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The Agile Stakeholder Management Framework for Teams, Programs, and Portfolios

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Stakeholder management is one of the most important responsibilities of a Product Owner. It can also be one of the biggest land mines if you don't continuously inspect and adapt your planning and …

Stakeholder management is one of the most important responsibilities of a Product Owner. It can also be one of the biggest land mines if you don't continuously inspect and adapt your planning and communication. How do you interact with your stakeholders based on their level of interest and the degree of influence they have over your team's success or failure? In this session, you will learn how to apply the stakeholder management framework to:
1. Identify, analyze, prioritize, and engage your stakeholders
2. Manage expectations through the continuous process of setting expectations, acting on them, reviewing them, and resetting them
3. Build your communication plan using the stakeholder mapping technique and the Net Promoter Score (NPS) to plot your sponsors, major stakeholders, minor stakeholders, and subject matter experts
4. Gain consensus with your stakeholders regarding their rights and responsibilities
5. Scale to the program and portfolio levels

Originally presented at Agile2012
http://agile2012.agilealliance.org/program/schedule/

Published in: Technology, Business

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  • 1. The StakeholderManagement Frameworkfor teams, programs, and portfolios Drew Jemilo drew.jemilo@ScaledAgile.com Scaled Agile, Inc. © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, Scaled Agile, Inc. and Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication may not be reproduced without permission of the copyright holders. Scaled Agile Framework™ is a trademark of Leffingwell, LLC. v12.07.15 Rev0 © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 1
  • 2. Agenda 1. Introductions 2. Stakeholder Management Overview 3. Identify Stakeholders 4. Analyze Stakeholders 5. Prioritize Stakeholders 6. Engage Stakeholders 7. Communicating 8. Managing Expectations 9. Scaling © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
  • 3. Introductions  Over 20 years in software engineering and product management as an external consultant and internal IT Director  Practicing traditional, adaptive, and agile methods since 1989  Worked with companies ranging from Lean startups to $1B international enterprises  Principal Contributor to the Scaled Agile Framework  Instructor for the Scaled Agile Academy Email: drew.jemilo@scaledagile.com Twitter: @drewjemilo © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
  • 4. Stakeholder ManagementOverview © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 4
  • 5. Pop Quiz The term “stakeholders” refers to... A. The people chasing the vampires in Twilight B. The ones eating prime rib with their hands in the Old Hickory Steakhouse C. Those who have the interest and influence to impact your product, program, team, or project D. All of the above. © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 5
  • 6. The Challenge Why is stakeholder management so difficult? There’s misalignment  Conflicting priorities  Unshared vision There are politics  “I want to win!”  History of conflict – Product Management vs. Development – “I want it now” – The Business vs. Architecture – “We can’t afford to invest in architecture” © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 6
  • 7. The Challenge Why is stakeholder management so difficult? You may be the messenger...  At some point, you will need to give bad new  You will need to say no And your stakeholders will change over time  At any given point, you may not know who they all are  We need a systematic approach to identify and prioritize © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 7
  • 8. The Stakeholder Management Process Stakeholders Identify Analyze Prioritize Engage Communicate Stakeholders Stakeholders Stakeholders Stakeholders Often! (Re)set Review expectations expectations Act on expectations © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 8
  • 9. Identify Stakeholders IdentifyStakeholders © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 9
  • 10. Identify Stakeholders Many of your stakeholders may not initially be obviousConsider those who have... The ability to impact your project The ability to enhance your project (SMEs) The ability to slow down your projects (e.g., teams or groups you depend on) The ability to remove impediments The ability to lead opinions The ability to facilitate the change resulting from your project The ability to provide “a voice of reason” © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 10
  • 11. Identify Stakeholders Some may easily be overlooked Don’t forget external influences  Subcontractors  Suppliers  Competitors  Regulatory agencies Remember those who have to live with the solution  IT Ops  Production support © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 11
  • 12. Analyze Stakeholders AnalyzeStakeholders © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 12
  • 13. The Stakeholder Map What is it?High  Provides a framework for managing stakeholders Keep Actively based on interest and Satisfied Engage influence  Y-axis sometimes labeled “Power” (but can be a Keep charged term) Monitor Informed  X-axis sometimes justLow labeled “Interest” (but Low High who likes to be thought of as disinterested?) Interest / Availability © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 13
  • 14. The Stakeholder Map © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 14
  • 15. The Stakeholder Map High InfluenceHigh High Interest Keep Actively  Business owners and Satisfied Engage others with significant decision-making authority  Typically easy to identify Keep  Can kill, sustain, or Monitor nurture the project InformedLow  They’re typically easy to actively engage. Set up Low High consistent touch points. Interest / Availability © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 15
  • 16. The Stakeholder Map High InfluenceHigh Low Interest Keep Actively  Those with significantly Satisfied Engage decision-making authority  Lacks the availability or interest to be actively engaged Keep Monitor  It is usually difficult to InformedLow have consistent touch points. Do whatever is Low High needed to keep them satisfied. Interest / Availability © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 16
  • 17. The Stakeholder Map Low InfluenceHigh High Interest Keep Actively  May be impacted by the Satisfied Engage project but have little influence  May want more of your time than you can give Keep Monitor  Find efficient ways to InformedLow communicate and keep them informed – Low High Email updates Interest / Availability – Presentations – Publicity campaigns © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 17
  • 18. The Stakeholder Map Low InfluenceHigh Low Availability Keep Actively  They aren’t (and don’t Satisfied Engage expect to be) significantly involved  They may not even be aware of your project... Keep and may not want Monitor Informed another email in theirLow inbox! Low High  Know who they are Interest / Availability  Monitor them and be aware if they move into other quadrants © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 18
  • 19. The Stakeholder Map Key Keep Business Business Actively Owner 1 Business OwnerSatisfied Owner 1 Engage Major Stakeholder Minor Stakeholder Subject Matter Expert A group of major stakeholders Major Stakeholder 1  Business owners and major stakeholders must participate in Release Planning and the Subject Matter Expert 1 PSI Inspect & Adapt workshops to review and agree upon the PSI plan and the planned vs. actual progress A group of minor  Major stakeholders should stakeholders also be involved in the System Sprint Demos Subject Matter Expert 2  Major stakeholders may be engaged between System Minor Stakeholder 1 Sprint Demos for input  Minor Stakeholders are engaged as required in order to keep them informed  Subject Matter Experts are Monitor Keep engaged as required for input Interest / Availability Informed © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 19
  • 20. The Stakeholder Map Key Keep Business Business Actively Owner 1 Business OwnerSatisfied Owner 1 Engage Major Stakeholder Minor Stakeholder Subject Matter Expert A group of major stakeholders Major Stakeholder 1  Business owners and major stakeholders must participate in Release Planning and the Subject Matter Expert 1 PSI Inspect & Adapt workshops to review and agree upon the PSI plan and the planned vs. actual progress A group of minor  Major stakeholders should stakeholders also be involved in the System Sprint Demos Subject Matter Expert 2  Major stakeholders may be engaged between System Minor Stakeholder 1 Sprint Demos for input  Minor Stakeholders are engaged as required in order to keep them informed  Subject Matter Experts are Monitor Keep engaged as required for input Interest / Availability Informed © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 20
  • 21. Exercise: Create Your Stakeholder Map Using flip chart paper and stickies, create a stakeholder map for your team (Product Owner) or program (Product Manager) Color Coding Red = Business Owner Yellow = Major Stakeholder Green = Minor Stakeholder Orange = Subject Matter Expert Timebox: 20 minutes © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 21
  • 22. Prioritize Stakeholders Don’t prioritize based on who can scream the loudest! It’s...  Role  Influence  Interest/availability It’s also their perception I’m the most and attitude important!  Listen to them Is it done yet?  Get context from others  Conduct an NPS survey © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 22
  • 23. Stakeholder Satisfaction with NPS Net Promoter Score is a survey technique which is gaining strong acceptance Net Promoter Score (NPS) is a survey technique which: – Gauges loyalty – Is very simple – Is an alternative to traditional customer satisfaction surveys © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 23
  • 24. Stakeholder Satisfaction with NPS An NPS survey consists of one simple question  How likely is it that you would recommend _____ ?  On a scale of 0 – 10: – 9 - 10 are Promoters – 7 - 8 are Passives – 0 - 6 are Detractors NPS = (% of Promoters) – (% of Detractors) – A positive NPS is considered good – 50 or more is considered excellent © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 24
  • 25. The Stakeholder Map and NPS Can NPS be an overlay on your stakeholder map? © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 25
  • 26. The Stakeholder Map Promoters may...High  Protect you from politics and negative influences Keep Actively  Remove impediments Satisfied Engage  Secure incremental funding  Sway opinions in a Keep Monitor positive direction InformedLow Low High Interest / Availability Keep them close! © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 26
  • 27. The Stakeholder Map Detractors may...High  Find faults  Delay approvals Keep Actively Satisfied Engage  Provide little support  Be overly controlling  Reassign resources Monitor Keep  Sway opinions in a Informed negative directionLow  Start a competing project Low High  Pull the plug! Interest / Availability Keep them closer! © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 27
  • 28. The Stakeholder Map Promoters may...High  Become more interested and available Keep Actively Satisfied Engage Detractors may...  Avoid you Keep  Delay feedback Monitor Informed  Delay approvalsLow (intentionally or Low High unintentionally)  Drop in, give unexpected Interest / Availability feedback, and leave © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 28
  • 29. The Stakeholder Map Promoters may...High  Sway opinions in a positive direction Keep Actively  Want to become even Satisfied Engage more involved Detractors may... Keep Monitor Informed  Sway opinions in aLow negative direction Low High Interest / Availability © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 29
  • 30. The Stakeholder Map Promoters may...High  Move to another quadrant Keep Actively Satisfied Engage Detractors may...  Excuse themselves from Keep the water cooler when the Monitor Informed topic of your projectLow comes up Low High Interest / Availability © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 30
  • 31. Prioritize Stakeholders PrioritizeStakeholders © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 31
  • 32. Backlog of StakeholdersPrioritizing stakeholders is like grooming a backlog: it happens continuouslyConsiderations: Influence (not just power) Interest/availability AttitudeAnd also... Time value (needed this sprint? This release?) Stakeholders need grooming too! © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 32
  • 33. Engage Stakeholders EngageStakeholders © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 33
  • 34. Engaging StakeholdersNow that we’ve identified our stakeholders, we need to define how we’ll be interacting with them Determine your touch points – One-on-one conversations – Standing meetings – Scrum ceremonies and SAFe program events – Workshops Define the objectives Set the frequency © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 34
  • 35. Sample Stakeholder Management Plan A stakeholder map can drive the type and frequency of interactions, e.g., one- on-one conversations, invitations to ceremonies/events, and workshopsRole Person/Group Samples – Engagement Methods / FrequencyBusiness Bob Ollis • One-on-one meetings to discuss vision, roadmap, and features prior to each release planning meetingOwner • Attendance at requirements workshops as needed • Attendance at the release planning meeting • Attendance at the PSI Inspect & Adapt workshop • Email communication when program scope is at riskMajor Mary Smith • Attendance at discover workshopsStakeholder • Preview of the prioritized backlog prior to the release planning meeting • Attendance at the PSI Inspect & Adapt workshop as needed • Attendance at the system sprint demo • Attendance at the team sprint demo (optional) • Email communication when sprint or program scope is at riskMinor Mike Schnitzel • Email updates as neededStakeholder • Attendance at requirements workshops as neededSubject Matter Sam M. Edwards • Pulled into sprint ceremonies as neededExpert • Pulled into individual or group SME meetings as needed © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 35
  • 36. Exercise: Draft Your Plan Draft your stakeholder management plan for your team (Product Owners) or program (Product Managers)Role Person/Group Engagement Methods / FrequencyBusiness OwnerMajor StakeholderSubject MatterExpertMinor Stakeholder Timebox: 20 minutes © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 36
  • 37. Stakeholder Touch Points In agile at scale, stakeholders are engaged at the portfolio, program, and team levels. Let’s first focus at the team level © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 37
  • 38. Stakeholder Touch Points (1) Mid-Sprint (2) Backlog Review Grooming (3) Specification Workshop (optional) © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 38
  • 39. Other Ways to Engage Your Stakeholders Don’t forget many of the traditional tools as well!  A Requirements Workshop  Brainstorming Sessions  Interviews  Questionnaires  User Experience Mock-Ups  Use Case Modeling See Agile Software Requirements: Lean Requirements Practices for Teams, Programs and the Enterprise. Leffingwell, Dean. Addison-Wesley, 2011. © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 39
  • 40. Communicate Often!Communicate Often! © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 40
  • 41. Start with Rights and ResponsibilitiesStakeholders not only have rights in an Agile environment, but responsibilities as well. Rights Responsibilities  Have an engaged team  Remain engaged from the definition to the completion of  Be informed of the team’s the Epic progress  Receive good-faith estimates  Provide ongoing feedback and support  Be educated on technical and architectural factors that impact  Define and clarify requirements estimates  Collaborate with the Product Owner  Receive Lean|Agile training and coaching  Contribute to the growth of a trusting Agile environment © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 41
  • 42. (Re)set Review expectations expectations Act on expectations ManagingExpectations © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 42
  • 43. Managing Expectations Managing expectations can be challenging, especially in an Agile world Be prepared for questions from those not familiar with Agile  “What do you mean you can’t commit to what I’m getting six months from now?”  “Can you squeeze it in? It’s really small.”  “Why are you wasting time on architecture and refactoring?”  What else? © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 43
  • 44. Managing ExpectationsWith negotiable scope, you’ll need to set expectations with your stakeholders © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 44
  • 45. How Do You Achieve a Healthy BalanceThere is always a struggle when prioritizing features against technicalinvestments and debt reduction. How do you prioritize unlike things? More refactoring? Technical debt is More features! snowballing! Product Developer Owner © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 45
  • 46. Capacity Allocation for a Healthy Balance Capacity allocation can be applied to team backlogs for a balanced allocation of resource to users stories, refactors, and maintenance More... © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 46
  • 47. Scaling © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 47
  • 48. The Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe)The Scaled Agile Framework is a proven, publicly-facing framework for applying Lean and Agile practices at enterprise scale  Well defined in books and on the web  Synchronizes vision, planning, interdependencies, and delivery of many teams  Works well for teams of 50 – 100 people  Has been scaled to hundreds of teams and thousands of people  For more info, see ScaledAgileFramework.com © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 48
  • 49. The Scaled Agile Framework Big Picture © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 49
  • 50. The SAFe FractalEach level of the Scaled Agile Framework is a fractal of the one below A fractal is a complex geometric pattern exhibiting self-similarity in that small details of its structure viewed at any scale repeat elements of the overall pattern © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 50
  • 51. The Stakeholder Management FractalWe can apply the stakeholder management framework we just learned to each level of the Scaled Agile Framework © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 51
  • 52. Scaling FacetsIn scaling the stakeholder management framework, there are five areas to apply the scaling fractal 1. Roles Who is the stakeholder manager? 2. Stakeholders Who has the influence and interest? 3. Backlog level Who manages what level of detail? 4. Capacity allocation How do we allow time for technical and architectural investments? 5. Touch points At which ceremonies and events do we engage our stakeholders? © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 52
  • 53. Stakeholder ManagersThose managing the stakeholders also follow a fractal pattern Program Portfolio Management Product Managers Product Owners © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 53
  • 54. Stakeholder ManagersThere are overlaps and inter-relationships between stakeholder managers and stakeholders  CEO, CTO, CMO CFO  Line of business owners  Key customer constituents Program Portfolio Management  Customers  Marketing, Sales  System Architect Product  Deployment/Ops Managers  Customers  Their teams Product Owners  Other teams  System Architect © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 54
  • 55. The Backlogs There are also three levels of backlogs with priorities influenced by customers and stakeholders at each level © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 55
  • 56. The Enterprise Backlog Model Overview  The Enterprise Backlog Model translates the allocation of strategic investments to the portfolio, program, and team level  Detail is defined just-in- time and progressively elaborated © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 56
  • 57. Content Authority and Decision-Making Program Portfolio Management Product Managers Product Owners © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 57
  • 58. Capacity Allocation The same approach to allocating capacity also scales © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 58
  • 59. Design AuthorityCapacity allocation provide a way to separate concerns, such that we can deliver the right mix of new features and architecture evolution © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 59
  • 60. Ceremonies and Events Likewise, there are program level ceremonies and events in which stakeholders are involved © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 60
  • 61. Events and Touch Points (2) Release (3) Release (5) Release(1) Roadmap and (7) Inspect & Backlog Planning Management (6) System Vision updates Adapt Preparation Sprint Demo (4) Scrum of Scrums See www.ScaledAgileFramework.com and click on the icons for details © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 61
  • 62. In Conclusion... Feel free to use thispresentation with your teams and Scaled as you scale! Thank you! © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 62
  • 63. Additional ResourcesScaledAgileFramework.com ScaledAgileAcademy.com Drew Jemilo Scaled Agile, Inc. drew.jemilo@ScaledAgile.com © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 63
  • 64. Questions? © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 64