The French government should finance more cultural activities
“ Pubs should be closed earlier
All pubs on Manchester square offering malt whisky after 09.00 pm should be closed at 10.00 pm
Equal conflicting evidence and reasoning (no truism)
Opportunity for both sides
Interpretation must remain in line with the intended “spirit” of the motion
Government The role you play is Determined by faith YOUR may need to put your personal opinion aside Define the motion Phrase the debate proposition The concept “ if it ain’t broken, don’t fix it” applies: the Government carries risk of proposition: the Burden of proof
Opposition Follow the definition of the government Burden of refutation Not all black & white Pros & cons CAN agree on multiple issues but dis-agree on one particular issue
Time constraints End the debate discussion has to end some time doesn’t it ? Equal speech time for each team Articulate in a given time speech must fit the timeslot exactly
Jury A jury adds the element of competition to a debate the jury must remain impartial and objective at all times is this possible ? FEEDBACK an academic debate is meant to be a learning experience
Not listening ? People listen to their favorite station: WII FM What are you talking about Put out land-marks, make it easy for the audience to follow Speed of thinking > speed of speech captivate the audience or minds will wander Be realistic about the audience’s capacity to comprehend arguments keep them short and sweet
Make people listen Make contact & interact and stimulate audience Maintain the relationship with the audience Keep eye contact Vary the rhythm and volume of the voice Use this ACRONYM for success CAIS
CAIS C ontact A ttention I nformation S ummary
Communication model Message Interpretation Emotion/Image Medium Decoding Receiver Transmitter Selecting Emotion/Image Coding
Use arguments and evidence relevant to the audience
Arguments perceived as strong referring to what the majority thinks SUPPORT with figures if you can... complex situation are explained as a simple Profit&LOSS equations gives the impression of a powerful analysis Rules & traditions have a compelling impact on people
Play to the gallery USE contrast, make things black & white Use triplets: “ Do not do it for me, but do it for yourself, do it for your wife and do it for children” Pathos an audience can be very sensitive to emotional arguments Ethos Pathos Logos
When company X did this, their revenue hit the roof
Our economy is sick. If we can reduce the labor costs the economy will become healthy again..
I will get the flu because I have a fever and my throat aches.
A publication of the university of Harvard shows that,
I have been working for 10 year in the field...
Presentation style Gesticulate use non verbal communication Move away from the table maintain the relationship with the people you have to convince “ you” = the jury,audience they = the other party Expression is more convincing than verbosity if the expression does not convince then 1.000 words will neither !
Style Involve audience Change the rhythm Use the power of silence Marshall your arguments (put them in the right sequence) HOw Many arguments do I NEED
Exercise x minutes Interruption Stand up and Ask permission to speak Make your comment no longer then 15 sec Sit down again Heckle, to harass or disturb a speaker with a shout to vent your opinion like in: “hear, hear ! go home ! empty words!
Preparation Define the terms of the controversy phrase the debating proposition BRAINSTORMING find issues, arguments and evidence Decide which arguments to use and which to leave out. Sort the arguments in the right sequence
Preparation Assigns roles: who will open, who will refute, who will conclude Think about an icebreaker or opener Think about the take home message Do not write the complete speech use keywords, or mind maps...
Presentation: voice and content Beginning Voice Content Middle Conclusion
Avoid ToO many argument. If the opponents can shoot more of three of them, the impression is that they have refuted everything... Avoid giving yourself the status and image of an expert if you cannot back it up avoid focusing on your own argumentation, otherwise you forget to refute the opponents’ arguments
Claiming a statement to be true until the opposite has been proven Making a maze of the speech and arguments so that the audience cannot follow Keeping arguments hidden until the opposing party cannot defend itself (last speech of the debate) Avoid
Refutations ? When do I refute ? How many arguments must be refuted ? When is an argument refuted ? How Do I make it easy for the audience to follow a refutation ?
I fear that weeds will grow between the joints? Besides, a pavement is less beauti-
ful than an nicely cut
Oh, yes what will
this cost ?
Grass grows for free !
It is time that we replace the grass in the garden by tiled pavement ! Step 1: describe the argument that will be attacked... Apparently you see the growing weeds as a reason to abandon the idea of a tiled pavement. Step 2: refute... But there are lots of ecological sound herbicides. Step 3: conclusion (consequence of the refutation) so there is already one reason less to oppose the tiled pavement...
Training Debating Carlo van Tichelen JCI Belgium - Gheel-en-Thals [email_address] skype : carlovantichelen with credit to : Gerrit Leman & Peter M. Van der Geer
When to refute ? refutation Own argumentation refutation Own argumentation affirmative negative