2. Standards4c Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene, or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein. I understand that gene mutations do cause diabetes because it is the gene that helps regulate the reactivity of the immune system and later becomes a problem called type 1 diabetes.3a Students know how to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive). If family have the disease and you marry someone that has the disease the chances you baby will have a baby increase significantly up 50% chance.
3. What is diabetes? Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is classed as a metabolismdisorder. Metabolism refers to the way our bodies usedigested food for energy and growth. Most of what we eat isbroken down into glucose which is a form of sugar in theblood and the main source of fuel for our bodies. When ourfood is digested the glucose makes its way into ourbloodstream. However, glucose cannot enter our cellswithout insulin being present. Insulin is made in thepancreas and is released automatically after eating andmakes it possible for our cells to take in the glucose.
4. What Causes Diabetes? a A person with diabetes hascondition in which the quantity ofglucose in the blood is too elevatedwhich happens because the bodyeither does not produce enoughinsulin, produces no insulin, or hascells that do not respond properly tothe insulin the pancreas produces.This results in too much glucosebuilding up in the blood which iseventually passed out of the body inurine. So, even though the blood hasplenty of glucose, the cells are notgetting it.
5. Different types of diabetes/Type 1 Most people believe there are only two types of diabetes while in fact there are many here are the 4 most common: Diabetes type1, Diabetes type 2, Gestational diabetes , and (LADA) Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, but in rare cases can be diagnosed in middle aged adults. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. Around only 5% of people with diabetes have this type.
6. Diabetes Type2 Type 2 diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes,affecting 90% - 95% of the 21 million people with diabetes.Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2diabetes produce insulin; however they do not produceenough or the body cannot use the insulin adequately. Thisis called insulin resistance. There are many factors that cancause type two including diabetes type 2 including obesity,women who have had gestational diabetes, genetics,cholesterol, high blood pressure aging, people who smoke,have inactive lifestyles, or have certain dietary patterns.
7. Gestationaldiabetes pregnant and neverWoman who arehad any type of diabetes are said tohave gestational diabetes. It isestimated that gestational diabetesaffects 18% of pregnancies.Gestational diabetes starts when yourbody is not able to make and use allthe insulin it needs for pregnancy.Without enough insulin, glucosecannot leave the blood and bechanged to energy. Glucose builds upin the blood to high levels. Justbecause you have gestationaldiabetes doesnt mean you will havediabetes in the future you will justhave an increased chance.
8. (LADA ) (LADA) know as (latent autoimmunediabetes in adults), and even as type 1.5 diabetesbecause it has both characteristics of type 1 andtype diabetes. An estimated 10 percent of peoplewith diabetes have LADA, making it probablymore widespread than type 1.
9. What can we do to preventdiabetes? Diabetes type 2 and Gestational diabetes is the most preventable as it does not involve that many genetics but more lifestyle and physical traits. Its actually pretty simple eat healthy workout at least 1 hour a day and try to spend as much time outside as possible. Type 1 diabetes and LADA are not preventable and doctors don’t know if a patient well be affected for now.
10. What is the Treatment? Diabetes type 2 and all types of diabetes can be treated by living a healthy lifestyle, choices in diet, exercise, and not smoking or consuming alcohol. Some people may also need insulin after checking their blood sugar levels. Diabetes type 1 is treated the same except that u need insulin to survive without it death is likely to occur. With Gestational diabetes you do everything you do to treat type 2 except you have to be more careful so u wont arm your baby also you may need to take insulin if your blood sugar is to low. Lastly LADA, Treatment for LADA is different from treatment for Type 2 diabetes because the primary problem is insulin deficiency caused by failing beta cells rather than insulin resistance. So insulin will be need within 5-6 years for survival.
11. Symptoms and Signs. Symptoms for type 1 diabetes come really fast and are seen in early adolescence and childhood. These symptoms include things such as a virus or urinary tract infection or injury. The extra stress can cause diabetic ketoacidosis which can cause include nausea and vomiting Dehydration and often-serious disturbances in blood levels of potassium follow. Without any treatment it follows to comma and later death. All of times people have diabetes 2 with ought even knowing it some symptoms are Altered mental status, blurry vision, infections, poor wound healing, excessive eating and urinating, unexplained weight loss , and fatigue.
12. Symptoms and Signs part 2 In gestational diabetes symptoms include blurred vision, fatigue, frequent infections, including those of the bladder, vagina, and skin, increased thirst, increased urination, nausea and vomiting and weight loss in spite of increased appetite. LADA symptoms are the hardest to recognize because it is so often mistaken with type 2 diabetes. Those include tingling /numbness in feet and blurred vision.
13. The Genetics behind diabetes? Diabetes does indeed run inthe genes of your family butgenes alone arent enough totrigger diabetes of any type.Although if you or your familyhad diabetes you and yourchildren will have a higher riskof getting in in the future thanother people with ought familyhistory of diabetes. In type 1genes do play a part but not amajor one as what you wheregiven in your infancy factors likeif you where breastfed andgiven solid foods.
14. The Genetics behind diabetes?Continued…. In type 2 it involves a bigger role but lifestyle also hasa big part. If you have type 2 diabetes it is probablybecause of a family history and of your lifestyle.Gestational and LADA also involve genes but againother factors affect if you may get the disease. Inconclusion genes do play a part.
15. statistics Diabetes affects an estimated 23.6 million people in the US (90 percent to 95 percent have type 2 diabetes) - 17.9 million have been diagnosed, but 5.7 million are unaware they have the disease. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the American Diabetes Association, those affected include: 11.5 million US women (10.2 percent of all women age 20 years and older) 12 million US men (11.2 percent of all men age 20 years and older) 186,300 people under age 20 12.2 million adults over age 60 3.7 million African Americans (14.7 percent of all African Americans age 20 years and older) there own protection against certain diseases and weakness against others.
16. LinksAri S. Beckman,, D. Z. (2010, May 10). NY times. Retrieved from http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/diabetes/overview.html diabetes.about.com/od/symptomsdiagnosis/p/Symptoms.htmwww.medicinenet.com › ... › diabetes az list › diabetes mellitus indexMediLexicon International Ltd. (2011). Medical news today. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/diabetes/Robert Ferry Jr., MD, F. (n.d.). Diabetes mellitus. Retrieved from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/diabetes/article_em.htmLastGlaxoSmithKline. (2004, July 19). About type 2 diabetes. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.com/about-type-2-diabetes/about-type-2- diabetes.htmlwww.cdc.gov/diabetes(2006). type 2 diabetes. DOI: www.type2-diabetes-info.comliving with diebetes. (2011). Retrieved from www.diabetes.org/