Geography 547 Final Paper Presentation


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Final paper presentation for GEOG 547: Natural Resource Conservation, Winter 2009.

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Geography 547 Final Paper Presentation

  1. 1. The Management of Federally Designated Wilderness Lands<br />Janene Giuseffi<br />Geography 547<br />10 Mar 2009<br />
  2. 2. What is Wilderness?<br />wilderness: untouched, pristine lands retaining wilderness values & attributes<br /><ul><li>Solitude
  3. 3. No evidence of man</li></ul>Wilderness: federal designation of land, highest protection afforded<br />
  4. 4. Attitudes Toward wilderness<br />American Settlement: nature seen as evil, dark, uncivilized<br />Movement Westward: once abundant resources become scarce  shift in attitudes<br />Resource depletion: nature is something to be valued & conserved<br />
  5. 5. History of the Wilderness Movement<br />1924: Gila Wilderness, Gila National Forest<br />1933: Aldo Leopold, Bob Marshall found the Wilderness Society<br />Early players: Leopold, Marshal, Carhart, Zahniser<br />Land should be set aside by Congress rather than by current administrator of agency<br />
  6. 6. The Wilderness Act of 1964<br />Originally penned by Howard Zahniser in 1956<br />Signed into law by Johnson in 1964 after 18 public hearings and 65 rewrites<br />
  7. 7. The Wilderness Act of 1964<br />A wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape, is hereby recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.<br />An area of wilderness is further defined to mean in this Act an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions and which:<br />(1) generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man&apos;s work substantially unnoticeable <br />(2) has outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation; <br />(3) has at least five thousand acres of land or is of sufficient size as to make practicable its preservation and use in an unimpaired condition; and <br />(4) may also contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value.<br />
  8. 8. Goals of the Wilderness Act<br />Preserving natural wildlife & ecosystems<br />Preventing further human manipulation<br />Providing to society the benefits of Wilderness <br />
  9. 9. Wilderness Management Issues<br />Recreational Use<br />Natural Resources<br />Ecological Conservation<br />Structures & Buildings<br />Prohibitions & Restrictions<br />
  10. 10. National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS)<br />
  11. 11. Agencies Managing Wilderness<br />Bureau of Land Management<br />Fish & Wildlife Service <br />National Park Service <br />US Forest Service<br />
  12. 12. Bureau of Land Management (BLM)<br />Founded in 1946<br />Manage rangelands in the American West for grazing, mining, oil & gas development<br />Manages 264 million acres of federal land, 7.7 million of which is Wilderness<br />Accounts for 7% of land in NWPS<br />
  13. 13. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS)<br />Created in 1940<br />Administers a <br />network of lands and <br />waters for the conservation & restoration of fish, wildlife & plant resources & habitats for the benefit of both present and future generations<br />Manages 20 million acres of Wilderness<br />Accounts for 19% of land in NWPS<br />
  14. 14. National Park Service (NPS)<br />Established in 1916<br />Administers public lands for the enjoyment of the public and the preservation of land into the future<br />Administers 84 million acres, including 43 million acres of Wilderness<br />Accounts for 40% of NWPS<br />
  15. 15. US Forest Service (FS)<br />Established in 1905<br />To sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the Nation’s forests to meet the needs of present & future generations<br />419 Wilderness Areas <br />33 % of land in NWPS<br />
  16. 16. Minimum Requirement<br />Action in question is appropriate or necessary to adequately administer area without impacting wilderness character<br />Techniques and tools used must make minimum impact on land<br />Highest priority is maintaining Wilderness character<br />
  17. 17. Minimum Requirements by Agency<br />US Forest Service<br /><ul><li>Multiple references to wilderness values/attributes/character
  18. 18. Specific mention of many management issue including recreation, range management, structures, airfields, human waste management, etc.
  19. 19. Thorough & detailed
  20. 20. 15 pages</li></ul>National Park Service<br /><ul><li>Implementation of Wilderness Management Plan
  21. 21. Environmental analysis
  22. 22. Multiple references to both Wilderness values & Act
  23. 23. 4 pages</li></ul>Fish& Wildlife Service<br /><ul><li>Cost & convenience not a factor
  24. 24. Managers must go through training
  25. 25. Multiple references to values/attributes
  26. 26. 1 reference to Act
  27. 27. 2 pages</li></ul>Bureau of Land Management<br /><ul><li>Allowance of motorized transport
  28. 28. Building and use of temp. roads & shelters
  29. 29. Definition of minimum tool with examples
  30. 30. Addresses emergency situations
  31. 31. 1 reference to “Wilderness”
  32. 32. 1 page</li></li></ul><li>Park Service vs. Forest Service<br />Allin (1987): comparison of NPS & FS regulations<br />General management style<br />Law Enforcement<br />Engineering (structures)<br />Educational Strategies<br />
  33. 33. Differences in Management<br />Although theoretically Wilderness management should be consistent from agency to agency, the unique history & mission of each inevitably influence its decision-making process.<br />
  34. 34. What would the world be, once bereft<br />Of wet and wildness? Let them be left<br />O Let them be left , wildness and wet<br />Long live the weeds and the wilderness yet!<br />[ Gerard Manley Hopkins ]<br />
  35. 35. Works Cited<br />Allin, C. W. (1982). The politics of Wilderness preservation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.<br />Allin, C.W. (1987). Park service vs. forest service: exploring the differences in wilderness management. Policy Studies Review, 7:2. 385-394.<br />BLM Policy Manual, 8560.12-3 (2000) <br />BLM Regulations, 43 C.F.R. § 6303.1 (2000)<br />BLM Wilderness Management; Final Rule, 70 CFR Fed. Reg. 78358. (2000) (to be codified at 43 C.F.R. § 6300 and 8560)<br />Bureau of Land Management. (nd). “About us.” Retrieved from<br />Cole, D.N. (1995). Ecological manipulation in wilderness-an emerging management dilemma. International Journal of Wilderness 1:1. 1-8.<br />Cronon, W. (1995). “The Trouble With Wilderness, or Getting Back to the Wrong Nature.” Uncommon ground: Rethinking the human place in nature, New York: W. W. Norton & Co.<br />Hopkins, G.M. (1918). Poems. Robert Bridges, ed. London: Humphrey Milford,<br />Lewis, M. (2007). American wilderness: A new history. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 6-10, 35-51, <br />Mather, Cotton. (1820). Magnalia Christi Americana, 2nd Ed. Hartford, CT: Silus Andrus. 1:44, 72, 78.<br />Nash, R. (1987). Wilderness and the American mind. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 15-22. <br />National Park Service (nd). “About us.” Retrieved on March 6, 2009 from<br />National Park Service Management Policies (2006). Wilderness preservation and management. Chapter 6.3.<br />U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service About Us. (nd). Retrieved on March 6, 2009 from<br />U.S. Fish and Wildlife Policy (2006). 610 FW 1. “General overview of Wilderness stewardship policy.” Sec. 1.5-22.<br />U.S. Forest Service (nd). “About us.” Retrieved on March 6 2009 from<br />U.S. Forest Service. (2008). “Minimum requirements decision guide.” 1-7.<br />U.S. Forest Service, 36 C.F.R. § 293.6 (2001).<br />U.S. Forest Service Manual, Sec. 2320-2326. (2002). <br />U.S. Fish and Wildlife Policy (2006). 610 FW 1. “General overview of Wilderness stewardship policy.” Sec. 1.5-22.<br />Washburne, R.F., and Cole D.N. (1983). Problems and practices in wilderness management: A survey of managers. (Research Paper INT-304). Ogden, Utah: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.<br />Zahniser, Edward. (1984). Howard Zahniser: father of the Wilderness Act. National Parks, 58: 12-14.<br />