Final Review
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Final Review Presentation Transcript

  • 1. What is the pH of the following concentrations?
    • 1.0 E -9
    • 2.4 E -3
    • 6.7 E -7
    • 4.4 E -5
      • Classify each as Acid or Base
  • 2. Stoichiometry I didn’t know there would be math in Chemistry class!
  • 3. Avogadro’s Number
    • Suppose you have a sample of an element and the mass of the sample is equal to the atomic mass of the element
      • AKA: Avogadro’s Number (6.02 x 10 23 )
    • Avogadro’s number of particles is called a mole of particles
    • Def: Mole - SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance and is based off the number if particles in 12g of Carbon-12
  • 4. What it is used to convert to
  • 5. Examples
    • Moles to Number of Particles
      • Find the number of molecules that are in 2.25 moles of Bromine (Br 2 )?
      • Calculate the number of molecules in 15.7 mol CO 2
      • Calculate the number of molecules in 0.0544 mol of H 2 O
      • Calculate the number of moles in 9.22 x 10 23 atom Fe
  • 6. Mass to moles examples
    • Molar mass= Grams/1 mol
        • Calculate the mass of 6.89 mole Sb
        • A chemist needs 0.07 mol Se for a reaction. What mass of Se should the chemist use?
        • A sample of S has a mass of 223g. How many moles of S are in the sample?
  • 7. Examples- Mass to No. of Particles
    • Calculate the number of atoms in 2.00g of platinum.
      • g  mol  atoms
    • How many sulfur atoms are in a metric ton (1 E 6 g) of sulfur
      • g  mol  atoms
    • How many grams of Hg are in 1.19 E 23 atoms of Hg
      • Atoms  mol  grams
  • 8. Avogadro’s Principle
    • equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of particles
    • molar volume – 1 mole of any gas at STP occupies 22.4 L
  • 9.
    • STP – standard temperature pressure is:
    • 0.00 ºC
    • 1.0 atm of pressure
    • 1 mole 22.4 L
    • 22.4 L 1 mole
    • * Conversion factors for relating moles to volume
    OR
  • 10. Molarity (M)
    • the number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution
    • M = moles of solute
    • L of solution
  • 11. Measure mass of solute (convert it to moles ) Use a volumetric flask to bring it to 1.0 L of solution
  • 12. Percent Composition
    • percent by mass of any element in a compound
    • mass of element x 100 = percent composition
    • mass of compound
  • 13.
    • What is the percent composition of water?
    • H 2 O
    • % H = 2.016 g H X 100 = 11.2 % H
    • 18.016 g H 2 O
    • % O = 15.99 g 0 X 100 = 88.8 % O
    • 18.016 g H 2 O
  • 14. What is Stoichiometry
    • Def: the study of quantitative relationships between amount of reactants used and products formed by a chemical reaction
    • Based on the Law of Conservation of Mass
      • Remember… What goes in to a reaction must come out!
  • 15. 2Na + Cl 2  2NaCl
    • Use what you know about the LCM to answer the following
      • How much sodium is needed to produce a certain amount of table salt?
      • How much chlorine is needed to produce a certain amount of table salt?
      • Given a certain amount of sodium or chlorine, how much table sale can be produced?
  • 16. 4NH 3 + 5 O 2  4NO + 6H 2 O
    • Coefficients represent both the numbers of particle and the numbers of moles interacting in the chemical reaction.
    • 4 molecules NH 3 + 5 molecules O 2  4 molecules NO + 6 molecules H 2 O
    • OR
    • 4 moles NH 3 + 5 molesO 2  4 moles NO + 6 moles H 2 O
  • 17. 4NH 3 + 5 O 2  4NO + 6H 2 O
    • Use this to find the mass of each reactant and product.
      • 4 mol NH 3 (17.03g / 1 mol NH 3 ) = 68.12 g NH 3
      • Molar Mass
    • Do this for the remaining reactants and products
      • Add the masses for the reactants and compare that to the masses of the products
  • 18. Practice Problems Find the molar mass of each. Remember to balance first!
    • H 2 O 2  O 2 + H 2 O
    • H 2 CO 3  H 2 O + CO 2
    • HCl + O 2  H 2 O + Cl 2
  • 19. Stoichiometric Calculations
    • Mole-to-mole
    • Mole-to-mass
    • Mass-to-mass
  • 20. Mole-to-mole
    • How can you determine the number of moles of table salt (NaCl) produced from 0.02 moles of chlorine (Cl 2 )?
      • 2Na + Cl 2  2NaCl
    • Use the mole ratio to convert the known number of moles of chlorine to the number of moles of table salt.
      • 0.02 mol Cl 2 (2 mol NaCl / 1 mol Cl 2 )
      • = 0.04 mol NaCl
  • 21. Try this…
    • A piece of Magnesium burns in the presents of oxygen, forming magnesium oxide (MgO). How many moles of oxygen are needed to produce 12 moles of magnesium oxide.
  • 22. Mole to mass
    • The following reaction occurs in plant photosynthesis.
      • 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2
    • How many grams of glucose are produced when 24 moles of carbon dioxide react in excess water?
    • mol CO 2  mol C 6 H 12 O 2
    • 24 mol CO 2 (1 mol C 6 H 12 O 2 / 6 mol CO 2 ) = 4 mol C 6 H 12 O 2
    • mol C 6 H 12 O 2  gram C 6 H 12 O 2
    • 4 mol C 6 H 12 O 2 (180.18 g C 6 H 12 O 2 / 1 mol C 6 H 12 O 2 ) = 721 g C 6 H 12 O 2
  • 23. Try this…
    • Calculate the mass of NaCl produced when 5.50 mol of Na reacts in excess Cl 2 .
  • 24. Mass to mass
    • How many grams of NaOH are needed to completely reacts with 50.0 g of Sulfuric acid to form Sodium Sulfate and water
    • 2NaOH + H 2 SO 4  Na 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O
    • Grams of H 2 SO 4  moles of NaOH
    • 50g H 2 SO 4 (1 mol H2SO4 / 98.09g H 2 SO 4 ) (2 mol NaOH / 1 mol H 2 SO 4 )
    • = 1.02 mol NaOH
    • Moles NaOH  grams of NaOH
    • 1.02 mol NaOH (40g NaOH / 1 mol NaOH)
    • = 40.8 g NaOH
  • 25. Try this…
    • If 40g of Mg reacts with excess HCl, how many grams of MgCl 2 are produced?
    • Mg + 2HCl  MgCl 2 + H 2
    • Grams Mg  moles MgCl 2
    • 40g Mg (1 mol Mg / 24.305 g Mg) (1 mol MgCl 2 / 1 mol Mg)
    • =1.65 mol MgCl 2
    • Moles MgCl 2  grams MgCl 2
    • 1.65 mol MgCl 2 (95.211 g MgCl 2 / 1 mol MgCl 2 )
    • =157.1 g MgCl 2