadwiga and the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila (later known as Władysław II Jagi), beginning the Polish-Lithuanian Union and strengthening both nations in their shared opposition to the Teutonic Knights and the growing threat of Muscovy. ełło
  10. 10. 1410 BATTLE OF GRUNWALD <ul><li>In the north-west, the Teutonic Knights, in control of Prussia since the 13th century, were forced after their defeats by a combined Polish-Lithuanian force in the Battle of Grunwald </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1506 – 1572 Poland’s Golden Age <ul><li>In politics, it was a period of might and lack of dangers. Only a few wars were fought on Poland's peripheries or on Lithuania's borders. In culture, it was a period of Renaissance and development of Polish-language literature. In economy, it was a period of prosperity. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1600 – 1699 The 17th-century crisis <ul><li>Period of Wars against Sweden, Russia, Turkey and the Cossacks </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1610 The Polish army entered Moscow and took over the Kremlin
  14. 14. 1683 A powerful Turkish army lay siege to Vienna, the imperial capital was relieved, thanks to Polish assistance. The united allied armies were under the command of King John III Sobieski
  15. 15. Partition of Poland (1795-1918) <ul><li>Polish independence ended in a series of partitions (1772, 1793 and 1795) undertaken by Russia, Prussia and Austria </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1791 Constitution of May 3, the first modern codified constitution on the European continent
  17. 17. 1794, 1830, 1864 Polish National Uprisings - the Poles launched attempts to regain independence
  19. 19. 13-25 VIII 1920 The Battle of Warsaw <ul><li>The Battle of Warsaw was fought from August 13 to August 25, 1920 as Red Army forces approached the Polish capital of Warsaw and nearby Modlin Fortress. On August 16, Polish forces commanded by Józef Pilsudski counterattacked from the south, forcing the Russian forces into a disorganised withdrawal eastward and behind the Neman River. </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1 IX 1939 The German onslaught on Poland started the Second World War.
  21. 21. 1944 The Warsaw Uprising <ul><li>After the uprising, the entire population, nearly one million people, was expelled from the city (taken to concentration camps). The Germans started destroying what was left of Warsaw. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1944 T he beginning of the Communist Regime in Poland
  23. 23. 1980 T he Birth of Solidarity
  24. 24. 4 VI 1989 the “Autumn of Nations” <ul><li>“ Round – table” talks started the process of dismantling the Communist Regime in Poland </li></ul>