The art of convincing  a  critical  audience
Objectives debating <ul><li>Increase argumentation skills </li></ul><ul><li>Improve critical thinking & listening </li></u...
Four basic elements Motion Time constraints Governmen & opposition Jury
Motion/proposition Defining, direction of the controversy Convince the jury to adopt the proposition There must be some Co...
Debating room set-up Chairman Judges Opposition Audience Government Timekeeper
Procedure <ul><ul><li>1. Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Government </li...
<ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion:  “The productivity should be increased” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whose...
JCI approach <ul><li>Determine the scope of the controversy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ France cannot wait any longer !”  </li...
Government The role you play is Determined by faith YOUR may need to put your personal opinion aside Define the motion Phr...
Opposition Follow the definition of the government Burden of refutation Not all black & white Pros & cons CAN agree on mul...
Time constraints End the debate discussion has to end some time doesn’t it ? Equal speech time for each team Articulate in...
Jury A jury adds the element of competition to  a debate the jury must remain impartial and objective at all times is this...
Principles of judging <ul><li>Each member of the jury has 1 vote:  </li></ul><ul><li>you will need to individually convinc...
How to evaluate a debate <ul><li>On Argumentation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content, logic, arguments </li></ul></ul></ul>...
How to judge ? <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasing of controversy  </li></ul><ul><li>logic,  </li></ul><ul><li>supp...
Customs part 1 Stand up while speaking Keep the relationship with the audience and jury going Welcome the audience Shake h...
Time out <ul><li>1 or 2 minutes of internal  consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Before one’s own speech </li></ul><ul><li>Time...
Not listening ? People listen to their favorite station:  WII FM What are you  talking about  Put out land-marks, make it ...
Make people listen Make contact & interact and stimulate  audience Maintain the relationship with the audience Keep eye co...
CAIS C ontact A ttention I nformation S ummary
Communication model Message Interpretation Emotion/Image Medium Decoding Receiver Transmitter Selecting Emotion/Image Codi...
Convincing: 3 approaches Ethos
Convincing: 3 approaches Ethos Pathos
Convincing: 3 approaches Ethos Pathos Logos
Convincing: 3 approaches Ethos Pathos Logos
Convincing: 3 weapons to use <ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>If the look can not convince...  </li></ul><ul><li>From resea...
Arguments perceived as strong referring to what the majority thinks SUPPORT with figures if you can... complex situation a...
Play to the gallery USE contrast,  make things  black & white Use triplets: “ Do not do it for me, but do it for yourself,...
Different kinds of arguments <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When company X did this, their revenue hit the roof </l...
Presentation style Gesticulate use non verbal communication Move away from the table maintain the relationship with the pe...
Style Involve audience Change the rhythm Use the power of silence Marshall  your arguments (put them in the right sequence...
Communication is... Voice Content Non-verbal
Exercise x minutes Interruption Stand up and Ask permission to speak Make your comment no longer then 15 sec Sit down agai...
Preparation Define the terms of the controversy phrase the debating proposition BRAINSTORMING find issues, arguments and e...
Preparation Assigns roles:  who will open, who will refute, who will conclude Think about an icebreaker or opener Think ab...
Presentation: voice & content Beginning Middle Conclusion Voice
Presentation: voice and content Beginning Voice Content Middle Conclusion
Avoid ToO many argument.  If the opponents can shoot more of three of them, the impression is that they have refuted every...
Claiming a statement to be true until the opposite has been proven Making a maze of the speech and arguments so that the a...
Refutations ? When do I refute ?  How many arguments must be refuted ? When is an argument refuted ? How Do I make it easy...
Role of the coach <ul><li>During the preparation and the time out, the coach  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>act as source of inspi...
How to refute ? <ul><ul><li>Well, should we do that ?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I fear that weeds will grow between the ...
Training Debating Carlo van Tichelen JCI Belgium - Gheel-en-Thals [email_address] skype : carlovantichelen with credit to ...
When to refute ? refutation Own argumentation refutation Own argumentation affirmative negative
Refutation <ul><li>Refute 2/3 arguments of the opposing party </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning of the argumentation </li...
Arguments & refutations
The competition <ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That part of the game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But once you’ve sta...
How to judge ? pros pros cons cons cons pros opening rebuttals conclusion Goal = evaluate the motion based upon presented ...
Quantyfing the evaluation <ul><li>On scale of 1 to 10 points ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does a score of “ 7” mean the same fo...
<ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Who wins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of votes is the most important of the criteria </l...
Exercise x’ Time out 3 speakers
Observe these numbers 12, 37, 45 43, 67 34, 54, 81
Proposition of Policy <ul><li>Change policy X in policy Y </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The affirmative (government)  </li></u...
Proposition of Value <ul><li>The  affirmative maintain that a certain belief or value is justified </li></ul><ul><li>Examp...
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JCI Debating - Speak on your feet

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An introduction to JCI Debating.

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  • Teacher I liked the presentation because explains how is a debate?, who participate and what does each one. Also talk about the attitude that you must have each participant according to their role in the debate. and how should be the preparation for it.
    I believe that the presentation contains all the information you need to have a good debate.

    Dueñas, Darlyn
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  • practical steps
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  • ¿Como ganar un debate?
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  • JCI Debating - Speak on your feet

    1. 1. The art of convincing a critical audience
    2. 2. Objectives debating <ul><li>Increase argumentation skills </li></ul><ul><li>Improve critical thinking & listening </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage effective speech composition and delivery </li></ul>
    3. 3. Four basic elements Motion Time constraints Governmen & opposition Jury
    4. 4. Motion/proposition Defining, direction of the controversy Convince the jury to adopt the proposition There must be some Controversy “ everybody has the right to carry a firearm”
    5. 5. Debating room set-up Chairman Judges Opposition Audience Government Timekeeper
    6. 6. Procedure <ul><ul><li>1. Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Government </li></ul></ul>Conclusions Rebuttals Opening
    7. 7. <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion: “The productivity should be increased” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whose productivity ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is productivity ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Phrasing the debate proposition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controversy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 1 central idea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unemotional terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precise statement of the desired value or decision </li></ul></ul></ul>Defining the Controversy
    8. 8. JCI approach <ul><li>Determine the scope of the controversy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ France cannot wait any longer !” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France should really address the unemployment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The French government should finance more cultural activities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pubs should be closed earlier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All pubs on Manchester square offering malt whisky after 09.00 pm should be closed at 10.00 pm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal conflicting evidence and reasoning (no truism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity for both sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation must remain in line with the intended “spirit” of the motion </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Government The role you play is Determined by faith YOUR may need to put your personal opinion aside Define the motion Phrase the debate proposition The concept “ if it ain’t broken, don’t fix it” applies: the Government carries risk of proposition: the Burden of proof
    10. 10. Opposition Follow the definition of the government Burden of refutation Not all black & white Pros & cons CAN agree on multiple issues but dis-agree on one particular issue
    11. 11. Time constraints End the debate discussion has to end some time doesn’t it ? Equal speech time for each team Articulate in a given time speech must fit the timeslot exactly
    12. 12. Jury A jury adds the element of competition to a debate the jury must remain impartial and objective at all times is this possible ? FEEDBACK an academic debate is meant to be a learning experience
    13. 13. Principles of judging <ul><li>Each member of the jury has 1 vote: </li></ul><ul><li>you will need to individually convince every member of the jury </li></ul><ul><li>Never a tie: Uneven number of jury members </li></ul><ul><li>Based judgement on received arguments, not own knowledge </li></ul>
    14. 14. How to evaluate a debate <ul><li>On Argumentation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content, logic, arguments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not forget that emotional arguments are … arguments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presented evidence to support an argument </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Figures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparisons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quotations of authorities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quotes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice (intonation & volume), rhythm, use of silence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humor, use emotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body language, gestures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>General persuasion power </li></ul>
    15. 15. How to judge ? <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasing of controversy </li></ul><ul><li>logic, </li></ul><ul><li>supporting argumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>refutation </li></ul><ul><li>teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>use of debating techniques </li></ul>Style = the way a case is presented
    16. 16. Customs part 1 Stand up while speaking Keep the relationship with the audience and jury going Welcome the audience Shake hands
    17. 17. Time out <ul><li>1 or 2 minutes of internal consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Before one’s own speech </li></ul><ul><li>Time out is consider normal </li></ul><ul><li>1 time out per team </li></ul>
    18. 18. Not listening ? People listen to their favorite station: WII FM What are you talking about Put out land-marks, make it easy for the audience to follow Speed of thinking > speed of speech captivate the audience or minds will wander Be realistic about the audience’s capacity to comprehend arguments keep them short and sweet
    19. 19. Make people listen Make contact & interact and stimulate audience Maintain the relationship with the audience Keep eye contact Vary the rhythm and volume of the voice Use this ACRONYM for success CAIS
    20. 20. CAIS C ontact A ttention I nformation S ummary
    21. 21. Communication model Message Interpretation Emotion/Image Medium Decoding Receiver Transmitter Selecting Emotion/Image Coding <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal </li></ul>
    22. 22. Convincing: 3 approaches Ethos
    23. 23. Convincing: 3 approaches Ethos Pathos
    24. 24. Convincing: 3 approaches Ethos Pathos Logos
    25. 25. Convincing: 3 approaches Ethos Pathos Logos
    26. 26. Convincing: 3 weapons to use <ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>If the look can not convince... </li></ul><ul><li>From research I have done... </li></ul><ul><li>Pathos </li></ul><ul><li>Say things so people can understand them </li></ul><ul><li>Facts: unknown, unloved </li></ul><ul><li>Use arguments and evidence relevant to the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Logos </li></ul><ul><li>Argumentation, evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuttals </li></ul>
    27. 27. Arguments perceived as strong referring to what the majority thinks SUPPORT with figures if you can... complex situation are explained as a simple Profit&LOSS equations gives the impression of a powerful analysis Rules & traditions have a compelling impact on people
    28. 28. Play to the gallery USE contrast, make things black & white Use triplets: “ Do not do it for me, but do it for yourself, do it for your wife and do it for children” Pathos an audience can be very sensitive to emotional arguments Ethos Pathos Logos
    29. 29. Different kinds of arguments <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When company X did this, their revenue hit the roof </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our economy is sick. If we can reduce the labor costs the economy will become healthy again.. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasoned thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I will get the flu because I have a fever and my throat aches. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A publication of the university of Harvard shows that, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I have been working for 10 year in the field... </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Presentation style Gesticulate use non verbal communication Move away from the table maintain the relationship with the people you have to convince “ you” = the jury,audience they = the other party Expression is more convincing than verbosity if the expression does not convince then 1.000 words will neither !
    31. 31. Style Involve audience Change the rhythm Use the power of silence Marshall your arguments (put them in the right sequence) HOw Many arguments do I NEED
    32. 32. Communication is... Voice Content Non-verbal
    33. 33. Exercise x minutes Interruption Stand up and Ask permission to speak Make your comment no longer then 15 sec Sit down again Heckle, to harass or disturb a speaker with a shout to vent your opinion like in: “hear, hear ! go home ! empty words!
    34. 34. Preparation Define the terms of the controversy phrase the debating proposition BRAINSTORMING find issues, arguments and evidence Decide which arguments to use and which to leave out. Sort the arguments in the right sequence
    35. 35. Preparation Assigns roles: who will open, who will refute, who will conclude Think about an icebreaker or opener Think about the take home message Do not write the complete speech use keywords, or mind maps...
    36. 36. Presentation: voice & content Beginning Middle Conclusion Voice
    37. 37. Presentation: voice and content Beginning Voice Content Middle Conclusion
    38. 38. Avoid ToO many argument. If the opponents can shoot more of three of them, the impression is that they have refuted everything... Avoid giving yourself the status and image of an expert if you cannot back it up avoid focusing on your own argumentation, otherwise you forget to refute the opponents’ arguments
    39. 39. Claiming a statement to be true until the opposite has been proven Making a maze of the speech and arguments so that the audience cannot follow Keeping arguments hidden until the opposing party cannot defend itself (last speech of the debate) Avoid
    40. 40. Refutations ? When do I refute ? How many arguments must be refuted ? When is an argument refuted ? How Do I make it easy for the audience to follow a refutation ?
    41. 41. Role of the coach <ul><li>During the preparation and the time out, the coach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>act as source of inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act as the devil’s advocate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushes towards decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understands and manages the team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During the debate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short written instruction to the players (speak louder, hold your horses !) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide new arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal communication is forbidden </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. How to refute ? <ul><ul><li>Well, should we do that ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I fear that weeds will grow between the joints? Besides, a pavement is less beauti- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ful than an nicely cut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lawn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oh, yes what will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>this cost ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass grows for free ! </li></ul></ul>It is time that we replace the grass in the garden by tiled pavement ! Step 1: describe the argument that will be attacked... Apparently you see the growing weeds as a reason to abandon the idea of a tiled pavement. Step 2: refute... But there are lots of ecological sound herbicides. Step 3: conclusion (consequence of the refutation) so there is already one reason less to oppose the tiled pavement...
    43. 43. Training Debating Carlo van Tichelen JCI Belgium - Gheel-en-Thals [email_address] skype : carlovantichelen with credit to : Gerrit Leman & Peter M. Van der Geer
    44. 44. When to refute ? refutation Own argumentation refutation Own argumentation affirmative negative
    45. 45. Refutation <ul><li>Refute 2/3 arguments of the opposing party </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning of the argumentation </li></ul><ul><li>A argument is refuted if </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the opposing team does not come back to this argument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the jury is convinced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you refute set out landmarks ... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Describe the arguments which you are attacking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Refute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> 2.1 State why the argument is flawed (incorrect/incomplete) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> 2.2 Support your statement with counter arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Indicate the consequence of your successful refutation </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Arguments & refutations
    47. 47. The competition <ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That part of the game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But once you’ve started… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Under pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries are crossed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People excel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members grow in the competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exciting </li></ul><ul><li>A learning experience over and over again </li></ul>
    48. 48. How to judge ? pros pros cons cons cons pros opening rebuttals conclusion Goal = evaluate the motion based upon presented arguments Arguments > presentations
    49. 49. Quantyfing the evaluation <ul><li>On scale of 1 to 10 points ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does a score of “ 7” mean the same for each scorer ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The score is subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therefore only two possibilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marginally better (1-2, 2-1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substantially better (0-3, 3-0) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every member of the jury hands out 9 points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We have votes and points: but who wins ? </li></ul>
    50. 50. <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Who wins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of votes is the most important of the criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total number of points: refinement </li></ul></ul>Who wins ? Jury 1 Jury 2 Jury 3 Content 2-1 2-1 1-2 Strategy 1-2 1-2 0-3 Style 2-1 2-1 0-3 Total 5-4 5-4 1-8 pro pro con Total points 11-16
    51. 51. Exercise x’ Time out 3 speakers
    52. 52. Observe these numbers 12, 37, 45 43, 67 34, 54, 81
    53. 53. Proposition of Policy <ul><li>Change policy X in policy Y </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The affirmative (government) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maintains that a policy or course of action should be adopted, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>while the negative (opposition) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maintains that this policy should be rejected “ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is resolved that the “government should restrict gambling” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who are the government ? What is gambling ? What does restrict mean ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the problem ? Is it serious ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is it feasible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is it effective ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are the side effects ? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Proposition of Value <ul><li>The affirmative maintain that a certain belief or value is justified </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is resolved that the “press should stay out of the bedrooms” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is it about ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The value of privacy (this is the value to defend) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to defend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare with an other value: freedom of press </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy > freedom of press </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area of application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In which situation are these values applied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use supportive argumentation </li></ul></ul>
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