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Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
Acid base notes
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Acid base notes

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  • 1. Chemistry Unit 7 Acids and Bases
  • 2. Acids
    • An acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce hydrogen ions (H + )
    • The strength of an acid depends on how completely the substance ionizes. Strong acids completely ionize in water. Weak acids ionize only slightly.
  • 3. Base
    • A base is a substance that ionizes in water to produce hydroxide ions (OH - )
    • The strength of a base depends on how completely the substance ionizes into metal ions and hydroxide ions in water. Strong bases ionize completely. Weak bases do not.
  • 4. Basic Acidic Neutral H+ H+ H+ OH- OH- OH- Solution Solution Solution Which solution is Acidic? Basic? Neutral???
  • 5. Acids and Bases
    • Produce H+ ions in water
    • Have a sour taste
    • Break down metals
    • Formula starts with H
    • Poisonous and corrosive to skin
    • pH less than 7
    • Produce OH- ions in water
    • Have a bitter taste and a slippery feel
    • Break down fats and oils
    • Formula ends with OH
    • Poisonous and corrosive to skin
    • pH greater than 7
  • 6. Acids and Bases
    • ACIDS
    • Examples: vinegar, lemon juice, aspirin, stomach acid, battery acid, cola, milk
    • BASES
    • Examples: soap, shampoo, ammonia, drain cleaner, antacids
  • 7. Neutral Substances
    • pH = 7
    • Safe to ingest and leave on skin
    • Concentrations of H + ions and OH - ions are equal
    • Examples: dH2O, salts, most cosmetics, lotions, eye drops, etc.
  • 8. Neutralization Reactions
    • When an acid is added to a base, the end products are always salt and water. (neutral)
    • A salt is defined as the neutral end product of an acid/base reaction.
    • ACID + BASE  SALT + WATER
    • H 2 S + Ca(OH) 2  CaS + H 2 O
    • What is wrong with this equation???
  • 9. Balance the final equation!
    • H 2 S + Ca(OH) 2  CaS + H 2 O
    • 1 Ca 1
    • 1 S 1
    • 4 H 2
    • 2 O 1
    • H 2 S + Ca(OH) 2  CaS + 2 H 2 O
  • 10. Neutralization Reactions
    • Try another example:
    • Acid + Base  Salt + Water
    • H 2 SO 4 + NaOH  Na 2 SO 4 + H 2 O
    • 1 Na 2
    • 1 SO 4 1
    • 3 H 2
    • 1 O 1
    • H 2 SO 4 + 2 NaOH  Na 2 SO 4 + 2 H 2 O
  • 11. Take it one step further…
    • Sulfurous acid and sodium hydroxide yields sodium sulfite and water.
    • H 2 SO 3 + NaOH  Na 2 SO 3 + H 2 O
    • 1 Na 2
    • 1 SO 3 1
    • 3 H 2
    • 1 O 1
    • H 2 SO 3 + 2NaOH  Na 2 SO 3 + 2H 2 O
  • 12. One Last Step
    • Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide yields what???
    • HCl + NaOH 
    • One product will always be water.
    • HCl + NaOH  H 2 O +
    • The other product will be the + ion of the base bonded with the – ion of the acid.
    • HCl + NaOH  H 2 O + NaCl
  • 13. pH Scale
    • pH – a number used to denote the hydrogen ion concentration, or acididty, of a solution
    • pH Scale Typically runs from 0 – 14
    • 0 7 14
    Acidic Basic Neutral
  • 14. pH Indicators
    • A chemical substance that changes color in the presence of an acid and/or a base.
    • pH paper – Dip the paper, match color to scale on vial to determine numeric pH.
    • pH<7 = acid, pH>7 = base, pH = 7 neutral
    • 2) Litmus – Dip one red and one blue paper.
    • Red stays red, blue turns red  Acid
    • Blue stays blue, red turns blue  Base
    • Red stays red, blue stays blue  Neutral
  • 15. pH Indicators
    • Bromthymol Blue – Add a few drops of bromthymol blue to the substance.
    • If the blue color turns to yellow  Acid
    • If the blue color stays blue  Base
    • Phenolphthalein – Add a few drops of phenolphthalein to the substance.
    • If the clear liquid turns to pink  Base
    • If the clear liquid remains clear  Acid

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