SoftwareJackson Doughty, Nyan Min, and Seth Willis S
What is Software?S “Software is the layer between user input and the hardware tat allows the computer function” S Karl Nasrallah
ApplicationsS Word processingS Desktop publishingS Presentations,S Photo and video editingS Music and sound developmentS Website development
Word ProcessingS Meant for the production of any type of printable material. Production includes creating, editing, and formattingS Originally a stand alone machine popular in 70s and 80s. this means that the machines sole purpose was to be a word processor. this machine had a monochrome monitor:S The way the process works is that the combination of the keyboard entry with an electric typewriter processor to edit words, then are able to print them, and then later could save it to a type of memory card.S By pressing a button on the keyboard the data is sent to the CPU where it is then processed and displayed as the letter on the screen.
70’s and 80’s Word Processor http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IBM_PC_5150.jpg
Desktop PublishingS The production of printed matter by means of a printer linked to a desktop computer.S basic ability to publish(print) data from a computer through special software. This software is used to read the data, in particular from a word processor, in order to tell a printer what to print.
Presentation SoftwareS consist of multiple "slides in order to display information on a form of timelineS start as a blank template that you can edit using image and photo editing, as well as input data through a word- processor
Photo & Video EditingS Image editing is the process of altering images. the three main types of editing are vector graphics editing, raster graphics editing, and 3D modeling. these three tools are used to manipulate, transform, and enhance pictures.S These tools can also be used to create graphic picturesS Video editing is a process of editing segments of motion video production footage.S It can also relate to the after effects of video. once a video project is done, you can take the editing a step further with special effectsS Original forms of video editing began with non-linear editing system where in order to get through to different points of video you must play through them allS Modern day incudes linear editing system which displays a timeline of the video in order for a user to be able to go directly to where the user needs to in order to edit
Music and Sound DevelopmentS An electrical recreation of sound waves from voice, instruments, etc.S Done in analog and digital recordingsS Originally done by Thomas Edison who used a Phonograph which had a needle that would scratch into a tinfoil cylinder that reproduced the sound. This is because sound is simply made by vibrations so the vibrations were mimicked on the cylinder.S Edisons phonograph is recording an analog wave which is the vibrations recreated by voiceS To goal of recording is to reproduce the sound of the wave with as high fidelity(sameness) as original, and equal reproduction each time you listen to itS Modern digital technology transforms the analog wave into a stream of numbers and then returns the numbers to an analog wave when listened to
Website DevelopmentS Websites are built using different coding, and templates built from coding.S The original coding for websites was XML, which was a basic language used to display text on a site, this langauge was progressed into other languages with more abilities such as HTMLS Example of HTML: <html> <head><title>Books</title><head> this is displayed as "Books”S HTML- versus XML: HTML is meant to add style to the information of the site, where as XML is just focusing on the data.S HTML has many new "tags" example: <title>S HTML 5 is the most up to date coding that is used on the World Wide Web, meant to be able to understand all multimedia on the web while also being able to be understood by computers and humans
System SoftwareS Includes: S Operating Systems S Utilities
Operating SystemsS without operating systems a computer is useless, it is the very first thing loaded to a computerS OSs use the hardware and software togetherS Their goals are: serve a variety of purposes, interact with users in more complicated ways, keep up with needs that change over timeS Written in temporary/changeable coding in order to allow for modifications such as system updatesS Operating systems manage which programs get access to central processing unit (CPU), memory(RAM), storage and input/output (I/O) bandwidthS Operating Systems are written by developers with a consistent Application Program Interface(API) so that they will perform the same on all different computers including updated versions of it.
Types of OS’sS Real time Operating System S very limited user interface, usually used to operate machineryS Single User, Single Task S Single user that can only perform one task at a time, in present day time this could be an example of cell phones. it has no multitaskingS Multi-user S several users can use the computers resources simultaneouslyS Single user, multi tasking S Most common OSs, three main types are Windows, Mac OS, and Linux S Began as a blank canvas that was able to be modified by a mouse. All began with applications which were basic applications S Advanced to use of "folders" and basic styles S Then later in Windows XP, Mac OS X, and Linux 2.0 each operating system becomes more independent both in looks, user-interface, and strengths and weaknesses
OS’s ContinuedS Windows S overall more powerful, meant most for business(Microsoft Office, typically more RAM and faster CPU)S Mac OS X S very strong with multimedia(iTunes, iLife)S Linux S runs on a variety of computers and has no viruses
InterfacesS Graphical user interface (GUI)S Command line interface (CLI)S Menu-driven interface (MDI)S Voice
Graphical User Interface (GUI)S Layer above the actual operating system that users useS User using a mouse to scroll over and click on a folder to open it is an example of GUIS Instead of using text commands to open the folder, the user is using the interface to open it.
Command Line Interface (CLI)S Exact opposite of GUI. It uses a text based interface in order to perform tasks on the computer.S The user "enters a command" into the prompt then initiates by pressing the Enter key. then a command line interpreter receives, analyzes, and executes the command. The result is usually a text response of what the command wanted.S CLI is often found as an application within a Operating System that uses GUI examples are Terminal for Mac and Command Prompt for Windows
Menu Driven Interface (MDI)S Way of working through information on a computer through categorizations or menus.S Example is an Ipod. a user picks whether he wants to view playlist, all albums, all artists etc. Then he chooses which playlist, or song, or album, and finally chooses a song.
VoiceS Voice user interface is made possible by a voice recognition platform on the Operating system or applicationS Using an application interpret words through understanding the analog waves of a persons voice the computer can determine what the person is saying, and can fulfill the command.S Siri is an example of this, the new Iphone ios5 has an app called Siri which through the process of the analog waves of a humans voice can decipher what the user wants to be done.
LicensingS Includes S Shareware S Public domain S Freeware S Proprietary S Open source software
SharewareS Free software which is typically in a trial or demo version; also typically limited in its abilitiesS Licensed to users as a demo under certain restrictions such as the user cannot further distribute, reverse engineer, or modify it
Public DomainS Public property over the internet if there are no current claims of intellectual property meaning it does not belong to one personS Public domain is software that any can use for free, and is no ones intellectual property
FreewareS Free software sometimes with an optional fee which may have one or more restrictions.S Free license to use the product
ProprietaryS Purchased software that has a license agreement with the user that is typically not negotiableS Covered by copyright so that the User is limited in what it can do with the softwareS Copyright and patents mean that the software is owned by someone, but by selling the software allow you to use it. an example is that the encoding of MP3 files is patented, but many people and softwares use the file.
Open Source SoftwareS Exact opposite in that a developer can release his software to others who can then improve it, redistribute it, or learn how it was made by looking/changing the source code of it.
Licensing AuthoritiesS Business Software Alliance (BSA) S Principal Activity is to stop copyright infringement of software produced by its member S Most common type of license included with software for single-user license would be called an end-user license agreement (EULA) S And with this agreement includes conditions specified for users
Commercial and Custom-built (bespoke) SoftwareS Made for specified users and organizationsS Can be developed by an in-house software development group or commissioned from a software house or independent software developersS Since custom built for customers it can accommodate customers specified preferences and expectationsS As opposed to Commercial software buying packaged software, some organizations write their own applications.S The advantage of custom software is that it matches the organizations needs by exactly what it needs.S However Custom Software is usually more expensive, takes longer to design and enact than commercial software.
Registration & Serial NumberS Protection is provided automatically for all creative works once fixed into a mediumS Copyright is a legal concept, giving the creator of an original work, exclusive rights to it for a limited time
Warranty & Copyright AgreementS Serial Number: A unique number assigned for identification varying from its successor and predecessorS Warranty: Is assurance by one stakeholder to another stakeholder that specific facts are true; and the other stakeholder are allowed to rely on the assurance, and seek some type of help to fix the problem.
Web-based SoftwareS Software that implements application on-line.S Also known as A Web ApplicationS There are many types of web applications: business, spreadsheet, multimedia, web-page authority, legal software
MacrosS Sequence of keystrokes and instructios that a user records and savesS Includes keyboard and mouse, text substitution, procedural, and lisp/s-expressionS Users can create macros in whatever software their using
TemplatesS Document that contains the formatting necessary for a specific document typeS Usually for memos, fax cover sheets, and lettersS They can also be online (Google docs)
WizardsS User interface that gives the user a sequence of stepsS Also known as a set-up assistantS Used for tasks that are intricate, rare, or unfamiliar
File FormatsS Particular way information is encoded in a fileS Can either be proprietary (intellectual property of a person/organization) or open (can be used by anyone)
Types of File FormatsS RTF: rich text format;S TXT: textS PDF: portable document formatS XLS: Excel spreadsheetS SWF: small web formatS ZIP: zipped fileS JPG/JPEG: Joint Photographic Expert Group bitmapS PNG: portable network graphics bitmapS CSV: comma-separated valuesS HTM/HTML: hypertext markup language
Data TransferS Physical transfer of data over a point-to-point or point-to- multipoint channelS Also known as data transmissionS Can be from software to software(s), computer to computer(s), or from Internet to computerS Measured in bits per second
Types of Data TransfersS Tab-delimited text fileS Zipped fileS ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) S Represents text in computers and communication equipment