Objectives Upon completion of this training module, you will be able to: Describe how fires start. Explain how fires are classified. Know how to prevent fires. Know when not to fight a fire. Extinguish small fires. Identify the proper fire extinguisher. Identify different types of fire extinguishers. Know how to use a portable fire extinguisher. What to do after using a fire extinguisher. Know how to evacuate a burning building. What to do if a person is on fire..
How Fires Start Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid burning of a fuel. Fire needs three elements to occur: fuel, oxygen and heat. Fuel can be any combustible material - solid, liquid or gas. Most solid and liquids become a vapor or gas before they will burn. The air we breath is about 21 percent oxygen. Fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen. Heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur. A fire can happen only when these three elements are present..
How Fires Start continued Chain Reaction - a chain reaction can occur when the three elements of fire are present in the proper conditions and proportions. Most fires can be extinguished by removing one of these components.
How Fires Are Classified Four (4) classes CLASS A Class A fires consist of ordinary combustibles or fibrous materials such as wood, paper, cloth, rubber and some plastics. CLASS B Class B fires include flammable or combustible liquids, greases or gases such as gasoline, kerosene, paint and solvents. CLASS C Class C fires consist of energized electrical equipment such as appliances, switches, panel boxes and power tools. CLASS D Class D fires consist of combustible metals such as magnesium,. titanium, potassium and sodium.
How To Prevent Fires Class A - Ordinary Combustibles • Keep working and storage areas free of trash (Housekeeping) • Place oily rags and absorbents in proper containers • Keep combustibles away from heat sources Class B - Flammable Liquids or Gases • Do not refuel gasoline-powered equipment in confined areas • Turn off equipment before refueling • Keep flammable liquids stored in a tightly close, self closing, spill proof container • Pour only what you need from storage drums. • Store flammable liquids away from spark- producing sources. • Use flammable liquids only in well-ventilated areas. • Make sure transfer containers are grounded..
How To Prevent Fires continued Class C - Electrical Equipment • Do not overload wall outlets. Two outlets should have no more than two plugs. • Look for old wiring and broken electrical fittings. • Prevent motors from overheating by keeping them clean. • Utility lights should always have some type of wire guard on them. • Do not install a higher rated fuse than specified for a circuit. • Investigate any electrical equipment that smells strange, unusual. odors can be the first sign of fire. Class D - Flammable Metals (Grindings and Powders) • Keep very hot heat sources away from flammable metals. • Keep pure metals (potassium, sodium) away from water. • Keep a Class D fire extinguisher near all flammable metal work areas..
When Not to fight a fire Never fight a fire if: The fire is spreading beyond the spot where it started. If you can’t fight the fire with your back to an escape exit. The fire could block your only escape. You do not have adequate fire-fighting equipment If any of these situations exist, do not fight the fire yourself. Call For Help! Remember to call 911 when fighting any type of fire..
Extinguishing small fires Before you consider fighting a fire: Call the fire Department (Dial 911). Make sure your home is evacuated. Determine whether the fire is small and is not spreading. Confirm you have a safe path to an exit not threatened by the fire Know how to use a fire extinguisher..
Identifying The Proper Fire Extinguisher The class rating are shown on the extinguisher faceplate. Some extinguishers are marked with multiple ratings such as AB, BC and ABC. These extinguishers are capable of putting out more than one type of fire. The size of the extinguisher must be considered. The larger the fire extinguisher, the larger the fire it can be used on..
Identifying Different Types of Fire Extinguisher ABC-Rated Dry Chemical Extinguishers These extinguishers are usually rated for multi purpose (ABC) use. They contain a dry powder extinguishing agent and use a compressed, non-flammable gas as a propellant. Water Extinguishers These extinguishers contain water and compressed gas and should only be used on Class A (ordinary combustible) fires. Never use a water extinguisher on a Class C electrical fire..
Identifying Different Types of Fire Extinguisher continued CO2 Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers CO2 extinguishers are most effective on Class B and C (flammable liquids and electrical) fires. Since the gas disperses quickly, these extinguishers are only effective from 3 to 8 feet. Co2 extinguisher are distinguished by their tapered nozzle (horn) and are very heavy. Class D Extinguishers Contains a specially blended Sodium Chloride based dry powder agent. Heat from the fire causes it to cake and form a crust excluding air and dissipating the heat from the burning metal. To be used on Class D metal fires only..
Using A Portable Fire Extinguisher Its easy to remember how to use a fire extinguisher if you can remember the acronym PASS, which stands for Pull, Aim, Squeeze, and Sweep. P A S S PULL PIN AIM AT BASE SQUEEZE SWEEP OF FIRE HANDLE.
WHAT TO DO AFTER USING A PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER ABC -rated dry chemical extinguishers will NOT hold a charge after even a partial use. After any use, an ABC-rated , BC-rated or D-rated extinguisher MUST be serviced and recharged You cannot test these types of extinguishers and put them back in their storage areas for future use. Only an authorized extinguisher service company can recharge an extinguisher. Notify the Safety Dept. on all unserviceable extinguishers..
KNOW HOW TO EVACUATE A BURNING BUILDING Proceed to the nearest exit as outlined on the Evacuation Rout Maps Do not lock the door if you are the last one out. This hinders the fire departments search and rescue efforts Stay low to avoid smoke and toxic gases. The best air is close to the floor, so crawl if necessary. Never use an elevator under any circumstances. Once outside report to your designated assembly areas..
WHAT TO DO IF A PERSON IS ON FIRE Remember the three steps if you should catch on fire: STOP - where you are DROP - to the floor ROLL - around on the floor This will smother the flames possibly saving your life If a co-worker or someone else catches on fire, smother the flames by wrapping a jacket, blanket or rug around them to smother the flames. REMEMBER TO STOP, DROP AND ROLL.