All things can be characterized as either LIVING or NON-LIVINGAbiotic- “without life”, non-livingBiotic- LivingCharacteristics of all living things: They are organized They grow and develop They reproduce They respond They maintain homeostasis They use energy
OrganizationCell- the basic unit of structure and function of a livingorganism.Organisms are either: Unicellular- made of one cell that does all the work to maintain life. Multicellular- composed of many cells. This organism has specialized cells each doing a specific job in order to keep the organism alive.
Growth and DevelopmentGrowth: For unicellular organisms is just increase in size of the organism For multicellular organisms is increase in NUMBER of specialized cells.Development- Changes that occur throughout the lifetime ofthe organism.
ReproductionProcess of making more organisms. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION- One parent. Examples are budding, fission and regeneration. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION- Two parents.
Respond to StimuliStimulus- Anything that causes a change in an organism.Response ( NOT REACTION)- what an organism doeswhen a stimulus is present.Two Types of Stimuli:Internal – changes within an organismExternal- Changes in environment around organism.
HomeostasisThe ability to maintain stable internalenvironment to ensure the organisms ability tofunction.
Use EnergyUltimate source of all energy is the SUN. Plants use energyfrom the sun (photosynthesis) to grow, animals and peopleeat the plants to get energy. So directly or indirectly,everything gets energy from the sun.KNOW Figure 15Food chain- one pathway of energy transferFood Web- multiple pathways of energy transfer
LESSON 2 ClassificationAristotle was the first to classify organisms. Heclassified organisms into two groups- PLANTSor ANIMALS.Linnaeus grouped based on similar structuresand put them into one of two KINGDOMS.Whittaker- developed the Linnaeus system into5 Kingdoms.Current classification systems are calledSystematics.
SystematicsUses all known information to classify: Cell type (unicellular, multicellular) How food/energy is obtained Features and how they are used Ancestry (Phylogeny) Molecular make up
Changes to ClassificationOrganisms are now classified intoDOMAINS and then broken into 6Kingdoms (not 5).Three Domains- Bacteria, Archea, Eukarya
Order of ClassificationDomainKingdom (start here)PhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesKNOW ORDER. Here is a way to remember- King Phillip Came Over For Great Spaghetti.
Binomial NomenclatureA two-name naming system that is used today.Developed by Linnaeus. Normally the Latinnames. It consists of GENUS AND SPECIES.Here is the reason behind this naming system. If anorganism has genus and species in common then allof the higher classification order is similar too. Forexample- the more of the classification order theyhave the same, the more similar they are. So if thesmallest groupings are the same, the organism arethe same.Species- must be able to produce fertile young
Writing the Scientific Name (Binomial Nomenclature)This is written (notice caps and lower case)Written in italics with the first word in the namebegiining with a capital letter and the second wordbeginning with a lower case letter. Felis domesticus – the name for the house cat. Felis- genus and domesticus is the species. All cats can not produce fertile young (example lion and house cat) so species is SPECIFIC and must be able to produce fertile young.
A Scientific Name Helps to….1. Help avoid mistakes- the name is worldwideand understood and used for the sameorganism. So this reduces mistakes.2. Group organisms with similar evolutionaryhistory 3. Give descriptive information about thespecies.4. Organize information about the speciesquickly and accurately.
Tools Used in Identifying OrganismsField Guide- a book with informationand illustrations about the organism.Dichotomous Key-detailed list ofidentifying characteristics arranged insteps of two that lead to the organismname.Cladogram- branched diagram that showsrelationships among organisms.
Lesson 3 MicroscopesThe # of microscopic organisms outnumber the amount ofvisible organismsAnton van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch fabric merchant made amicroscope out of a small bead. He could see things in pondwater that no one knew existed
Microscope TypesTwo main types of microscopes- Light and ElectronLight-Simple or compound? Simple-one lens and compound has more than one lens. A compound microscope has an eye piece and an objective lens To determine magnification : Eye piece magnification X objective lens
Electron MicroscopesInstead of using light, these use a magneticfield in a vacuum to direct beams of electrons.SEM- scanning electron microscope- produces a3D image but only the surface can be seen.Tem-transmission electron microscope-produces a 2D image of a thinly sliced specimen