Unit 2 review h key
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Unit 2 review h key Unit 2 review h key Document Transcript

  • Name Date Period __ Chemistry Unit 2 Review-Matter and EnergyI. Vocabulary_______Matter____________ 1. Anything that has mass and takes up space is called__law of conservation of mass 2. The law that states that matter cannot be created or destroyed in an ordinary chemical reaction.__Physical Properties____ 3. Characteristics of matter that can be described without changing the chemical composition.__Extensive_________________ 4. A physical property of matter that is not dependent upon the particular sample of that type of matter.__Intensive____________________ 5. A physical property of matter that changes with different samples of that matter.__Chemical Properties ___ 6. Characteristics of matter that describes how a substance reacts or doesn’t react to other substances.__Kinetic Theory_________ 7. Theory that states all matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion.__Potential Energy_______ 8. Energy based on the position or condition of the matter.__Kinetic Energy_________ 9. Energy due to the motion of matter.__Plasma_________________ 10. State of matter made of electrically charged atoms with large amounts of energy.__Pure Substance_________ 11. Classification of matter that consist of elements and compounds.__Compounds______________ 12. Atoms of two or more elements, chemically bound in a definite ratio.__Mixtures_______________ 13. Atoms of two or more elements, physically combined in no definite ratio.__Element________________ 14. Matter made of only one type of atom.__Homogeneous____________ 15. A mixture that is the same throughout. (A solution.)__Heterogeneous__________ 16. A mixture that is different throughout.__Solution_______________ 17. A solute dissolved in a solvent.__Electrolyte solution___ 18. A solution that conducts electricity.__Saturated______________ 19. A solution that contains all the solute that it can hold at a given temperature.__Supersaturated________ 20. A solution that temporarily holds more solute than it should be able to at a given temperature.II. Types of Mixtures – Identify each as a Solution, a Suspension or a Colloid._Sus_ 1. Particles are large enough to be seen with the naked eye._Sol_ 2. Particles dissolve._Coll 3. Particles are too small to be seen, but can scatter light._Sol 4. Particles are too small to scatter light._Sus__ 5. Particles will separate out of the mixture by filtering.
  • Name Date Period __III. Potential or Kinetic Energy – Label each as PE or KE._PE____ 1. Determined by space between particles._KE___ 2. Determined by the speed (motion) of the particles._KE____ 3. An increase in this energy causes temperature to rise.__PE___ 4. An increase in this energy causes phase changes.IV. Phases of Matter Particle Particle Amount of Keep Keep Phase diagram Movement PE & KE Volume? Shape? Vibrational Low Y Y Solid Translational Moderate Y N Liquid Vibrational Translational High N N GasV. Short Answer1. At the particle level, what happens when a substance dissolves?Solvent molecules surround solute molecules as they align to their alternate charge and dislodge the solute particles2. Why is boiling point an intensive property?It is dependant on the sample of matter, not how much of the sample is present.3. Will salt dissolve in oil? Why or why not?No, salt is an ionic particle with strong charges holding each particle together. Oil is non polar and has no definitive charge tobreak the ionic bonds of the salt. Like dissolves like.4. Why doesn’t temperature change during a phase change?At a phase change the distance between molecules increases due to thermal expansion. Once the space between moleculesbecomes sufficient for the atoms to collide into each other Kinetic Energy takes over.5. What factors influence the rate that a solute will dissolve in a solvent?Agitation, Temperature, strength of solvent/solute.VI. Classification of Matter – Write E for element, C for compound, HE for heterogeneous mixture or HO for homogeneous mixture.__C___ 1. Sodium chloride __E__ 7. Oxygen___HO_ 2. Whole milk __Ho_ 8. Air__HE__ 3. Beach sand __E__ 9. Helium__HE__ 4. Apple __Ho_ 10. Salt water__C__ 5. Sugar __E__ 11. Liquid mercury___E_ 6. Uranium __He_ 12. AsphaltVII. Identify each of the following as a physical (P) or a chemical (C) property or change.
  • Name Date Period __ P 1. Grinding something into a powder. C 6. Acid and base react to form salt and water. P 2. Boiling water. P 7. Size. C 3. Burning when exposed to oxygen. P 8. Sublimating dry ice. C 4. Insoluble in water. P 9. Magnetizing iron. P 5. Dissolving salt. P 10. Painting a fence. VIII. Phase Changes – Name each of the following phase changes. __Melting________________ 1. A solid changing into a liquid. __Sublimation____________ 2. A solid changing directly into a gas. __Evaporation____________ 3. A liquid changing into a gas at room temperature on the surface. __Freezing______________ 4. A liquid changing into a solid. __Boiling________________ 5. A liquid changing into a gas within the liquid with the addition of heat. __Condensation___________ 6. A gas changing into a liquid. __Deposition____________ 7. A gas changing directly into a solid. *** Label each of the phase changes as endothermic or exothermic. *** IX. Phase Change Graphs Temperature vs time 90 80 I 70 J 60Temperature oC 50 H 40 30 20 G 10 F 0 -10 Time (min) _FHJ_ 1. Which line segments show heat changing into kinetic energy?
  • Name Date Period ___GI__ 2. Which line segments show heat changing into potential energy?_F___ 3. Which line segment shows matter in all solid phase? Which line segment shows matter in all liquid phase? _H___ Which line segment shows matter in all gas phase? J_GI__ 4. Which line segments show phase changes?_FHJ_ 5. Which line segments represent the particles of matter gaining speed?_GI__ 6. Which line segments represent the particles of matter moving farther apart?_I___ 7. What is the boiling point temperature of this substance? What is the melting point temperature? _G___ What would be the freezing point temperature? G_J___ 8. Which line segment represents matter with the maximum amount of kinetic energy? Which line segment represents matter with the maximum amount of potential energy? IX. Heat Problems – Solve the following problems. Begin by writing the proper equation, show all work for full credit and reportanswers with units and proper number of sig figs.Specific HeatsAluminum: 0.897 J/goCCopper: 0.387 J/goCWater: 4.184 J/goCIron: 0.449 J/goC 1. How much heat is needed to warm 50.0g of ice at -20.0oC to 0oC and melt it completely?q=mCΔTq= 50 (4.184) 20q=4184 J A 100.0g sample of matter cools off and loses 464.0J of energy. If the temperature decreases from 22.0oC to 10.0oC, 2. what is the specific heat of the substance? *Identify the substance.*C=q/(mΔT)C= 464 / 1200C= 0.387 J/goC XI. Solubility- use the table below to answer the questions. 1 a. At 90°C, 10 g of potassium chlorate is dissolved in 100. g of water. Is this solution saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated? Unsaturated b. How do you know? Below the line 2.A saturated solution of potassium chlorate is dissolved in 100. g of water. If the saturated solution is cooled from 90°C to 60°C, how many grams of precipitate will be formed? 45-25 = 20g