Ip basics


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  • Key to this statement is “the right to exclude others”. Which is not necessarily the right to make, use, or sell your invention yourself.
  • These fees change often. Please check the current fee schedule on the website: www.uspto.gov for more current information.
  • Example of a color mark.
  • Ip basics

    1. 1. Intellectual Property Basics <ul><li>Jon R. Cavicchi, J.D., LL.M. (IP) </li></ul><ul><li>Professor & Intellectual Property Librarian </li></ul>
    2. 2. Intellectual Property <ul><li>property (as an idea, invention, or process) that derives from the work of the mind or intellect </li></ul><ul><li>Merriam-Webster Online </li></ul>
    3. 3. Types of Intellectual Property Protection <ul><li>Patents </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Secrets </li></ul><ul><li>Trademarks </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul>
    4. 4. Patents <ul><li>A Patent is a property right granted by the U.S. Government to an inventor. </li></ul><ul><li>In exchange for the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling the invention for a limited time, the inventor must publicly disclose all knowledge related to the invention. </li></ul>
    5. 5. 3 Types of Patents <ul><li>UTILITY : any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most common type of patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when patents are discussed, it usually means a utility patent </li></ul></ul>223,898 468,226
    6. 6. 3 Types of Patents <ul><li>DESIGN : a new, original, and ornamental design for an article of manufacture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protects the appearance of the product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a D precedes the patent number </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PLANT : any asexually reproduced distinct and new variety of plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a PP precedes the patent number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed patents include color photographs, database does not </li></ul></ul>D551,680 PP82
    7. 7. Conditions required for Patentability: <ul><li>Useful – the invention must have a function </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty – there must be no previous patent or mention in any publication (“prior art”) </li></ul><ul><li>Nonobviousness – the invention must not be easily apparent to someone “skilled in the art” </li></ul><ul><li>Full Disclosure </li></ul>
    8. 8. What cannot be patented: <ul><li>Perpetual motion machines </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Natural and physical processes, scientific truths, mathematical expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions in which public disclosure would be detrimental to national security </li></ul>
    9. 9. Small Entity Status Discount <ul><li>Any independent inventor, small business, or nonprofit organization can claim small entity status and receive a 50% discount on patent fees. </li></ul>
    10. 10. How much will it cost? (Small Entities – Utility Patent) <ul><li>Filing fee: $75 (electronic), $155 (paper) </li></ul><ul><li>Search Fee: $255 </li></ul><ul><li>Examination Fee: $105 </li></ul><ul><li>Issue Fee: $720 </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Fees: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.5 years: $465 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7.5 years: $1180 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11.5 years: $1955 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total: $4755, $4835 ( at minimum ) </li></ul>Due at Filing
    11. 11. TRADE SECRETS <ul><li>An inventor is not required to obtain a patent. They may choose that the benefits of keeping the invention secret outweigh the benefits of a patent. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Advantages of Trade Secrets <ul><li>property of its owner as long as it remains secret; patents have a limited term (the oldest known trade secret has been kept since 1623) </li></ul><ul><li>can be exploited on a global basis, patents are only valid in the country in which they were obtained </li></ul>
    13. 13. Disadvantages of Trade Secrets <ul><li>once they become public, the owner has limited legal remedies to prevent others from making, selling, or using the invention </li></ul><ul><li>owner takes on the responsibility of protecting it and preventing its disclosure, which may cost a lot of money </li></ul>
    14. 14. Trademarks <ul><li>A trademark is a word, name, symbol, or device that is used in trade with goods to indicate the source of the goods and to distinguish them from the goods of others. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Trademarks can be: <ul><li>Word Marks </li></ul><ul><li>Hershey’s </li></ul><ul><li>“ Can you hear me now? Good.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Voldemort </li></ul>
    16. 16. Trademarks can be: <ul><li>Symbols or Designs </li></ul>
    17. 17. Trademarks can be: <ul><li>These types are rare: </li></ul><ul><li>Color Marks : brown for delivery vehicles (UPS), pink for fiberglass insulation (Owens-Corning) </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration Marks : shape of Pizza Hut buildings, Mrs. Butterworth’s bottle, USPS mailbox </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Marks : NBC chimes, MGM lion roar, duck quacking AFLAC </li></ul>
    18. 18. What can Brown do for you? Registration # 2649286
    19. 19. Geographical Indicators <ul><li>Geographical Indicators have recently become regulated as intellectual property around the world. GIs are associated with the reputation or characteristics of a region. </li></ul>
    20. 20. 3 Levels of Trademark Protection <ul><ul><li>Common Law (™): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No registration or fees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights result from use of the mark with the product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Registration (™): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Registration and small fee (varies by state) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection varies by state, protection only within the state </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. 3 Levels of Trademark Protection <ul><li>Federal Registration ( ® ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive fees ($375/325/275) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must use or have a genuine intent-to-use the mark in interstate commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presumption of ownership nationwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademark lasts indefinitely as long as renewal fees are paid and mark still in use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be deposited with U.S. Customs to prevent importation of goods infringing mark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owner may use the ® symbol only after the mark has been fully registered with the USPTO </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. A few reasons a trademark application may be refused: <ul><li>“ Likelihood of confusion” with another trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Immoral or scandalous </li></ul><ul><li>Deceptive (e.g. misrepresents content or geographic region of product) </li></ul><ul><li>Disparages or falsely suggests a connection to a person, institution, belief, or national symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Mark protected by statute or convention </li></ul>
    23. 23. SAM <ul><li>Trademarks do not have to be exactly alike to be infringing. Are they similar in S ound, A ppearance, or M eaning? </li></ul><ul><li>Exactly the same marks can co-exist if their goods or services are not similar. </li></ul>Soap Chocolate
    24. 24. COPYRIGHT <ul><li>Copyright protects original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright protects the expression but not the ideas or facts expressed. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Copyrightable works include: <ul><li>literary works (books, magazines, web pages) </li></ul><ul><li>musical works (songs, musical plays) </li></ul><ul><li>dramatic works (plays, dramatic readings) </li></ul><ul><li>pantomimes and choreographic works </li></ul><ul><li>pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works (paintings, photographs, cartoon characters, maps, technical drawings, boat hull designs) </li></ul><ul><li>motion pictures and other audiovisual works (films, videos, slides) </li></ul><ul><li>sound recordings (discs, tapes, records) </li></ul><ul><li>architectural works (building design, blueprints) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Do I have to apply for copyright? <ul><li>As soon as the work is fixed in a tangible medium, copyright is in effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the © notice and registration with the U.S. Copyright Office are not required for copyright to apply. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Copyrights guarantees the following bundle of rights: <ul><li>Reproduce the work </li></ul><ul><li>Make adaptations or derivative works </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute copies of the work </li></ul><ul><li>Perform the work publicly </li></ul><ul><li>Display the work </li></ul><ul><li>These rights can be transferred individually or as a whole. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Conditions required to obtain copyright: <ul><li>Must be fixed in a tangible medium (book, web page, recording, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Must be original </li></ul><ul><li>There must be minimal creativity (e.g. telephone directories and lists of ingredients do not qualify) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Some items that cannot be copyrighted: <ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Government works – judicial opinions, statutes, Federal documents (some states claim copyright on their publications) </li></ul><ul><li>Titles, names, short phrases, slogans </li></ul><ul><li>Blank forms – order forms, address books, blank checks </li></ul>
    30. 30. Copyright Fees <ul><li>Basic registration fee (paper): $45 </li></ul><ul><li>Online registration fee (beta): $35 </li></ul>
    31. 31. FAIR USE <ul><li>Fair use is an exception to U.S. copyright law that allows limited use for research, education, criticism, news reporting, and parody. </li></ul>