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14 4 5 Handout Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 14
  • 2. SECTION 4 – EFFECTS OF CONQUEST
    • Small farms  large estates
    • Use of slaves
    • Farms  cities
    • Decline of Roman republic
  • 3.
    • Small Farms
      • Small farmers believed in hard work and service to Rome.
      • Small farms were replaced by large estates called latifundias.
      • Small farms grew wheat for food.
    • Latifundias
      • Latifundias produced crops, sheep, and cattle for sale at market.
        • Olives and grapes were also grown on these large estates.
        • Rome no longer grew their own wheat.
        • Rome had to import wheat from Sicily and North Africa.
  • 4.
    • Reason for Change
      • Hannibal's invasion of Italy.
      • Hannibal's soldiers lived off the land when they were in Italy.
      • Roman farmers burned their fields and crops to prevent them from getting food.
      • After the Second Punic War, the land was ruined.
      • Small farmers did not have money to restore their land.
      • Patricians and rich business men bought the small farms.
      • They combined the small farms to create Latifundias.
  • 5. Slavery Rome did not enslave people they conquered. By 146 BC, this was no longer true. Romans were impressed by the wealth of Greece, Syria, and Carthage. These places had slavery. Romans sent thousands of prisoners  to Rome as slaves. Most of the slaves lived and worked on Latifundias.
    • From Farm to City
    • Farmers who sold their land could work for the new owners or move to the city.
    • Almost all moved to Rome.
    • The farmers lived in wooden apartment buildings.
    • Some of the apartment buildings were six or more stories high.
    • Living conditions were terrible.
    • The aqueducts were not connected to the apartment buildings.
    • The sewers that carried waste away were not connected.
    • Buildings often caught fire or collapsed.
    • Diseases like typhus were common.
    • Most farmers could not make a living in the city.
    • The only industry was construction.
    • Most businesses were run by slaves from Greece.
    • Farmers could get money by selling their vote to politicians.
  • 6. SECTION 5 ROMAN LEADERSHIP
  • 7. The reformers
    • Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus
    • first reformer
    • He thought _____________________________________.
    • 133 BC, _________________________________________.
    • He wanted to ______________________________________.
    • He wanted to divide up ________________________________.
    • Tiberius Gracchus ran for a ______________________________
    • The Senate ______________________________________________.
    • Gaius Gracchus
    • In 123 BC, Gaius Gracchus _______________________________.
    • He was the __________________ of Tiberius.
    • He wanted ____________________________________________.
    • He had _______________________________________________.
    • Soon _________________________________________________.
    • In 121 BC, _____________________________________________.
  • 8. The generals
    • Gaius Marius
    • 107 bc – ______________________.
    • 1 st lower class Roman elected to high-class
    • supported ____________________.
    • Many of the ex-soldiers had _______________________ ______________________________________________
    • set up a ___________________________________.
    • In the past, only ____________________________.
    • Army opened ________________________
    • Offered ______________________________.
    • Major Problem = _____________________________
  • 9.
    • General Lucius Cornelius Sulla
    • Marius was opposed by General Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
    • Sulla was given a command Marius wanted.
    • marius tried to ________________________________.
    • Sulla marched on Rome and seized the city.
    • _____________________ broke out.
    • Sulla ______________________________.
    • He killed _________________________________.
    • Sulla then made himself ______________________.
    • He wanted __________________________________.
    • He doubled _________________________________.
    • He gave ______________________________.
    • He weakened the power of the tribunes.
    • He stopped ____________________________________.
  • 10. JULIUS CAESAR
    • Triumvirate
    • In 60 Bc, ______________.
    • A ______________controlled Rome.
    • _____________________, _____________________, and _______________________ made it up.
    • Pompey believed in ___________________.
    • Caesar believed in ______________________.
    • Crassus died and Pompey was murdered.
    • In 48 BC, _____________________.
  • 11.
    • Conquests
    • 58 BC, ______________________________
    • He built up a strong army.
    • He _______________________________.
    • In 50 BC, _____________________________ ____________________________________.
    • Caesar entered Rome at the head of his army.
    • By 46 BC, ____________________________.
  • 12.
    • Achievements of Caesar
    • Redivided state lands.
    • Gave land to ________________________________
    • He began public works projects.
    • He built ______________________________________
    • This gave jobs to thousands of Romans.
    • He planned and paid __________________________.
    • This gave the poor and idle something to do.
    • He __________________________________________.
    • It gave business people a chance to be a Senator.
    • He __________________________________________.
    • He gave _____________________________________.
    • He adopted the ________________________, based on the ___________________________ calendar.
  • 13.
    • Assassination of Caesar Some Romans were afraid ________________________________.
    • 15 March 44 BC, ______________________________________.
    • End of the Republic
    • The Roman people turned against ____________________________________.
    • Political power passed to ____________________, _______________________, and _____________________________.
    • Mark Antony was Caesar's closest follower and general..
    • Octavian was ___________________________.
    • Marcus Aemilius Lepidus one of Caesar's top officers.
    • This triumvirate worked for awhile.
    • Fights broke out in 31 BC, Octavian had won.