Wilderness: federal designation of land, highest protection afforded
Attitudes Toward wilderness American Settlement: nature seen as evil, dark, uncivilized Movement Westward: once abundant resources become scarce shift in attitudes Resource depletion: nature is something to be valued & conserved
History of the Wilderness Movement 1924: Gila Wilderness, Gila National Forest 1933: Aldo Leopold, Bob Marshall found the Wilderness Society Early players: Leopold, Marshal, Carhart, Zahniser Land should be set aside by Congress rather than by current administrator of agency
The Wilderness Act of 1964 Originally penned by Howard Zahniser in 1956 Signed into law by Johnson in 1964 after 18 public hearings and 65 rewrites
The Wilderness Act of 1964 A wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape, is hereby recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain. An area of wilderness is further defined to mean in this Act an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions and which: (1) generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man's work substantially unnoticeable (2) has outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation; (3) has at least five thousand acres of land or is of sufficient size as to make practicable its preservation and use in an unimpaired condition; and (4) may also contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value.
Goals of the Wilderness Act Preserving natural wildlife & ecosystems Preventing further human manipulation Providing to society the benefits of Wilderness
National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS)
Agencies Managing Wilderness Bureau of Land Management Fish & Wildlife Service National Park Service US Forest Service
Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Founded in 1946 Manage rangelands in the American West for grazing, mining, oil & gas development Manages 264 million acres of federal land, 7.7 million of which is Wilderness Accounts for 7% of land in NWPS
Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) Created in 1940 Administers a network of lands and waters for the conservation & restoration of fish, wildlife & plant resources & habitats for the benefit of both present and future generations Manages 20 million acres of Wilderness Accounts for 19% of land in NWPS
National Park Service (NPS) Established in 1916 Administers public lands for the enjoyment of the public and the preservation of land into the future Administers 84 million acres, including 43 million acres of Wilderness Accounts for 40% of NWPS
US Forest Service (FS) Established in 1905 To sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the Nation’s forests to meet the needs of present & future generations 419 Wilderness Areas 33 % of land in NWPS
Minimum Requirement Action in question is appropriate or necessary to adequately administer area without impacting wilderness character Techniques and tools used must make minimum impact on land Highest priority is maintaining Wilderness character
Minimum Requirements by Agency US Forest Service
Multiple references to wilderness values/attributes/character
Specific mention of many management issue including recreation, range management, structures, airfields, human waste management, etc.
Park Service vs. Forest Service Allin (1987): comparison of NPS & FS regulations General management style Law Enforcement Engineering (structures) Educational Strategies
Differences in Management Although theoretically Wilderness management should be consistent from agency to agency, the unique history & mission of each inevitably influence its decision-making process.
What would the world be, once bereft Of wet and wildness? Let them be left O Let them be left , wildness and wet Long live the weeds and the wilderness yet! [ Gerard Manley Hopkins ]
Works Cited Allin, C. W. (1982). The politics of Wilderness preservation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Allin, C.W. (1987). Park service vs. forest service: exploring the differences in wilderness management. Policy Studies Review, 7:2. 385-394. BLM Policy Manual, 8560.12-3 (2000) BLM Regulations, 43 C.F.R. § 6303.1 (2000) BLM Wilderness Management; Final Rule, 70 CFR Fed. Reg. 78358. (2000) (to be codified at 43 C.F.R. § 6300 and 8560) Bureau of Land Management. (nd). “About us.” Retrieved from http://www.blm.gov Cole, D.N. (1995). Ecological manipulation in wilderness-an emerging management dilemma. International Journal of Wilderness 1:1. 1-8. Cronon, W. (1995). “The Trouble With Wilderness, or Getting Back to the Wrong Nature.” Uncommon ground: Rethinking the human place in nature, New York: W. W. Norton & Co. Hopkins, G.M. (1918). Poems. Robert Bridges, ed. London: Humphrey Milford, Lewis, M. (2007). American wilderness: A new history. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 6-10, 35-51, Mather, Cotton. (1820). Magnalia Christi Americana, 2nd Ed. Hartford, CT: Silus Andrus. 1:44, 72, 78. Nash, R. (1987). Wilderness and the American mind. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 15-22. National Park Service (nd). “About us.” Retrieved on March 6, 2009 from http://www.nps.gov National Park Service Management Policies (2006). Wilderness preservation and management. Chapter 6.3. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service About Us. (nd). Retrieved on March 6, 2009 from http://www.fws.gov U.S. Fish and Wildlife Policy (2006). 610 FW 1. “General overview of Wilderness stewardship policy.” Sec. 1.5-22. U.S. Forest Service (nd). “About us.” Retrieved on March 6 2009 from http://www.usfs.fed.us U.S. Forest Service. (2008). “Minimum requirements decision guide.” 1-7. U.S. Forest Service, 36 C.F.R. § 293.6 (2001). U.S. Forest Service Manual, Sec. 2320-2326. (2002). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Policy (2006). 610 FW 1. “General overview of Wilderness stewardship policy.” Sec. 1.5-22. Washburne, R.F., and Cole D.N. (1983). Problems and practices in wilderness management: A survey of managers. (Research Paper INT-304). Ogden, Utah: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Zahniser, Edward. (1984). Howard Zahniser: father of the Wilderness Act. National Parks, 58: 12-14.