“A basic rule of motivation is that no two people are motivatedexactly alike. A wise administrator, therefore, will be abl...
Table of Contents1.   Three Common Models of Motivation2.   Theory X and Y3.   Needs Theories4. Constructive Discipline5. ...
Known as the carrot-stick system.Developed during the 1930’s.Management treated workers as                                ...
Theory X and Theory YThe differences in the motivational models can be illustrated by the  Theory X and Theory Y which was...
Hierarchy of Human NeedsAbraham Maslow, developed this theory.                                                         In ...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Believed that man was motivated to achieve each of these   needs and once one set of needs w...
Different Ideas from Other Theorist1. David McClelland- ACHIEVEMENT  AND AFFLIATION2. Alfred Adler- NEED FOR POWER3. B.F. ...
David McClelland-     ACHIEVEMENT AND AFFLIATION        ACHIEVEMENT                               AFFLIATION1.   Reasoned ...
Alfred Adler:                  NEED FOR POWERHad a different theory entirely1.  Believed that mankind was motivated by a N...
B.F. Skinner-CONTINGENCIES OF REINFORCEMENT1.     Felt that all living being-including animals-are directed and       moti...
Extrinsic Motivation and Intrinsic               Reinforcement Both are effective in directing workers behavior. Positiv...
Constructive DisciplineThere comes a time when an individuals job performancedoes not measure up to a standard and an inte...
Keys to Constructive Discipline1.   Must be able to “read” the individual’s personality in     order to decide what action...
Negative MotivationIs motivation by removing something that the subject considers to be    unpleasant.Negative implies sub...
PunishmentDenotes a plus or minus-adding something unpleasant or subtracting something  pleasant. A leading proponent of b...
Proper Uses of Disciplinary Techniques               With AdultsNegative reinforcement or punishment should be applied onl...
Application Procedures1.   Choosing the right time- act sooner rather than later.2.   Be Specific- be careful to not “tar ...
Harry LevinsonHe wrote a timely article entitled “Getting Past the Bad News” in the Management Review Journal.Levinson adv...
Dismissal Procedure An extremely poor or incompetent teacher should never be  kept on the staff of a school simple becaus...
Making the Decision….Decisions for dismiss should not be made quickly.A tentative decision not to rehire a first year teac...
Questions the Courts May Ask During a                 Hearing Was procedural due process used? Is the evidence appropria...
Procedures Employees must be informed that they have the opportunity for  and the right to a hearing. The hearing time, d...
Questions?
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What Motivates Employees?

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  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • McGregor was not alone in his theory of motivation. Other theorists had different ideas. Three of these theorists developed what they called NEED THEORIES of human motivation. “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • Evidence that the teacher received specific notice of inadequacy and was offered help is important. (Ubban, 2001)“Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • “Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership in the Schools, John A Kaufhold
  • What Motivates Employees?

    1. 1. “A basic rule of motivation is that no two people are motivatedexactly alike. A wise administrator, therefore, will be able to matchthe correct motivational style to the situation and the individual.“Pearson Custom: EDUCATION: Power, Politics, and Leadership inthe Schools, John A Kaufhold Created by: Jennifer Croymans Strategic Leadership MELS 618
    2. 2. Table of Contents1. Three Common Models of Motivation2. Theory X and Y3. Needs Theories4. Constructive Discipline5. Proper Uses of Discipline Techniques With Adults6. Dismissal Procedure
    3. 3. Known as the carrot-stick system.Developed during the 1930’s.Management treated workers as Developed during the Industrialcomplete human beings and not Revolution.just mindless drones. Impersonal and dominated TraditionalWorkers are made to feel that they completely by management.were useful and appreciated. Model Managements role is toWorkers are allowed to participate prod, threaten or otherwise coercein planning and to make decisions workers to do their jobs underabout their jobs.Understanding and compassion penalty of dismissal.replaced threats and coercion and Motivation given to workers was thegroup incentives were used to wages they received or the forfeiturefoster teamwork. of wages if they were fired. Models of Motivation Human Human Relations Resources Model Model Emerged during the 1960’s. Evolved from the human relations models. Considered human relations model to be manipulative. Allows people to meet their PERSONAL GOALs. Offered the idea that everyone is motivated differently and each person has special talents and resources. This model is best described by the Theory X and Theory Y.
    4. 4. Theory X and Theory YThe differences in the motivational models can be illustrated by the Theory X and Theory Y which was developed by Douglass McGregor. • Most workers have a negative disposition about work and will try to avoid it when possible.Theory • Most workers are not especially intelligent, and therefore, a manager can easily lead them. X • Most workers must be forced and then they must be closely supervised. • Most workers want to be directed by someone in authority because this alleviates responsibility for making decisions. • Most workers view work as a natural activity; any negative views about work areTheory attributed to past experiences and not to innate characteristics. • Most workers can be highly committed to organizational objectives if they are Y motivated and rewarded properly. • Most workers accept responsibility if conditions in the organization are favorable.
    5. 5. Hierarchy of Human NeedsAbraham Maslow, developed this theory. In ascending order and also in order of importance. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LjArLRXMH58&feature=related
    6. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Believed that man was motivated to achieve each of these needs and once one set of needs was met, he moved to the next level.  The top level was self-actualization or fulfillment of oneself.  Maslow felt that man was driven by a COGNITIVE NEED or a “need to Know” as an ASTHETIC NEED which was a desire to move toward beauty and away form ugliness.Maslow leans toward intrinsic motivation with a Theory Y mode.
    7. 7. Different Ideas from Other Theorist1. David McClelland- ACHIEVEMENT AND AFFLIATION2. Alfred Adler- NEED FOR POWER3. B.F. Skinner- CONTINGENCIES OF REINFORCEMENT
    8. 8. David McClelland- ACHIEVEMENT AND AFFLIATION ACHIEVEMENT AFFLIATION1. Reasoned that people were 2. Reasoned that people also had a motivated be a need for need for affiliation. achievement.  People have a strong desire for His idea was that all human approval and reassurance. beings had an innate need to  People will conform to the wishes achieve. (They have a need to be and norms of those they trust and challenged, to solve problems, to value take risks and to be autonomous  Workers need supportive and get feedback. feedback instead of mere task- Felt that humans could not accept related feedback boredom or routine tasks. McClelland leans toward intrinsic motivation with a Theory Y mode.
    9. 9. Alfred Adler: NEED FOR POWERHad a different theory entirely1. Believed that mankind was motivated by a NEED FOR POWER.2. The guest for power was behind all human activity.3. People have an instinctive need to influence others, control their environment and to try to lead those around them.4. People have a quest to try to talk others into their beliefs, to give opinions and to gain personal power.This personal power orientation is by some followed with an institutional power orientation. Believed that humans are motivated extrinsically. Behavior is controlled and motivated by those in authority. This is largely a theory X philosophy.
    10. 10. B.F. Skinner-CONTINGENCIES OF REINFORCEMENT1. Felt that all living being-including animals-are directed and motivated by CONTINGENCIES OR REINFORCEMENT.Using experiments with rats and pigeons, he proved that the behavior of living beings could be controlled by controlling the reinforcement.2. People can be directed to achieve any behavior toward a positive consequence and away from a negative consequence.3. Leaders must provide consequences that were positive to the individual at appropriate behavioral intervals.4. Motivation is a task of supplying the proper reinforcement for the desired behavior. Believed that humans are motivated extrinsically. Behavior is controlled and motivated by those in authority. This is largely a theory X philosophy.
    11. 11. Extrinsic Motivation and Intrinsic Reinforcement Both are effective in directing workers behavior. Positive and Negative reinforcement can be used to successfully direct behavior. It is believed that intrinsic motivation is more permanent and is more satisfying to the individual. Intrinsic motivation cannot be controlled by outside force and can only be fostered under the best of circumstances. The supervisor must determine which type of motivation is best for the circumstances.
    12. 12. Constructive DisciplineThere comes a time when an individuals job performancedoes not measure up to a standard and an intervention bythe leader or supervisor is necessary.This must be done with a good deal of skill, otherwise, thesituation could escalate to the point where nothing can besalvaged in the relationship between the supervisor, theworker and the organization.It is important to remember that there is no one best way tomotivate all employees, there is no best way to disciplinepeople either.
    13. 13. Keys to Constructive Discipline1. Must be able to “read” the individual’s personality in order to decide what action is best to take.This “action” will necessarily take two forms: negative motivation or punishment.The wise leader or principal should use great caution, therefore, when employing these tactics.
    14. 14. Negative MotivationIs motivation by removing something that the subject considers to be unpleasant.Negative implies subtracting something that the individual dislikes.Examples:The presence of officers of the law who hide in “speed traps” In order to avoid getting a ticket, the driver must keep a constant vigil on their speed.In a school setting, a principal may use negative motivation by offering to remove lengthy after school meetings in exchange for compliance with desired behaviors.
    15. 15. PunishmentDenotes a plus or minus-adding something unpleasant or subtracting something pleasant. A leading proponent of behavioral psychology B.F. Skinner, noted that punishment is a highly efficient way of motivating individuals.His research with animal behavior, revealed that most organisms human or animal- when given a choice will gravitate toward what is considered to be pleasant and will avoid what is unpleasant.Skinner noted that while punishment as well as negative motivation might be effective in deterring undesirable behavior, it also carries undesirable side effects and must be used with great care and only after other forms of motivation have been tried and have failed.Examples:A costly fine to drivers who break the law and speed. A result of this type of punishment is that people might develop unpleasant feelings about police officers and the duties they are called upon to perform in regulating traffic.In a school setting, this could consist of adding a few more rules of behavior that teachers find unpleasant (such as signing in each morning before they report to class) or by subtracting something pleasant (such as the freedom to leave the school to perform short personal errands).
    16. 16. Proper Uses of Disciplinary Techniques With AdultsNegative reinforcement or punishment should be applied only when other measures have been tried first.Punishment may show one what NOT to do it does very little to direct them in what TO DO.Something CONSTRUCTIVE should come out of any disciplinary situations that arises. The management of personnel is what separates the outstanding leaders from the mediocre ones.It takes skill, patience, experience and a thorough study of human nature.
    17. 17. Application Procedures1. Choosing the right time- act sooner rather than later.2. Be Specific- be careful to not “tar everyone with the same brush”- this technique can only have the effect of causing frustration as well as bitterness in those who are performing up to par.3. Containing the emotional level- speak softly in direct proportion to the loudness of the other person.4. Focusing on performance- focus on the performance task and not on attacking someone’s personality.5. Keeping it Private- do not discipline in a public place or a hallway, this can only serve to embarrass a person and will not lead to fostering any sort of corrective behavior.6. Explaining the “big picture”- People do not like to be kept in the dark and compliance is easier to achieve if it can be shown how the improper behavior affects the entire organization.7. Avoiding generalities- provide statements in the lines of “Your progress reports have been consistently late and this reflects on your entire department”. This is much more to the point and illustrates the correct behavior to be preformed.
    18. 18. Harry LevinsonHe wrote a timely article entitled “Getting Past the Bad News” in the Management Review Journal.Levinson advised:1. Don’t be apologetic- don’t apol0gize for facing the facts or making tough decisions. Remember, you will never make everyone happy.2. Be honest- Be direct, be firm and lead people to re-direct themselves voluntarily.3. Be constructive- Talk the problem through with the employee and solicit his or her suggestions for improvements.
    19. 19. Dismissal Procedure An extremely poor or incompetent teacher should never be kept on the staff of a school simple because dismissal is difficult. The law establishes definite rights for employer and employee. Procedural due process is guaranteed but due process does not mean that teachers cannot be dismissed. “What is does mean is that teachers have specific rights, such as the right to a hearing, the right to be treated in a fair and nondiscriminatory fashion, and the right to require that just cause be shown for dismissal.” (Ubban, 2001)
    20. 20. Making the Decision….Decisions for dismiss should not be made quickly.A tentative decision not to rehire a first year teacher for the following year should be contemplated three or four months before the deadline.For a tenure teacher, often two or three years are needed to build a case defensible in court.
    21. 21. Questions the Courts May Ask During a Hearing Was procedural due process used? Is the evidence appropriate and supportive of the case? Was the employee discriminated against? Were efforts made to help the employee? Did the employee have prior knowledge that his or her work was unsatisfactory? Was the employee provided time and opportunity to improve or correct whatever deficiencies existed? Was anything done to or for this employee that was not done or available to other employees? Was the assignment fair? Was supervision uniform? Was the teacher asked to do more or less than the rest of the staff?
    22. 22. Procedures Employees must be informed that they have the opportunity for and the right to a hearing. The hearing time, date and place should be stated in the letter. All evidence should be firsthand, factual and documented accurately with appropriate dates. Finally, the courts will want to know what was done to make the teacher an effective employee. Was adequate supervision of a helping nature developed? Was adequate time give for the improvement effort? (Ubban, 2001) If these procedures are not followed, the courts may not uphold the dismissal action and reinstate the employee with the suggestion that the supervisory staff provide continuous assistance. Most cases resulting in a failure to dismiss are caused by poor preparation and improper procedure on the part of the school district.
    23. 23. Questions?

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