Name ________________________________________ Date ____________________ PAGE 1
Activity Series
Pre-Lab Discussion
Chemical...
Name ________________________________________ Date ____________________ PAGE 2
Procedure
Record all observations in the ta...
Observations
Metal HCl Ca2+
Mg2+
Zn2+
Fe2+
Fe3+
Al3+
Cu2+
Cu
Al
Fe
Zn
Mg
Ca
Questions (These should be answered in complete sentences here in the space provided or on your own paper.)
1. Which of th...
4. Place the 6 metals in their proper location on the periodic table below. Explain how the trend of metallic
character is...
4. Place the 6 metals in their proper location on the periodic table below. Explain how the trend of metallic
character is...
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Activity serieslab[1]

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Activity serieslab[1]

  1. 1. Name ________________________________________ Date ____________________ PAGE 1 Activity Series Pre-Lab Discussion Chemical elements are generally classified by their properties into three groups, called the metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. The vast majority of the known chemical elements are metals. Metals tend to be good conductors of heat and electricity. The also generally are shiny (high luster), are malleable (can be pounded flat without shattering), and ductile (can be drawn out into a very thin wire). With the exception of mercury, the metals are all solids at room temperature. The elements are found to the right and below the “stair-step” generally drawn on periodic tables starting between Boron and Aluminum, and working down to between Polonium and Astatine. Families, or groups, of elements consist of elements with similar chemical properties. These similar chemical properties are caused by similar outer shell (valence) electron configurations. On the periodic table, they are placed together in vertical columns. So, elements in a vertical column together on the periodic table have similar outer shell electron configurations. Many of the groups on the periodic table have names. These are: Group 1: called the alkali metals because they react with oxygen to form bases Group 2: called the alkaline earth metals because their presence can make soils basic (alkaline) Groups 3-12: called the transition metals because they span the transition from metals to nonmetals Group 15: called the pnictides, from the Greek word meaning choking suffocation Group 16: called the chalcogens, from the Greek word meaning ore-former Group 17: called the halogens, from the Greek cord meaning salt-former Group 18: called the noble gases because they were thought to be unreactive Purpose To become familiar with the relative activities of metals in chemical reactions. Equipment small test tubes test tube rack well plate Materials 6 M HCl 0.2 M Ca(NO3)2 (labeled Ca2+ ) 0.2 M Mg(NO3)2 (labeled Mg2+ ) 0.2 M Zn(NO3)2 (labeled Zn2+ ) 0.2 M Fe(NO3)3 (labeled Fe3+ ) 0.2 M FeSO4 (labeled Fe2+ ) 0.2 M AlCl3 (labeled Al3+ ) 0.5 M Cu(NO3)2 (labeled Cu2+ ) Small pieces of copper, aluminum, iron, zinc, magnesium and calcium metals Safety Since you will be using potentially hazardous materials, the Maryland state law requiring students to wear safety goggles will be in effect, so they must be worn. Lab aprons are available for use should you wish to wear one. Handle all glassware with care, especially test tubes as they are fragile and easily broken.
  2. 2. Name ________________________________________ Date ____________________ PAGE 2 Procedure Record all observations in the table provided below on the next page. It is not necessary to rewrite these observations in complete sentences. (“N. R.” means that no reaction occurs). For each reaction, write down any noticeable changes that occur - color change, heat produced, precipitate forming, odor produced, etc. Let a test tube sit for at least 5 minutes - and remember to tap test tubes to dislodge small bubbles on the surface of a metal that might not be otherwise noticed - before you declare a “no reaction”. 1. Obtain a test tube rack and six test tubes. Fill the test tubes about 1/4 to 1/3 full with 6 M HCl solution. 2. Place a single small piece of copper metal into the first test tube. Observe for any changes. If the reaction is slow, you may proceed to step 3 while you are waiting. 3. Repeat step 2 with the remaining test tubes, testing small pieces of Aluminum metal, iron metal, zinc metal, magnesium metal, and calcium metal. Record your observations in the table (page 3). 4. Once your observations are complete, empty the six test tubes into the waste beaker provided by your teacher. Place the empty test tubes into the bin of soapy water. 5. Obtain a well plate. Fill each of 6 wells about 1/3 to 1/2 full with solutions from the beakers at your lab station labeled, in order: Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Zn2+ , Fe2+ , Fe3+ , and Al3+ . 6. Place a single small piece of copper metal into each of 6 wells from step 5. Observe for any changes. If the reaction is slow, you may proceed to the remaining steps while you are waiting. 7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 with six new wells, using aluminum metal in solutions of Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Zn2+ , Fe2+ , Fe3+ , and Cu2+ . 8. Repeat steps 5 and 6 with six new wells, using iron metal in solutions of Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Zn2+ , Fe3+ , Al3+ , and Cu2+ . 9. Empty your well plate into the waste beaker. Rinse the wells and empty the rinse water into the waste beaker. Thoroughly wash the wells, scrubbing each well with a test tube brush. Dry well plate. 10. Repeat steps 5 and 6 with six new wells, using zinc metal in solutions of Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Fe2+ , Fe3+ , Al3+ , and Cu2+ . 11. Repeat steps 5 and 6 with six new wells, using magnesium metal in solutions of Ca2+ , Zn2+ , Fe2+ , Fe3+ , Al3+ , and Cu2+ . 12. Repeat steps 5 and 6 with six new wells, using calcium metal in solutions of Mg2+ , Zn2+ , Fe2+ , Fe3+ , Al3+ and Cu2+ . 13. When your observations are complete, repeat step 9.
  3. 3. Observations Metal HCl Ca2+ Mg2+ Zn2+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Al3+ Cu2+ Cu Al Fe Zn Mg Ca
  4. 4. Questions (These should be answered in complete sentences here in the space provided or on your own paper.) 1. Which of the six metals in your observations chart (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca, or Al) would you expect to be the most reactive? Why did you choose this metal as your answer? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Which metal ion is more reactive: Fe2+ or Fe3+ ? What makes this ion more reactive? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Rank the six metals from your observation chart (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca, and Al) in order from most reactive to least reactive. This question does not need to be answered in complete sentences. most reactive least reactive 1. _______ 2. _______ 3. _______ 4. _______ 5. _______ 6. _______
  5. 5. 4. Place the 6 metals in their proper location on the periodic table below. Explain how the trend of metallic character is arranged on the periodic table. Do any of the metals not fit this trend? Explain.
  6. 6. 4. Place the 6 metals in their proper location on the periodic table below. Explain how the trend of metallic character is arranged on the periodic table. Do any of the metals not fit this trend? Explain.

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