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Chemical reactions

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  • 1. Chemical Reactions
  • 2. Chemical reaction
    • a chemical change
    • bonds of reactants are broken and bonds of product are formed
    • reactants products
    • (yield or make)
  • 3.
    • when some chemicals come into contact with each other, they break apart, join, or rearrange to form new chemicals ( always to become more stable)
  • 4. Evidence of Chemical Rxn
    • change in color (unexpected)
    • change in temperature
    • change in smell
    • change in taste
    • formation of a precipitate (appears cloudy)
    • production of a gas (bubbles)
    • production of heat, light, sound
  • 5. Chemical equations
    • shorthand representations of chemical reactions
    • H 2 + O 2 H 2 O
    • ( skeleton equation )
  • 6. Parts of a chemical equation . . .
    • Reactants the elements or compounds that enter into a reaction
    • Products are the elements or compounds that are formed as a result of a chemical reaction
    • Arrow means yields, produces or forms
    • reactants products
    • yield
  • 7. Formula Equation
    • 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O (l)
    • includes states of matter
      • (s) – solid
      • (l) – liquid
      • (g) – gas
      • (aq) – aqueous
    • chemical equation must be balanced
  • 8. Word equation
    • hydrogen gas and oxygen gas form liquid water
    • 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O (l)
  • 9. Types of Chemical Reactions
    • Synthesis
    • Decomposition
    • Double Replacement
    • Single Replacement
    • Combustion
  • 10. 1. Synthesis
    • A + B AB
    • two or more substances react to form a single product
    • example :
      • 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O (l)
  • 11. 2. Decomposition
    • AB A + B
    • a single compound breaks down into two or more substance
    • example :
      • 2 H 2 O (l) 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g)
  • 12. 3. Single Replacement
    • A + BC AC + B
    • the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound
    • example :
    • Zn (s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Cu (s)
  • 13. 4. Double Replacement
    • AB + CD AD + CB
    • metal cations exchange position between two compounds (dissolved in water)
    • example :
    • AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (aq) + NaNO 3 (aq)
  • 14. 5. Combustion
    • reactant(s) + O 2 product(s)
    • oxygen combines with a substance and releases energy (heat & light)
    • example :
    • CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (l)
  • 15. What is the purpose of balancing chemical equations?
    • The Law of Conservation of Mass states that matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction. Therefore, when writing a chemical equation, the reactants must be equal to the products. So you must add any necessary coefficients to show that matter is conserved.
  • 16. METAL ACTIVITY SERIES
    • During a Single Replacement reaction, a metal will not always replace another metal. This is because metals differ in their reactivities.
    MOST ACTIVE Fr Li Rb K Ca Na Mg Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb Cu Ag Pt Au LEAST ACTIVE
  • 17.
    • For example : Francium (Fr) is the most active metal on the table. It will replace (or kick out) any other metal.
      • NOTE : it’s the highest on the Activity Series list.
    • So in the reaction below, the Fr metal with replace the Fe in the iron (II) chloride, resulting in pure iron metal as a product.
    • 2 Fr + FeCl 2 2 FrCl + Fe
  • 18. A Metal Activity Series helps you determine if a reaction will occur.
    • Au + FeCl 2 no reaction
    • * gold is one of the least active metals, so it will not be able to replace (kick out) the iron metal, and the reaction will not take place.
  • 19.
    • 2 Al + 3 FeCl 2 2 AlCl 3 + 3 Fe
    • * Al is more reactive than iron, so it will replace (kick out) the iron metal, and the reaction will take place.
  • 20. Write out and balance the following
    • Sulfur solid reacts with iron solid to form solid iron(III) sulfide.
  • 21. Magnesium metal reacts with hydrochloric acid to form magnesium chloride solution and hydrogen gas.
  • 22. Oxygen gas reacts with solid copper metal to form copper(II) oxide solid.
  • 23. Oxygen gas reacts with hydrogen gas to form liquid water.
  • 24. Hydrogen gas and aluminum chloride solution are produced when solid aluminum is reacted with hydrochloric acid.
  • 25. Answer Key
    • 3S (s) + 2Fe(s)------> Fe 2 S 3 (s)
    • Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)------> MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g)
    • O 2 (g) + 2Cu(s)------> 2CuO(s)
    • 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g)------> 2H 2 O(l)
    • 2Al(s) + 6HCl(aq)------> 3H 2 (g) + 2AlCl 3 (aq)
  • 26. Try the following Write out the formula and balance.
    • Dinitrogen pentoxide gas in the presence of a platinum catalyst and high enough temperature forms nitrogen gas and oxygen gas.
    • Sulfur solid reacts with iron solid to form solid iron(III) sulfide.
    • Hydrogen gas and iron(III) oxide powder react to form liquid water and solid iron powder.
    • Magnesium metal reacts with hydrochloric acid to form magnesium chloride solution and hydrogen gas.
    • Magnesium sulfide solid and hydrochloric acid react to form hydrogen sulfide gas and magnesium chloride solution.
  • 27. Key
    • 2N 2 O 5 (g)------> 2N 2 (g) + 5O 2 (g)
    • 3S (s) + 2Fe(s)------> Fe 2 S 3 (s)
    • 3H 2 (g) + Fe 2 O 3 (s)------> 3H 2 O(l) +2Fe(s)
    • Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)------> MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g)
    • MgS(s) + 2HCl(aq)------> MgCl 2 (aq)+ H 2 S(g)
  • 28. Finding Formula Mass
    • H 3 PO 4
    • AlCl 3
    • K 2 C 4 H 4 O 6
    • N 2 O 5
    • K 3 SO 4
    • Nd 2 O 3

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