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Geography 547 Final Paper Presentation
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Final paper presentation for GEOG 547: Natural Resource Conservation, Winter 2009.

Final paper presentation for GEOG 547: Natural Resource Conservation, Winter 2009.

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  • 1. The Management of Federally Designated Wilderness Lands
    Janene Giuseffi
    Geography 547
    10 Mar 2009
  • 2. What is Wilderness?
    wilderness: untouched, pristine lands retaining wilderness values & attributes
    • Solitude
    • 3. No evidence of man
    Wilderness: federal designation of land, highest protection afforded
  • 4. Attitudes Toward wilderness
    American Settlement: nature seen as evil, dark, uncivilized
    Movement Westward: once abundant resources become scarce  shift in attitudes
    Resource depletion: nature is something to be valued & conserved
  • 5. History of the Wilderness Movement
    1924: Gila Wilderness, Gila National Forest
    1933: Aldo Leopold, Bob Marshall found the Wilderness Society
    Early players: Leopold, Marshal, Carhart, Zahniser
    Land should be set aside by Congress rather than by current administrator of agency
  • 6. The Wilderness Act of 1964
    Originally penned by Howard Zahniser in 1956
    Signed into law by Johnson in 1964 after 18 public hearings and 65 rewrites
  • 7. The Wilderness Act of 1964
    A wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape, is hereby recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.
    An area of wilderness is further defined to mean in this Act an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions and which:
    (1) generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man's work substantially unnoticeable
    (2) has outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation;
    (3) has at least five thousand acres of land or is of sufficient size as to make practicable its preservation and use in an unimpaired condition; and
    (4) may also contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value.
  • 8. Goals of the Wilderness Act
    Preserving natural wildlife & ecosystems
    Preventing further human manipulation
    Providing to society the benefits of Wilderness
  • 9. Wilderness Management Issues
    Recreational Use
    Natural Resources
    Ecological Conservation
    Structures & Buildings
    Prohibitions & Restrictions
  • 10. National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS)
  • 11. Agencies Managing Wilderness
    Bureau of Land Management
    Fish & Wildlife Service
    National Park Service
    US Forest Service
  • 12. Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
    Founded in 1946
    Manage rangelands in the American West for grazing, mining, oil & gas development
    Manages 264 million acres of federal land, 7.7 million of which is Wilderness
    Accounts for 7% of land in NWPS
  • 13. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS)
    Created in 1940
    Administers a
    network of lands and
    waters for the conservation & restoration of fish, wildlife & plant resources & habitats for the benefit of both present and future generations
    Manages 20 million acres of Wilderness
    Accounts for 19% of land in NWPS
  • 14. National Park Service (NPS)
    Established in 1916
    Administers public lands for the enjoyment of the public and the preservation of land into the future
    Administers 84 million acres, including 43 million acres of Wilderness
    Accounts for 40% of NWPS
  • 15. US Forest Service (FS)
    Established in 1905
    To sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the Nation’s forests to meet the needs of present & future generations
    419 Wilderness Areas
    33 % of land in NWPS
  • 16. Minimum Requirement
    Action in question is appropriate or necessary to adequately administer area without impacting wilderness character
    Techniques and tools used must make minimum impact on land
    Highest priority is maintaining Wilderness character
  • 17. Minimum Requirements by Agency
    US Forest Service
    • Multiple references to wilderness values/attributes/character
    • 18. Specific mention of many management issue including recreation, range management, structures, airfields, human waste management, etc.
    • 19. Thorough & detailed
    • 20. 15 pages
    National Park Service
    • Implementation of Wilderness Management Plan
    • 21. Environmental analysis
    • 22. Multiple references to both Wilderness values & Act
    • 23. 4 pages
    Fish& Wildlife Service
    • Cost & convenience not a factor
    • 24. Managers must go through training
    • 25. Multiple references to values/attributes
    • 26. 1 reference to Act
    • 27. 2 pages
    Bureau of Land Management
    • Allowance of motorized transport
    • 28. Building and use of temp. roads & shelters
    • 29. Definition of minimum tool with examples
    • 30. Addresses emergency situations
    • 31. 1 reference to “Wilderness”
    • 32. 1 page
  • Park Service vs. Forest Service
    Allin (1987): comparison of NPS & FS regulations
    General management style
    Law Enforcement
    Engineering (structures)
    Educational Strategies
  • 33. Differences in Management
    Although theoretically Wilderness management should be consistent from agency to agency, the unique history & mission of each inevitably influence its decision-making process.
  • 34. What would the world be, once bereft
    Of wet and wildness? Let them be left
    O Let them be left , wildness and wet
    Long live the weeds and the wilderness yet!
    [ Gerard Manley Hopkins ]
  • 35. Works Cited
    Allin, C. W. (1982). The politics of Wilderness preservation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Allin, C.W. (1987). Park service vs. forest service: exploring the differences in wilderness management. Policy Studies Review, 7:2. 385-394.
    BLM Policy Manual, 8560.12-3 (2000)
    BLM Regulations, 43 C.F.R. § 6303.1 (2000)
    BLM Wilderness Management; Final Rule, 70 CFR Fed. Reg. 78358. (2000) (to be codified at 43 C.F.R. § 6300 and 8560)
    Bureau of Land Management. (nd). “About us.” Retrieved from http://www.blm.gov
    Cole, D.N. (1995). Ecological manipulation in wilderness-an emerging management dilemma. International Journal of Wilderness 1:1. 1-8.
    Cronon, W. (1995). “The Trouble With Wilderness, or Getting Back to the Wrong Nature.” Uncommon ground: Rethinking the human place in nature, New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
    Hopkins, G.M. (1918). Poems. Robert Bridges, ed. London: Humphrey Milford,
    Lewis, M. (2007). American wilderness: A new history. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 6-10, 35-51,
    Mather, Cotton. (1820). Magnalia Christi Americana, 2nd Ed. Hartford, CT: Silus Andrus. 1:44, 72, 78.
    Nash, R. (1987). Wilderness and the American mind. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 15-22.
    National Park Service (nd). “About us.” Retrieved on March 6, 2009 from http://www.nps.gov
    National Park Service Management Policies (2006). Wilderness preservation and management. Chapter 6.3.
    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service About Us. (nd). Retrieved on March 6, 2009 from http://www.fws.gov
    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Policy (2006). 610 FW 1. “General overview of Wilderness stewardship policy.” Sec. 1.5-22.
    U.S. Forest Service (nd). “About us.” Retrieved on March 6 2009 from http://www.usfs.fed.us
    U.S. Forest Service. (2008). “Minimum requirements decision guide.” 1-7.
    U.S. Forest Service, 36 C.F.R. § 293.6 (2001).
    U.S. Forest Service Manual, Sec. 2320-2326. (2002).
    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Policy (2006). 610 FW 1. “General overview of Wilderness stewardship policy.” Sec. 1.5-22.
    Washburne, R.F., and Cole D.N. (1983). Problems and practices in wilderness management: A survey of managers. (Research Paper INT-304). Ogden, Utah: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
    Zahniser, Edward. (1984). Howard Zahniser: father of the Wilderness Act. National Parks, 58: 12-14.