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CSI booklet

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  • 1. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience       CSI:   Las  Vegas             1  
  • 2. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience       MS4  –  Text,  Industry  and  Audience   What  are  the  assessment  objectives?       A01:  Demonstrate  knowledge  and   understanding  of  media  concepts  (ideas),   contexts  (background  information)  and  critical  debates  (what  the  critics  think   and  other  influential  people,  academics  etc).       To  get  in  the  A  band  you  need  to  have:   A  sophisticated  understanding  of  media  texts,  their  industry  and  audience   contexts.   Use  detailed  examples  and  use  them  to  show  well-­‐established  viewpoints.   Highly  appropriate  use  of  media  terminology.         A02:  Apply  knowledge  and  understanding  when  analysing  media  products   (texts)  and  processes  (how  they  are  constructed  and  put  together,  e.g.   technical  and  visual  codes)  and  to  show  how  meanings  and  responses  are   created  (technical  and  visual  codes,  narrative,  representations  etc.)  How  does   the  audience  respond?     To  get  in  the  A  band  you  need  to  have:   A  sophisticated  analysis  of  the  relationship  between  text,  industry  and  audience.   Sophisticated  understanding  of  how  meanings  and  responses  are  created.         2  
  • 3. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience     The  Background  to  Channel  5     Channel  5  was  launched  in  1997  and  was  the  UK  fifth  terrestrial  channel  (free  to  air  over  the   analogue  signal  –  the  Granada  region  in  the  North  West  is  now  digital  and  the  free  channels  are  available   through  Freeview).  Out  of  the  five  channels,  it  has  lowest  audience  share,  around  5%  of  the  total  target   audience.   The  brands  in  the  Channel  5  stable  were  rebranded  in  February  2011.  The  brands  are  now  as   follows:   Channel  5:  Channel  5  was  launched  as  Britain's  fifth  and  final  terrestrial  broadcaster  on  the  31st   March  1997.   In  July  2010  the  Channel  5  network  was  sold  by  long  standing  shareholder  RTL  to  Northern  &   Shell.     Currently  well  over  30  million  UK  viewers  watch  Channel  5  any  given  week  tuning  in  for   programming  as  diverse  as  the  CSI  franchise,   Extraordinary  People,  Fifth  Gear,  live  UEFA  Europa   League  Football,  Home  and  Away  and  Neighbours,  5   News  as  well  as  the  channel's  award  winning   children's  strand,  Milkshake!   5*  launched  as  Five  Life  in  October  2006,   becoming  FIVER  on  28th  April  2008  and  5*  on  7th   March  2011.   The  channel  is  attracting  increasing  numbers   of  younger  viewers  with  a  range  of  younger,  faster,   ruder  programming.    It  has  a  rich  mix  of  the  best   acquired  and  originated  programming  and  already     has  seen  a  number  of  high-­‐profile,  new  programmes  including  Archer,  Burn  Notice,  Melrose  Place,   Californication,  Sex  and  the  City  and  The  City.   Channel  5's  American  cousin,  5USA  (formerly  Five  US),  launched  on  16th  October  2006  and  is   now  the  11th  highest  rating  multichannel  in  the  UK  during  prime  time.   5USA  brings  UK  viewers  the  slickest,  smartest  Amercian  drama  series,  including  CSI,  CSI  New   York,  CSI  Miami,    Numb3rs  and  The  Mentalist,  as  well  as  a  combination  of  established  and  new  drama;   comedy;  films;  sport  and  youth  programming.   5USA  is  still  growing  its  audience.  In  2008,  the  average  audience  share  for  Five  US  was  +14%   greater  than  2007.   The  channel  changed  its  name  from  Five  US  to  5USA  on  February  16th  2009.   Channel  5  was  the  first  terrestrial  broadcaster  to  offer  a  download  service  when  it  launched  5   Download  in  September  2006.   Relaunched  as  Demand  5  in  July  2008,  Channel  5’s  video-­‐on-­‐demand  service  achieves  over  10   million  video  streams  a  month.   The  online,  Smart  TV  and  set-­‐top  box  catch-­‐up  service  provides  viewers  with  online  access  to  a   significant  percentage  of  Channel  5's  peaktime  schedule,  including  Big  Brother,  and  much  of  its  hit   acquired  content,  such  as  Alphas,  CSI  and  Neighbours.   The  offering  is  extended  with  a  raft  of  original  programming,  including  Fifth  Gear,  The  Gadget   Show,  The  Hotel  Inspector  and  Paul  Merton’s  Adventures.  An  extensive  archive  of  older  Channel  5   programming  is  available  to  be  streamed  on  the  website,  for  free,  at  any  time.   Channel  5  is  working  tirelessly  with  production  companies  and  rights  holders  to  expand  the   content  offering  of  Channel  5,  5*  and  5USA  on  the  service.   Demand  5  is  also  available  on  YouTube,  Virgin  Media,  BT  Vision  and  Sony  Bravia  connected  TV.       You  can  also  download  the  free  Demand  5  app  for  iPad,  iPhone  and  iPod  Touch  from  the  Apple  app  store.         3  
  • 4. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience   Channel  5  audience   2012  Statistics   Channel  5  is  the  fifth  most  popular  channel  in  the  UK,  claiming  a  4.2%  share  of  viewing  across  the   whole  of  2012   Year  on  year  viewing  to  the  channel  was  up  amongst  all  viewers.    In  addition  we  grew  the   commercially  attractive  young  and  upmarket  audiences   In  a  typical  month  we  reach  45  million  people   Channel  5  provides  viewers  with  a  varied  mix  of  programming  which  includes  entertainment,   sport,  documentaries,  kids,  drama,  News  and  films.     Our  most  popular  commission  in  2012  was  Celebrity  Big  Brother,  which  reached  an  audience  high   of  3.9  million     New  programmers  joining  the  commissioning  slate  across  the  year  included  Celebrity  Wedding   Planner,  Benidorm  ER,  World  Scariest,  Cowboy  Traders  and  Killers  Behind  Bars     Channel  5  is  also  home  to  the  biggest  US  dramas.  As  well  as  continuing  with  hit  series  such  as  CSI,   NCIS  and  The  Mentalist  in  the  past  year  we  have  introduced  UK  audiences  to  new  acquisitions  such  as   Once  Upon  A  Time,  Body  Of  Proof,  Person  Of  Interest  and  Dallas.       Source:  BARB,  2012     Channel  5’s  rules  under  the  OFCOM  licence:   Under  the  terms  of  its  licence,  Channel  5  must  have  60%  of  its  programming  commissioned   specifically  for  the  station  –  at  least  42%  must  be  original  programming  for  the  channel,  in  peak  viewing   time  (between  5pm  and  11pm).   At  least  10%  of  programmes  made  for  the  channel  must  be  produced  outside  the  M25  area   (London)  thus  ensuring  regional  representation  in  programme  making.     Task:  Using  the  above  information,  read  through  and  answer  the  following  questions:   1. What  is  the  average  audience  for  Channel  5?       2. How  many  channels  are  there  under  the  Channel  5  brand?       3. What  percentage  of  programming  has  to  be  original  to  Channel  5  in  peak  time?       4. How  long  has  the  channel  been  on  air?       5. How  many  people  on  average  tune  in  a  week?         Channel  5  and  typical  genres:     The  general  acquisitions  strategy  of  Channel  5  has  been  to  target  what  Channel  5  has  billed  as  “unique   drama”  that  will  appeal  to  a  broad  audience,  largely  from  the  bigger  broadcast  networks  in  the  United   States.  There  has  been  the  occasional  comedy  acquisition  over  the  years,  but  they’ve  rarely  lasted  on  the   channel.  Key  to  recent  ratings  performance  has  been  certain  high  profile  acquisitions  such  as  the  CSI   franchise  and  The  Mentalist,  while  original  commissions  have  also  been  important,  with  Channel  5   recently  indicating  that  they  would  be  looking  beyond  factual  entertainment  and  may  commission  an   original  drama  series  within  the  next  12  months.       4  
  • 5. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience   By  and  large  the  acquisitions  strategy  has  panned  out,  with  the  channel’s  highest  rating  imports  being   CSI:  Crime  Scene  Investigation  (2.44  Million  Viewers),  The  Mentalist  (1.97  million  viewers),  Person  of   Interest  (1.7  million  viewers)  and  Once  Upon  A  Time  (1.5  million  viewers).  That  said,  with  the  recent   staff  changes  at  Channel  5  there  has  been  a  slight  change  in  strategy.  New  Director  of  Programmes  Ben   Frow  has  stated  his  desire  to  make  Channel  5′s  schedule  “less  American  driven”  and  this  change  has   already  been  signified  with  the  recent  acquisitions  of  Australian  drama  Wentworth  and  Irish  drama   Love/Hate.  There  has  also  been  recent  chatter  that  by  early  next  year  Channel  5  will  be  shifting  all  of  its   acquisitions  to  the  10pm  hour.  That  said,  US  series  are  still  going  to  be  a  key  part  of  Channel  5′s   schedule  and  as  such  most  of  their  current  imports  will  be  returning.  I’ve  confirmed  that  the   broadcaster  has  picked  up  the  UK  rights,  from  various  distributors,  to  CSI:  Crime  Scene  Investigation   season  14,  Dallas  season  3,  The  Mentalist  season  6  and  Person  of  Interest  season  2.  They  will  all  return  to   Channel  5  later  this  year  or  early  next  alongside  recent  acquisitions  The  Bible,  Under  The  Dome  and   Wentworth.     CSI:  Crime  Scene  Investigation     Created  by  Anthony  Zuiker,  CSI:  Crime  Scene  Investigation  follows  the  exploits  of  a  group  of  crime  scene   investigators  working  for  the  Las  Vegas  police  department.  The  drama  series  is  produced  by  CBS   Television  Studios  and  stars  Ted  Danson,  Elisabeth  Shue,  George  Eads,  Jorja  Fox,  Paul  Guilfoyle,  Eric   Szmanda,  Robert  David  Hall,  Wallace  Langham,  David  Berman,  Elisabeth  Harnois  and  Jon  Wellner.     CSI:  Crime  Scene  Investigation  has  long  been  a  fixture  on  Channel  5’s  schedule,  with  the  broadcaster   having  been  the  home  of  first  run  episodes  since  the  series  launched  in  the  UK  in  the  early  2000s.   Admittedly,  on  a  certain  level,  CSI:  Crime  Scene  Investigation  (and  the  entire  CSI  franchise  as  a  whole)   has  become  irrevocably  identifiable  with  the  Channel  5  brand.  And  for  good  reason,  even  in  repeat  airings   the  series  draws  big  numbers  for  Channel  5,  while  new  episodes  frequently  pull  in  in  more  than  2  million   viewers.  The  show’s  12th  season  premiered  on  Channel  5  in  March  2012  and  averaged  an  audience  of  2.5   million  viewers,  ranking  as  Channel  5’s  highest  rated  first  run  US  import.  The  show’s  most  recent  season,   the  show’s  13th,  followed  in  February  of  this  year  and  did  see  a  slight  dip  in  the  ratings;  averaging  an   audience  of  2.44  million  viewers,  down  a  mere  2%  on  last  year  but  once  again  ranking  as  the  highest   rated  US  series  currently  airing  on  Channel  5.  Under  the  terms  of  a  longstanding  multi-­‐year   agreement  with  CBS  Studios  International  Channel  5  holds  the  rights  to  the  upcoming  14th  season   of  CSI:  Crime  Scene  Investigation.             From  www.tvwise.co.uk               5  
  • 6. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience   CSI  and  Channel  5   York.   One  of  mainstays  of  the  Channel  5  schedule  is  CSI  and  its  spin  off  shows  CSI  Miami  and  CSI  New     The  original  series,  CSI:  Las  Vegas  premiered  on  the  American  TV  channel  CBS  on  October  6,  200.   The  show  follows  a  team  of  forensic  investigators  (crime  scene  investigators)  as  they  piece  together   information  and  work  out  the  often  gruesome  details  of  murders.  The  show  was  created  by  TV  producers     Jerry  Bruckheimer  and  Anthony  E  Zuiker.  The  show  is  now  in  its  12  series  in  America.       Original  casting:  In  the  original  cast,  William  Petersen  plays  the  Las  Vegas  Police  Department   (LVPD)  crime  lab's  night-­‐shift  supervisor  Dr.  Gil  Grissom,  a  socially  awkward  entomologist.  Marg   Helgenberger  plays  Catherine  Willows,  a  single  parent,  and  former  stripper,  who  worked  her  way   through  the  ranks  from  a  Lab  Technician  to  CSI  and  upon  Grissom's  departure,  to  supervisor.  George   Eads  plays  Nick  Stokes,  a  CSI  Level  2  from  Texas,  who  was  eager  to  show  his  worth  to  Grissom.  Stokes   became  a  CSI  Level  3  at  the  end  of  the  pilot  episode.     Early  recurring  cast  members  included  Eric  Szmanda  as  DNA  Tech  Greg  Sanders,  who  aspires  to   be  a  CSI,  and  Robert  David  Hall,  introduced  early  in  the  first  season  as  Chief  Medical  Examiner  Dr.  Albert   Robbins,  a  double-­‐amputee.  Both  became  regular  cast  members  in  the  first  episode  of  season  3.  Later  in   the  series,  Sanders  transfers  to  the  field  as  a  rookie  Crime  Scene  Investigator  and  begins  progressing   through  the  ranks.  Louise  Lombard  joined  the  cast  in  season  5  as  the  Day  Shift  Supervisor,  but  was   subsequently  transferred  to  Grissom's  team.  Sofia  Curtis  became  a  Detective  in  season  6.  After  a  single   appearance  in  season  8,  Lombard  left  the  cast  with  no  explanation.   Grissom's  supervisory  position  was  filled  by  a  newly  promoted  Catherine  Willows   (Helgenberger),  and  Laurence  Fishburne  joined  the  cast  as  CSI  Dr.  Ray  Langston.  Lauren  Lee  Smith   briefly  played  CSI  Riley  Adams,  but  left  shortly  after  in  the  season  9  finale.  Adams'  exit  interview  would   cause  tension  throughout  the  team,  and  eventually  lead  to  Willows  to  promoting  Stokes  to  Assistant   Supervisor.   Following  Fishburne's  departure,  Ted  Danson  was  cast  as  the  new  CSI  Supervisor  DB  Russell,   replacing  Helgenberger's  Willows,  who  had  been  demoted  following  the  events  of  Season  11.  Elisabeth   Harnois,  who  had  guest  starred  one  episode  in  season  11,  joined  the  regular  cast,  playing  former  LAPD   SID  officer  Morgan  Brody,  the  daughter  of  Conrad  Ecklie.   Marg  Helgenberger  will  depart  the  cast  in  episode  12  of  the  new  series,  and  be  replaced  by   Elisabeth  Shue  in  episode  14.         CSI   CSI  is  a  fast-­‐paced   drama  about  a  team  of   forensic  investigators   trained  to  solve  crimes  by   examining  the  evidence.   They  are  on  the  case  24/7,   scouring  the  scene,   collecting  the  irrefutable   evidence  and  finding  the   missing  pieces  that  will  solve  the  mystery.  Gil  Grissom,  shift  supervisor,  heads   the  team  of  investigators  at  the  Crime  Lab  in  Las  Vegas.  The  team  includes   Catherine  Willows,  a  hard-­‐working  single  parent  with  a  checkered  past  and  a   teenage  daughter  she's  raising  on  her  own;  Warrick  Brown,  a  top  analyst  with  insider  knowledge  of  the  gambling  world;  Nick   Stokes,  a  true-­‐blue  stand-­‐up  guy  who  empathizes  with  victims  via  his  own  experiences;  and  Greg  Sanders,  the  wacky  tech   analyst  turned  field  investigator.  The  CSI  team  members  also  work  closely  with  Capt.  Jim  Brass,  the  former  chief,  now  assigned   to  Homicide,  Dr.  Albert  Robbins,  the  ever-­‐professional  medical  examiner  and  David  Hodges,  a  lab  technician  with  a  specialty  in   trace  and  foreign-­‐substance  analysis.     6  
  • 7. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience             CSI:  New  York     CSI:  NY,  a  crime   drama  inspired  by  the   drama  series,  CSI:   CRIME  SCENE   INVESTIGATION,  is   about  forensic  investigators   who  use  high-­‐tech  science  to  follow  the  evidence  and  solve  crimes  in  the  Big  Apple.  Det.  Mac  Taylor,  a  dedicated  and  driven   crime-­‐scene  investigator  who  believes  that  everything  is  connected  and  everyone  has  a  story,  is  a  decorated  Marine  who   served  in  Desert  Storm  and  dabbled  in  war  photography.  The  job  is  his  life;  he  focuses  on  cases  until  they  are  solved.  He  and   his  partner,  Stella  Bonasera,  a  well-­‐traveled,  well-­‐educated  detective,  an  orphan  who  flourished  in  spite  of  the  system,  share  a   passion  for  the  job.     Stella  is  a  jack-­‐of-­‐all-­‐trades  and  has  an  unmatched  desire  to  find  answers  for  the  victims  of  violent  crimes,  due  in  part   to  questions  about  her  past.  They  lead  a  team  of  experts  through  the  gritty  and  kinetic  city  that  never  sleeps.  The  team   includes  Danny  Messer,  an  investigator  with  an  unflappable  spirit  and  a  troubled  family  history,  which  he  uses  on  the  job  as  he   blends  his  own  set  of  hybrid  ethics.  Messer  was  personally  selected  to  join  the  team  by  Mac,  and  he  attempts  daily  to  live  up  to   that  honor  and  responsibility.  Sheldon  Hawkes  is  the  crime  lab's  former  coroner,  a  brilliant  Ph.D.  who  transitioned  to  the  field   team.  Joining  them  is  Don  Flack,  an  edgy,  hardcore  homicide  detective  with  a  quick  wit,  impressive  forensic  insight  and  a  long   family  history  in  law  enforcement.     Rounding  out  the  team  is  Lindsay  Monroe,  a  young,  athletic  CSI  with  a  Midwestern  work  ethic  who  is  willing  to  roll  up   her  sleeves  to  tackle  any  job  and  rarely  hints  at  the  dark  and  devastating  secret  that  originally  motivated  her  to  dedicate  her   life  to  being  an  investigator.  The  New  York  CSIs  may  have  a  different  process  from  those  in  Las  Vegas  or  Miami,  but  they  are   guided  by  the  same  steadfast  determination.  These  skilled  investigators  follow  the  evidence  as  they  piece  together  clues  and   eliminate  doubt,  to  ultimately  crack  their  cases.  CSI  New  York  ran  from  2004  until  2013.         CSI:  Miami   Inspired  by  the  top-­‐ rated  series  "CSI:  Crime  Scene   Investigation,"  CSI:  MIAMI  is  a   drama  that  follows  a  South   Florida  team  of  forensic   investigators  who  use  both   cutting-­‐edge  scientific  methods   and  old-­‐fashioned  police  work   to  solve  crimes.     Horatio  Caine,  a  former  homicide  detective,  heads  a  group  of  investigators  who   work  crimes  amid  the  steamy  tropical  surroundings  and  cultural  crossroads  of  Miami.  His   team  includes  Calleigh  Duquesne,  a  bilingual  Southern  beauty  with  a  specialty  in  ballistics;   Eric  Delko,  an  underwater  recovery  expert  who  knows  all  the  twists  and  turns  of  the  Florida  waterways,  and  Ryan  Wolfe,  a   former  patrol  officer  who  specializes  in  blood  and  trace  evidence.     Rounding  out  the  team  is  Alexx  Woods,  the  no-­‐nonsense  know-­‐it-­‐all  coroner,  and  Natalia  Boa  Vista,  the  enigmatic   DNA  specialist.  Helping  Horatio  with  cases  is  Det.  Frank  Tripp,  a  tough  yet  thorough  police  officer.     Together,  these  investigators  collect  and  analyse  the  evidence  to  solve  the  crimes  and  to  avenge  those  who  cannot   speak  for  themselves-­‐-­‐the  victims.  CSI  Miami  ran  from  2002  until  2012.         7  
  • 8. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience       Genre:  The  Cop  Show     The huge popularity of crime shows on TV shows how influential the Genre:  A  way  to  categorise  texts.   genre has become both as a tool for advertisers and broadcasters to John  Fiske  argues  genre  is:     make money. As a genre, there are many specific elements which are Ø A  set  of  codes  &   typical codes and conventions. conventions   Ø Action is based on binary opposites   Ø A  way  of  setting  up   Ø Chase sequences often feature   audience  expectations   Ø Mise en scene is often dirty and cramped   Ø Culturally  dependent  –   Ø Emphasis is made on the tools of the trade, e.g. different  cultural  groups   iconography of guns, suits, cars etc.   construct  different   Ø The ideology of the police being there to protect us is expectations   usually evident   Ø The  genre  is  defined  by   Ø The narrative resolution makes us feel safe at the end of signs  (visual  and  aural)   the episode. We tune in to watch the hero arrest the criminals   Ø The  genre  is  defined  by   Ø The main character is often troubled and has personal ideologies  and  generic   tragedy to deal with (usually a white male)   narratives   Ø The hero often has a side-kick   Ø Crime dramas fill over 20% of the prime time schedule in markets throughout the English speaking world. CSI & its spin-offs is watched by viewers in 200 countries across the globe   There are 3 typical types of crime drama in the modern era – 1) the traditional detective drama where the hero chases the villains and locks them up. Criminals are often stereotyped characters, remote from the audience. The main detective has a troubled personal life or tragedies he deals with. A Touch of Frost and Ashes to Ashes are examples of this. 2) The soap opera influenced cop show, focusing on characters based in a station (such as The Bill). Personal stories of the characters dominate the narrative, and we focus on the police and procedures. Criminals are often sterotypes. 3) The Pyscho-crime dramas, focusing on the gruesome & the forensic detection process. Often these focus on the serial killer (such as Wire in the Blood and Trial and Retribution ). CSI focuses on the forensic team with the detectives as secondary characters.     *  Key  point  –  globalisation  –  as  the  world  has  become  smaller  thanks  to  technology  such  as  the  internet,   our  cultural  experiences  have  become  globalised  as  well.     Critics  of  this  global  village  argue  that  our  values  and  ideologies  are  constructed  through  our  shared   viewing  of  news  and  drama.  Reception  theory  argues  we  are  active  in  choosing  our  values  and  ideologies   and  programmes  reflect  our  actual  ideologies,  not  create  them.             8  
  • 9. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience     CSI  main  cast  list:  Series  12,  broadcast  on  Channel  5  2012.                                           9  
  • 10. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience     The  CSI  shot     Part  of  the  appeal  of  CSI  is  its  visual  style  and  a  key  part  of  this  is  what  is  known  as  the  ‘CSI  shot”.     ‘The  programme’s  signature  evocation  of  penetrative  ‘wound-­‐cam’  technology  in  some  ways   mimics  and  borrows  from  the  realist  connotations  of  footage  drawn  from  the  endoscopic  cameras  used   in  surgery  to  explore  the  body,  images  which  have  become  a  staple  of  medical  documentary  programmes.   But  ,at  the  same  time,  these  sequences  and  their  deployment  of  CGI  –  labelled  the  CSI  –shot  by  the   programme’s  producers  –  are  clearly  about  spectacle  and  capture  more  of  the  physical  drama  of  the   body’s  interior  than  any  real  medical  probe  ever  could.  Through  the  CSI-­‐shot  –  penetrating  skin,  arteries   and  organs  to  take  the  audience  on  a  spectacular  visual  ride  through  the  corporeal  –  the  boundaries  not   merely  of  the  genre,  or  of  television,  but  of  the  body  itself  have  been  dissolved.’  –  Body  Matters,  Realism,   Spectacle  and  the  Corpse  in  CSI,  by  Deborah  Jermyn  (from  Reading  CSI)               10  
  • 11. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience       TV  review:  CSI,     Ted  Danson  might  play  an  intellectual,  but  he'll  struggle  to  make   sense  of  CSI   Zoe  Williams   The  Guardian,  Tuesday  13  March  2012  22.00  GMT     'An  octopus?  Really?'  …  Marg  Helgenberger,  Jorja  Fox  and  Ted  Danson  in  CSI.  Photograph:  Robert   Voets/CBS     CSI  (Channel  5)  is  now  in  its  12th  series,  which  is  just  about  the  only  way  you  could  explain  it:  every   permutation  of  homicidal  human  and  maladroit  animal  has  already  been  covered.  They  start  the  series  at   the  very  bottom  of  the  barrel;  they  are  one  plotline  away  from  introducing  an  alien.  But  they  also  have   Ted  Danson,  so  it's  not  all  bad  news:  "Look  at  that,"  he  says,  pointing  to  the  rust  formation  in  the  ceiling   of  a  Las  Vegas  casino  tramcar  wherein  two  humans  have  expired.  "It  looks  just  like  the  Centaurus   constellation.  Isn't  that  neat?"     This  is  supposed  to  mark  him  out  as  an  annoying  intellectual,  even  though  the  statement  is  only  true  if   you  take  as  your  opening  position  that  all  splodges  look  a  little  bit  like  stars.  "And  that  looks  like  a   ricochet."  Ah  ha!  He's  an  annoying  intellectual,  but  he  knows  his  way  around  a  likely  bullet  trajectory.   Jorja  Fox  seems  to  like  him,  although  she  gives  people  that  look  ("You're  interesting,"  it  says.  "I'd  sure  like   to  know  more  about  you")  even  when  they're  dead.  Particularly  when  they're  dead.     I'm  going  to  issue  a  spoiler  alert,  though  its  spoiling  a  dish  that's  already  inedible.  The  deaths  occurred   when  a  man,  Tom,  leapt  onto  a  train,  having  been  inconveniently  but  not  tragically  stabbed,  because  he   was  soon  to  die  anyway  of  lung  cancer.  His  brother,  Jimmy,  tries  to  kill  himself  by  putting  a  sandwich  bag   over  his  head  and  lying  in  the  bath.  This  is  what  happens,  kids,  when  you  get  your  suicide  tips  off  the   internet.  Sometimes  it's  better  just  to  go  back  to  19th  century  literature.     Jimmy  is  scared  of  being  implicated  in  Tom's  partial-­‐but-­‐not-­‐really  murder,  plus  he  feels  guilty  because   he  wasn't  concentrating  –  he  was  busy  ogling  a  prostitute  who  had  an  octopus  in  her  handbag.  Her   intention  was  to  use  it  for  sex,  later,  before  a  live  audience  (the  octopus  was  also  live,  before  someone     11  
  • 12. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience   shot  it).  It's  a  resounding  argument  for  the  free  market  as  the  agent  of  diversity.  In  a  city  with  enough  sex   shows,  there's  no  one  who  isn't  catered  for.     Sorry,  back  to  the  prostitute  –  although  Japanese  by  descent,  her  short,  snooty  vowels  betray  that  she  is   English.  Of  course  she  is.  What  other  kind  of  freak  shags  an  octopus?  The  one  in  her  bag  was  called   Claude  and  ate  shrimp.  "He  was  fussy,  but  he  was  worth  it."  Huh.  It  transpires  that  she  was  actually  in   love  with  the  octopus.  Ted  Danson,  intuiting  this,  uses  it  dazzlingly  to  his  own  advantage.     The  programme  has  that  West  Wing  atmosphere,  where  sentences  explode  fast  and  leave  you  wondering   whether  it  was  the  individual  words  you  didn't  understand,  or  the  order  in  which  they  came.  Unlike  West   Wing,  it  turns  out  you  didn't  understand  it  because  it  was  animal  crackers.  While  our  not-­‐quite-­‐a-­‐heroine   was  testing  the  boundaries  of  fidelity  with  her  eight-­‐membered  lovetoy,  down  the  road  a  man  was  found   dead  with  his  skin  wrinkled  clean  away  from  his  muscle  mass.  His  demise  is  actually  too  complicated  to   go  into  here;  enough  to  say  that  when  a  deer  kicks  you  in  the  stomach,  there  are  probably  things  you   could  do  that  would  promote  a  faster  return  to  health  than  attaching  a  high-­‐pressure  airvalve  to  your   wound  and  inflating  your  torso.     That's  the  real  problem  –  not  that  CSI  has  exhausted  all  possible  causes  of  death  proffered  by  the  modern   world;  rather  that,  leechlike,  they  have  sucked  all  the  blood  out  of  sentient  humanity.  They're  left  with  a   ragtag  of  characters  so  improbably  reckless  that  the  mystery  is  not  how  they  died,  but  how  they  managed   to  survive  so  long.       ©  2013  Guardian  News  and  Media  Limited  or  its  affiliated  companies.  All  rights  reserved.     12  
  • 13. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience     Series  12:  Episode  1:  73  seconds   Ted  Danson  joins  the  cast  as  the  team's  new  boss  DB  Russell,  whose  first  job  is  to  investigate  a  shootout   on  a  tram  that  left  two  dead  and  three  injured.  The  only  physically  unhurt  passenger  is  a  boy  who  is  too   traumatised  to  speak  about  the  incident,  leaving  investigators  struggling  to  determine  what  he  saw  -­‐   until  Russell  finds  a  way  to  get  through  to  him.  Meanwhile,  Sara  and  Greg  are  puzzled  by  a  case  in  which  a   young  man's  corpse  appears  to  have  the  skin  of  a  much  older  person,  and  Ecklie's  estranged  daughter   Morgan  Brody  (Elisabeth  Harnois)  joins  the  team.           13  
  • 14. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience     Representational issues Police, investigators, criminals Stereotypes? How does editing allow the audience to have particular perceptions of characters? Ideologies – of America, of crime Key narrative features – binary opposites, action and enigma codes Audience appeal – link to codes and conventions and ideologies   14  
  • 15. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience   Series  12  –  1.73  Seconds   Task  –  Complete  the  boxes,  following  the  sequence  of  the  episode     Narrative order – Recount the order of the story Enigmas present – list the enigmas in the programme Mise-en-scene – colours used, locations, set style, characters behaviour and dress CSI shots and reconstructions – CGI scenes, what-if? Reconstructions (visual recounts of unseen story)   15  
  • 16. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience       In  pairs,  consider  the  episode  in  relation  to  the  following  issues:   Character  representation  and  appeal:                                 How  could  you  apply  Uses  &  Gratifications  theory  to  the  show?  Give  specific  examples  to  back  up  your   points.                       Representational  issues  –  the  role  of  the  police  and  the  CSI  team  –  representations  of  criminals  -­‐  what  is   stereotypical  and  what  challenges  assumptions  about  characters?                   Contextual  issues:  Research  shows  the  average  American  crime  drama  shows  18  counts  of  violence  in  1   hour  episode.  One  of  the  criticisms  of  crime  dramas  is  that  they  make  the  audience  anxious  about  crime   itself.     George  Gerbner’s  research  on  cultivation  effects  claims  crime  shows  create  a  ‘scary  world’,  making  the   viewer  think  the  real  world  outside  is  as  scary.     Richard  Sparks  says  the  opposite  view  in  his  book  Television  and  the  Drama  of  Crime,  arguing  that   because  in  the  crime  shows,  the  crime  is  solved,  we  are  being  exploited  through  our  fears  for   entertainment  and  are  ultimately  reassured  because  the  crimes  are  solved  and  we,  the  public,  are  safe   again.         16  
  • 17. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience   CSI:  Series  12,  Episode  2  Tell-­‐Tale  Hearts     Learning  objectives:     Ø Ø To be able to analyse and explore the genre links in CSI and how these are constructed for the audience. To identify the typicality of the show and audience appeal.   The murder of a family on an eco-friendly housing estate initially seems to be a straightforward case when the evidence points to a neighbour, who quickly confesses. However, a woman then walks into the precinct and admits carrying out the killings - but her testimony leads the investigators to another potential suspect, who also claims to be the sole culprit. As Russell, Willows and the team try to make sense of what is happening, they begin to realise all three of the supposed perpetrators might be hiding something. Crime drama, starring Ted Danson and Marg Helgenberger, with Amy Davidson (8 Simple Rules).           17  
  • 18. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience     Representational issues Police, investigators, criminals Stereotypes? How does editing allow the audience to have particular perceptions of characters? Ideologies – of America, of crime Key narrative features – binary opposites, action and enigma codes Audience appeal – link to codes and conventions and ideologies   18  
  • 19. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience     Series  12  –  Tell-­‐Tale  Hearts   Task  –  Complete  the  boxes,  following  the  sequence  of  the  episode     Narrative order – Recount the order of the story Enigmas present – list the enigmas in the programme Mise-en-scene – colours used, locations, set style, characters behaviour and dress CSI shots and reconstructions – CGI scenes, what-if? Reconstructions (visual recounts of unseen story)   19  
  • 20. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience       Learning  objectives:     Ø To  identify  audience  appeal  and  pleasure  in  watching  CSI   Ø To  link  typical  ideologies  associated  with  the  crime  genre  to  CSI     Starter:  Recap  on  the  narrative  structure  of  the  viewed  episode,  Tell-­‐Tale  Hearts                 Task:  To  link  genre  and  the  crime  show  to  CSI  and  then  consider  how  CSI  can  be  appealing  to  the   audience.     Work  in  pairs,  and  feedback  responses.  Each  person  to  fill  in  one  of  the  following  and  then  share  with   your  partner.     Audience responses Uses and Gratifications Textual evidence Encoding/Decoding: Preferred, negotiated & oppositional readings of characters, America, the role of police and forensic officers     20  
  • 21. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience     Genre  links:   Look  at  the  features  of  the  cop  genre  sheet.   What  typical  features  of  the  genre  are  evident  in  the  episode?             Representations  of  key  forensic  team:   Narrative  features:  Think  about  Todorov     and  the  disruptions  to  the  narrative  &  the     final  resolution.                                                     Representations  of  criminals               21  
  • 22. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience   Pick  a  scene  from  the  episode  and  in  bullet  points,  explain  how  the  scene  typifies  the  genre  and  what   appeal  does  it  have  for  the  audience?     •     •     •     •     •     •                 22  
  • 23. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience     Learning  Objectives:     To  consider  the  promotional  material  for  Five  and  CSI   To  analyse  the  impact  of  globalisation  on  television   To  consider  the  ideologies  transmitted  about  America   Marketing  and  promotion  of  CSI     Starter:  CSI  and  its  spin  offs  are  watched  in  over  200  countries  with  a  combined  audience  of  2   billion  people.     Recap:  Do  you  know  what  cultural  imperialism  is?  How  can  it  be  applied  to  CSI?                                 The  CSI  franchise  is  so  popular  that  it  has  had  a  huge  cultural  impact  on  audiences  worldwide.  Because  of   the  escapist  nature  of  the  shows,  the  programmes  have  been  criticised  for  creating  unrealistic   expectations  of  forensic  investigation  –  referred  to  as  the  CSI  effect.  This  has  had  an  impact  in  real-­‐life   jury  situations  where  the  jurors  have  unrealistic  expectations  on  forensic  evidence  and  the  role  of   investigators.   Interestingly,  so  apparently  convincing  is  the  programme’s  depiction  of  the  capabilities  of   forensics  that  it  has  been  credited  as  having  impacted  on  ‘real  life’  perceptions  of  court  cases,  as   witnessed  by  the  emergence  of  the  so-­‐called  ‘CSI  Effect’.  In  a  cover  story  taken  from  USA  Today  in  2004,   according  to  legal  analysts  in  the  US,  ‘the  CSI  effect  points  to  how  the  massive  popularity  of  CSI  and   comparable  generic  programmes  such  as  Law  &  Order  is  “affecting  action  in  courthouses  across  the   United  States  by  …raising  jurors’  expectations  of  what  prosecutors  should  produce  at  trial…Jurors  who   are  regular  viewers  expect  testable  evidence  to  be  present  at  all  crime  scenes”,  thus  making  it  harder  to   secure  convictions  in  the  very  many  cases  where  such  evidence  doesn’t  exist.  (Body  Matters,  from   Reading  CSI)   How  can  this  be  used  in  an  audience  response  question?                                 23  
  • 24. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience   From  The  Guardian,  by  David  Stubbs,   2010     CSI  has  gripping  whodunnit  plotlines,   innovative  CGI  and  an  adventurous   soundtrack  .  .  .  what's  not  to  enjoy?     This  week  the  three  CSI  (Crime  Scene   Investigation)  series  will  be  linked  in  a  trilogy  of   episodes.  CSI:  Las  Vegas's  Laurence  Fishburne   stars  as  Dr  Raymond  Langston,  who  travels  to  Miami  and  New  York  to  hook  up  with  the  stars  of  the  two   spin-­‐offs.  So  CSI  New  York's  Detective  Mac  Taylor  (Gary  Sinise)  and  Miami's  Lieutenant  Horatio  Caine   (David  Caruso)  will  be  on  hand  to  help  solve  a  series  of  interlinked  crimes.     It  will  be  a  unique  chance  for  CSI  novices  to  see  the  juxtaposition  of  the  three  CSI  leads.  There's   the  professorial  Langston,  Taylor,  whose  fierce  devotion  to  duty  is  fuelled  by  the  loss  of  his  wife  in  9/11,   and  Caine,  whose  habit  of  hitching  his  sunglasses  and  delivering  deadpan  one-­‐liners  has  attracted   devotion  and  derision  in  equal  measure.     The  secret  to  watching  CSI  is  to  take  it  for  what  it  is  and  enjoy.  Hill  Street  Blues  it  ain't.  The  main   characters  have  intriguing,  turbulent  back  stories  and  occasional  departmental  romances  blossom   between  the  photogenic  investigators,  but  it's  the  whodunnit  plotlines  that  grip  the  attention.  These  are   routinely  outlandish  –  a  Hollywood  star  murdered  while  partying  with  groupies,  a  mystery  involving  the   mass  suicide  of  a  UFO  cult,  a  half-­‐  naked  woman  found  buried  in  the  desert  with  her  hair  and  right  hand   missing.  The  Wire  it  ain't  either.  There's  no  more  attempt  to  depict  the  sociology  of  crime  than  in  a   Cluedo  set.  And,  happily  for  the  newcomer,  episodes  are  mostly  self-­‐contained,  requiring  little  previous   knowledge  of  character  or  situation.  You  can  leap  straight  in.  No  need  to  know  the  minor  characters.     What  CSI  does  so  well  is  to  combine  the  old-­‐school  values  of  dedicated  crimefighting  with  a  new   school  of  state  of  the  art  televisual  language,  including  reconstructions  and  CGI.  Those  with  a  weak   stomach  be  warned,  there  are  grisly  scenes  on  the  mortuary  slab  and  graphic  anatomical  detail,  but  it's   surprising  how  aesthetically  pleasing  an  internal  organ  impacted  by  a  bullet  can  be  on  screen.  CSI  is  TV   eye-­‐candy  at  its  finest,  occasionally  bordering  on  avant  garde  (as  in  the  episode  of  CSI:  Las  Vegas  in   which  a  group  of  corpses  strike  up  a  conversation  in  a  morgue).     Look  out  for  the  real-­‐life  city  backdrops  used  to  phantasmic  effect  –  New  York  is  as  a  Gotham-­‐like,   gritty  dystopia,  Miami  a  high-­‐end,  Versace-­‐styled  beach  paradise  fatally  riven  by  vice,  Vegas  a  mirage  of   glamour  beneath  which  moral  squalor  constantly  lurks.  As  for  the  interior  scenes,  you  do  wonder  if  they   are  on  a  lightbulb  economy  drive  and  the  initial  temptation  might  be  to  reach  for  the  brightness  control.   But  don't  be  fazed  –  this  is  key  to  the  atmosphere,  if  not  exactly  realistic.  Finally,  check  the  admirably   adventurous  soundtrack.  Radiohead,  Mogwai,  Rammstein  and  Antony  &  The  Johnsons  have  all  featured,   adding  a  sombre,  musically  erudite,  high  gloss  to  what  is,  in  essence,  hi-­‐tech  Miss  Marple.         24  
  • 25. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience     Recreating  the  brand  –  the  CSI  spin-­‐offs  –  New  York  and  Miami   Look  at  the  clips  from  both  CSI  Miami  and  CSI  New  York.  Identify  similarities  and  differences  with  the   original  CSI.   Similarities in MES and visuals Differences CSI Miami CSI New York CSI Las Vegas                         25  
  • 26. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience   Marketing  of  CSI     Look  at  the  websites  for  CSI  and  its  spin  offs,  both  the  Channel  5  website  in  the  UK  and  the  official   CBS  site.       Consider  how  the  sites  are  interactive.  Give  examples.  What  makes  the  show  appealing  to  the   target  audiences  (again  give  examples  and  explain  who  you  think  the  target  audience  is).                                         BARB  viewing  figures     Using  the  BARB  website,  note  down  the  viewing  figures  for  CSI,  series  12  on  Five.  Why  is  this  so   important  to  Five?     Viewing  figures  for  Series  12  –  Episode  1:  1.73  seconds             Episode  2:  Tell-­‐Tale  Hearts               Series  average:         Over  the  course  of  the  series  and  the  22  episodes,  how  many  are  in  the  Five’s  top  ten  for  that   week?         26  
  • 27. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience     Look  at  the  trailers  for  CSI  on  Five,  what  intertextual  references  are  there  relating  to  the  lead  actor,  Ted   Danson?                     http://www.channel5.com/shows/csi-­‐crime-­‐scene-­‐investigation/clips/season-­‐12-­‐promo-­‐csi-­‐has-­‐a-­‐new-­‐ guy                                 Critical  reception  to  CSI:                                                 27  
  • 28. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience                                       Spin  off  merchandise     In  spring  2008,  Gameloft  and  CBS  released  "CSI:  Crime  Scene   Investigation  –  The  Mobile  Game"  which  is  based  on  the  original   series  in  Las  Vegas,  NV.  This  game  introduces  the  unique  ability  to   receive  calls  during  the  game  to  provide  tips  and  clues  about  crime   scenes  and  evidence.  As  for  the  storyline,  the  game  developers   collaborated  with  Anthony  E.  Zuiker  (the  series  creator)  to  ensure   that  the  plot  and  dialogue  were  aligned  with  the  show's  style.[79]   True  Stories  of  CSI:  The  Real  Crimes  Behind  the  Best  Episodes   of  the  Popular  TV  Show  (published  08/09)  –  Katherine  Ramsland   follows  the  evidence  and  revisits  some  of  the  most  absorbing   episodes  of  the  phenomenally  popular  C.S.I.  television  franchise,  and   explores  the  real-­‐life  crimes  that  inspired  them.  She  also  looks  into  the  authenticity  of  the  forensic   investigations  recreated  for  the  dramatizations,  and  the  painstaking  real-­‐life  forensic  process  employed   in  every  one  of  the  actual  cases—from  notorious  mass-­‐murderer  Richard  Speck,  through  the  massacre  of   Buddhist  monks  in  an  Arizona  Temple,  to  a  baffling  case  of  apparent  spontaneous  combustion.   In  2003,  comic  book  publisher  IDW  Publishing  began  releasing  a  series  of  one-­‐shots  &  miniseries   based  on  all  3  CSI  series,  with  the  majority  being  based  on  the  original  Vegas-­‐based  series.   In  September  2009,  Tokyopop  released  a  manga  version  of  CSI  written  by  Sekou  Hamilton  and   drawn  by  Steven  Cummings.  It  centres  around  five  teenagers  working  at  the  Las  Vegas  Crime  Lab  as   interns  as  they  try  to  solve  a  murder  case  of  a  student  at  their  high  school,  which  leads  to  a  shocking   discovery.  Grissom  and  Catherine  are  seen  now  and  then,  as  well  as  some  of  the  other  CSI  characters.       28  
  • 29. MS4:  Text,  Industry  &  Audience   Task:  Go  online  and  search  out  as  many  spin-­‐off  products  and  websites  you  can  –  how  interactive   with  the  audience  has  CSI  become?                             29  

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