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  • 1. Exploring Lifespan Development
    • Chapter 2
    • Biological and
    • Environmental Foundations
    • This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
      • Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;
      • Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;
      • Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. Genotypes and Phenotypes
    • Genotype
    • genetic make-up of an individual
    • Phenotype
    • observable characteristics of an individual
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Absolute Family
  • 4. Genetic Foundations
    • Chromosomes – store and transmit genetic information
    • Genes – segments of DNA located along the chromosomes
    • DNA – substance of which genes and chromosomes are made
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Tiero/Dreamstime.com
  • 5. DNA and Mitosis Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 2.1
  • 6. Chromosomes, Cells, and Sex: Terminology Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Autosomes the 22 pairs of chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes
    • 23rd pair of chromosomes
    • determines sex
    • XX = female, XY = male
    Gametes sex cells: sperm and ova Zygote sperm and ovum united
  • 7. Twins
    • Fraternal/Dizygotic
      • two zygotes, or fertilized ova
    • Identical/Monozygotic
      • one zygote that divides into two individuals
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Corbis Royalty Free
  • 8. Alleles
    • Two forms of the same gene
    • Appear at the same place on both chromosomes in a pair
    • One inherited from each parent
    • Homozygous – the two alleles are alike
    • Heterozygous – the alleles differ
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. Dominant-Recessive Inheritance Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 2.3
  • 10. Genomic Imprinting and Mutation
    • Imprinting
    • chemical marker that activates either father’s or mother’s gene
    • often temporary
    • Mutation
    • sudden, permanent change in a DNA segment
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. Chromosomal Abnormalities
    • Down syndrome
      • problems with the twenty-first chromosome
    • Sex chromosome abnormalities
      • problems with the X or Y chromosome
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Carlos Santa Maria/Dreamstime.com
  • 12. Reproductive Choices
    • Genetic counseling
    • Genetic testing
    • Prenatal diagnosis and fetal medicine
    • Adoption
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. RubberBall Productions
  • 13. Reproductive Technologies
    • Donor insemination
    • In vitro fertilization
    • Surrogate mother
    • New technologies
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. RubberBall Productions
  • 14. Genetic Counseling Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. RubberBall Productions
    • Helps couples:
      • assess chances of hereditary disorders
      • choose best course of action
        • risks
        • family goals
    • Recommended when:
      • couple has had difficulties
      • aware of genetic problems
      • woman is over 35
  • 15. Prenatal Diagnostic Methods
    • Amniocentesis
    • Chorionic villus sampling
    • Fetoscopy
    • Ultrasound
    • Maternal blood analysis
    • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. RubberBall Productions
  • 16. Adoption Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Stockbyte Royalty Free
    • Trends:
      • international adoption
      • older children
      • developmental issues
    • Exhibit some difficulties
    • Most fare well
  • 17. Environmental Contexts for Development
    • Family
    • Socioeconomic status and family functioning
    • Affluence
    • Poverty
    • Neighborhoods, towns, and cities
    • Cultural context
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Corbis Royalty Free
  • 18. Socioeconomic Status (SES)
    • Social status
      • years of education
      • job prestige and skill required
    • Economic status
      • income
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Meetings and Presentations Royalty Free
  • 19. Socioeconomic Status and Family Functioning
    • Timing and duration of family life cycle
    • Values and expectations
    • Education, status of women
    • Communication and discipline styles
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Family Life
  • 20. Risks of Affluence
    • Alcohol and drug use
    • Anxiety
    • Depression
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    • Unavailable parents
      • overscheduled
      • demanding
    Modern Teen
  • 21. Who Is Poor?
    • 13% in United States
    • Parents under age 25 with young children
    • Elderly living alone, especially women
    • Ethnic minorities
    • Women
    • Children
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Senior Lifestyles
  • 22. Extended Families
    • Three or more generations living together
    • More common in many minority cultures
    • Benefits
      • reduces stress of poverty
      • assistance for all generations
      • emotional bonds, support
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Senior Lifestyles
  • 23. Individualist and Collectivist Societies
    • Individualist
    • People define themselves as separate from other people.
    • Largely concerned with personal needs and goals.
    • Collectivist
    • People define themselves as part of a group.
    • Stress group goals over individual goals.
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 24. Percentage of Elderly Living in Poverty Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 2.5
  • 25. Genetic–Environmental Correlation
    • Passive correlation
    • Evocative correlation
    • Active correlation
      • niche-picking
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Absolute Family
  • 26. The Epigenetic Framework Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 2.7