Ancient Persia
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  • Dayo Johnson

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  • 1. Ancient Persia Ancient Persia was an Era filled with religion, conquests, interactions, and trade. This society really shows people what it means to rise to the top with amazing leaders that lead you into the right paths.
  • 2. Ancient Civilization Persia is a civilization whose success was attributed to their peaceful methods and ways of expansion. Their location was also a right hand in their expansion and conquests.
  • 3. Geography of Ancient Persia
    • Indo-Europeans migrated from Central Europe and southern Russia
    • to mountains east of Fertile Crescent.
    • The area extended from Caspian Sea to Persian Gulf.
    • This area had rich farmland, many minerals such as copper, lead, gold, silver, and blue lapis
    • lazuli.
    • Also known as present day Iran.
  • 4.
    • Cyrus the Great (559-530) came into power after he overthrew Medians in 558. Cyrus first had to join his power over Iranian tribes on the Iranian plateau before expanding to the west. After Croesus, king of Lydia in Anatolia, enlarged his territory at the expense of the Medes, Cyrus marched against Lydia. Sardis, the Lydian capital, was captured in 547 or 546. Next Cyrus turned to Babylonia, where the people were unsatisfied with the ruler Nabonidus gave Cyrus a cause to invade the lowlands. The conquest was quick, because priests of Marduk, the national deity of the great metropolis of Babylon, had become separated from Nabonidus. In October 539 BC, the greatest city of the ancient world fell to the Persians. The capture of Babylon delivered not only Mesopotamia into the hands of Cyrus but also Syria and Palestine, which had been conquered previously by the Babylonians. Cyrus had a very imperialistic way of conquering. Instead of burning cities and killing the civilians of those areas, he decided to honor local customs and traditions. In his conquests he spilled little to no blood of the city people. He is known for freeing the Jewish captives in Babylonia and allowing them to return to their homeland. Cyrus was also tolerant toward the Babylonians and others. He showed respect local populations by supporting local customs and sacrificing to local gods.
    • Cyrus’s successor and son Cambyses (530-522) seized Egypt in 525 b.c. He is known for ordering for images of Egyptian gods to be burned. After his death rebellions broke out and the empire seemed to be fragile.
    • Cambyses’s successor Darius (521-486) conquered Afghanistan and India. While in power Egypt, Anatolia, part of east India, and center Fertile Crescent were embraced as part of the empire. The empire expanded 2500 miles from east to west during Darius’s reign. Created Royal Road which ran from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia, ran 1667 miles. Helped unite the large kingdom with satraps and manufacturing metal coins.
    • Darius extended the Persian empire to its farthest boundaries, extending all the way into Macedon just northeast of Greece. When the Greek cities of Asia Minor revolted against the high tributes demanded of them by the Persian empire, the Athenians joined in and conquered and burned Sardis, the capital of Lydia, in 498 BC. The Athenians, however, lost interest in the Greek struggle against Persia and, by 495 BC, Darius had reconquered Asia Minor.
    Conquests
    • Cyrus the Great (559-530) came into power after he overthrew Medians in 558.
    • Cyrus first had to join his power over Iranian tribes on the Iranian plateau before
    • expanding to the west.
    • The king of Lydia in Anatolia, enlarged his territory at the expense of the
    • Medes then Cyrus marched against Lydia. Sardis, the Lydian capital, was conquered in
    • 547 or 546.
    • Next Cyrus turned to Babylonia, where the people were unsatisfied with the ruler
    • Nabonidus gave Cyrus a cause to invade the lowlands. The conquest was quick, because
    • priests of Marduk, the national deity of the great metropolis of Babylon, had become
    • separated from Nabonidus. In October 539 BC, the greatest city of the ancient world fell
    • to the Persians.
    • The capture of Babylon delivered not only Mesopotamia into the hands of Cyrus but also
    • Syria and Palestine, which had been conquered previously by the Babylonians.
    • Cyrus had a very imperialistic way of conquering. Instead of burning cities and
    • killing the civilians of those areas, he decided to honor local customs and traditions.
    • In his conquests he spilled little to no blood of the city people. He is known for freeing
    • the Jewish captives in Babylonia and allowing them to return to their homeland.
    • Cyrus was also tolerant toward the Babylonians and others. He showed respect local
    • populations by supporting local customs and sacrificing to local gods.
  • 5. Conquest con’t .
    • .
    • Cyrus’s successor and son Cambyses (530-522) seized Egypt in 525 BC He is known for ordering for images of Egyptian gods to be burned. After his death rebellions broke out and the empire seemed to be fragile.
    • Cambyses’s successor Darius (521-486) conquered Afghanistan and India. While in power Egypt, Anatolia, part of east India, and center Fertile Crescent were embraced as part of the empire.
    • By 495 Darius conquered Asia Minor.
    • He was unsuccessful in trying so conquer the Scythians in 512BC.
    • Had to conquer Babylon again after they revolted with the help of a general that deceived the Babylonians in 520BC
  • 6. Expansions
    • While Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius were all in reign Persian territory expanded over 2500 miles in Asia.
    • Cyrus expanded the nation into Lydia, Babylonia (which was a great accomplishment), Syria, and Palestine.
    • Cambyses’s short 6 year reign over Persia, he expanded into Egypt.
    • Last, Darius made the greatest expansions in Persia. He conquered Afghanistan and Parts of India. He was also the first to create the Royal Road that expanded from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia, it ran 1667 miles. The Royal Road and the satraps (governors) helped unite the large kingdom that he lived in.
  • 7.
    • http://archaeology.about.com/od/pethroughpg/g/persian_empire.htm
    • http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook05.html
    • http://www.webindia123.com/history/ANCIENT/period%20of%20conquest%20and%20religious%20upheavel/period1.htm
    • http://www.crystalinks.com/persia.html
    • http://www.jmu.edu/orgs/persianclub/newpage/persia_art.htm
    • http://history-world.org/cyrus.htm
    • Roger B. Beck, Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, Dahia Ibo Shabaka, World History: Patterns of Interaction (Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell inc, 2001) 92-96
    • http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=wars&FileName=wars_persianconquest.php
  • 8. Religion Zoroastrianism was the main religion of Ancient Persia, it influenced other cultures as well.
  • 9. Zoroastrianism
    • People of the Fertile Crescent had to go through famine, war, and conquest. This arose the question of, why must the world have so much chaos and suffering?
    • His teachings were that two spiritual armies fought for your soul.
    • Zoroaster, a Persian prophet and religious reformer (lived around 600 B.C.) Thought of the answer to that.
    • Ahura Mazda, the god of truth and light was the leader of one army. Ahriman the god of evil and darkness lead the other army.
  • 10. *Zoroaster preached that in the end all souls would be judged on the side that they chose. *The people who were followers of Ahura Mazda were taken into paradise *The people who were followers of Ahriman were condemned to suffer forever in a fiery pit.
  • 11. ✭ A collection of books called the Avesta were the holy writings of the Zoroastrian religion. ✭ They had a sense of heaven, hell, and final judgment which were very similar to the ones of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ✭ Zoroastrianism spread east to India. ✭ In India it became the Parsi sect, the biggest Zoroastrian group in the world.
  • 12. Image Above Example Of Fiery Pit
    • Zoroastrianism had a major influence on the development of Manicheanism
    • Manicheanism is a religious system that competed with early Christianity
    • Mithra , a Zoroastrian god had a cult developed around “it”
    • This cult spread to become a very popular religion along the legions of the Roman Empire
  • 13. In the Persian Empire the religion Zoroastrianism was the main religion. It had some of the aspects of other religions like Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Some religions developed from Zoroastrianism. This religion was a big influence in many cultures. Conclusion
  • 14. Bibliography
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY--->INFO- World History:patterns of interaction Roger B. Beck, Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, Dahia Ibo Shabaka, World History: Patterns of Interaction (Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell inc, 2001) 92-96
    • PICTURES- http://altreligion.about.com/library/graphics/zoroaster11.jpg http://www.success.co.il/knowledge/images/Supernatural-Zoroastrianism-Faravahar.jpg http://www.geocities.com/jensaaraitemplar/Ahriman.gif http://www.dustylens.com/Jennifer-in-Hell.jpg   http://www.freethoughtpedia.com/images/Mithra.jpg
  • 15. Persian Culture & Human Interaction
  • 16. The Persians were people who had a thriving culture and interacted with their land and/or others in various ways. Their culture was characterized by religion ( mentioned earlier on), customs, and the arts. The Persians interacted with their land by taking advantage of its beauty and resources. These people are used their culture and interactions in order to identify themselves. Introduction!!!
  • 17. Customs of Persian People: Conduct
    • Family is very important to the Persian people, their family is their inner circle. With their families they can act themselves, identity known as “batin
    • The Persians outer circle includes colleagues and business related people. In front of these people the Persians in a way have a different identity known as “Zaher”
    • Females are to be protected and shielded from the ways of the “outside world”
    • When one is offered something, one must refuse until the person offering the “something” becomes persistent. This conduct must be displayed even if you want something very badly
    • At social events men kiss other men, women kiss over women to greet each other but in the street a hand shake is the proper greeting
    • People of equal rank kiss each other on the lips, if one person is a bit inferior than the greeting is a kiss on the cheek, and lastly if the person is greatly inferior one must “prostrate” on the ground”
    • Lying is the most disgraceful thing in Persian culture, so try not to lie!!!
    • Family always comes before business relationships
  • 18. *Pottery is one of the oldest Persian forms of art *Some of the pottery dates back to the 5th millennium BC! *Most Persian pottery was used for decoration *Persian pottery was and still is known for its fine detail and precision *This detail and precision came into the spotlight during the 9th century * Even when using simple themes (such as folktales, animals, etc.) the Persian artisans had impeccable detail and imagination to make masterpieces out of simple topics Art:Pottery
  • 19. *Rugs are a prized possessions even today to Persians *The Persians were one of the first carpet weavers *The rugs are usually named after the village, region, tribe, etc where they were weaved in *Like other forms of Persian art, great detail and vibrant colors are included in these rugs *The rugs show various Islamic influences *Rugs often include floral like patterns so Persian people feel reminded of their garden when sitting on the rugs *Some believe traditional rugs started being created around 500 BC when Cyrus was King *Others beg to differ and suggest that Persian nomads developed the rugs with sheep’s wool before Cyrus’s time Rugs
  • 20. Dance
    • Persian dance roots in Far Province
    • 2500BC Persian dancers are shown in artwork
    • Mithraism: Dances of fire, swords, and horses (dancers would actually dance on the horses) to praise the god Mithra
    • Jewelry such as bangles worn when dancing and feet pounded rhythmically on the ground
    • Later on when the Islamic religion became major in the Persian empire dance faded out viewed as a disgrace and no record were kept of it
    • During one time dancers were enslaved and forced to do inappropriate dances for their conquerors
  • 21. Persia: Human Interaction with Land: Natural Resources
    • Persia a land of various resources
    • Copper, lead, gold, silver, and lapis lazuli are just a few of Persia’s resources
    • Wool from animals used to make the now famous Persian Rugs
    • Persian Gulf was the only place that had pearls which was a great advantage in the trading industry
    • Fertile farmland “boasted” in minerals
    • Fertile land provided crops and no food shortages for the Persian people
    • These natural resources helped a lot in Persian Trade
  • 22. The Persians and their thriving culture & human interactions are shown in so many ways. They are shown through their straight forward customs which we can see even today. The Persian performing and visual arts show the Persian’s impeccable detail and effort of expression. The way the Persian people interact with their land to provide them with trade advantages and provide them with essential resources. These topics truly show us what the Persian people are all about.
  • 23. Bibliography http://www.bestirantravel.com/culture/arts/ceramic.html http://www.mssimmons.com/ms/Iran/Iran2002/Shiraz/Persepolis1.jpg http://ursispaltenstein.ch/blog/images/uploads_img/forgotten_empire_the_world_of_ancient_persia.jpg http://tehran.stanford.edu/Images/Ancient/soldier1.gif http://java.nationalgeographic.com/studentatlas/clickup/images/ancient_persia.jpg http://www.iran-daily.com/1383/2084/html/002331.jpg http://www.farsinet.com/persianrug/ http://www.farsinet.com/persianrug/history.html http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/article/Iran/History-of-Persian-Carpets/116 http://farm1.static.flickr.com/1/245322_95a47ad0ce_m.jpg http://www.persiancarpetguide.com/sw-asia/Rugs/Persian/Goochan_Rugs/images/Goochan_Kurd_Rug_01.jpg http://www.ameerahimports.com/sf/articles/persian_kilim.jpg http://www.spongobongo.com/chin8f.jpg http://site-images.ws/images/cust/109318/Persian%20dance%20fav0003.jpg http://www.jasminjahal.com/articles/01_11_persian_dance.html http://www.livius.org/a/1/iran/susa_apadana2.JPG http://www.iranchamber.com/history/articles/persian_gulf_trade_late_antiquity.php http://www.forumancientcoins.com/Articles/Maps/images/Persian%20Empire.jpg http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/iran-country-profile.html http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/herodotus-persians.htmlhttp://www.anaviangallery.com/images/orange001.jpg http://www.24hourmuseum.org.uk/content/images/2007_3151.jpg Roger B. Beck, Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, Dahia Ibo Shabaka, World History: Patterns of Interaction (Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell inc, 2001) 92-96
  • 24. http://www.livius.org/a/1/iran/behistun_photo.JPG Persia was an empire full of religion, conquests, culture, interactions, and trade. This empire was once not paid attention to by the world. Persia made its way to the top through its leaders and its people who at one point rose above all the other. Conclusion, Wrap-Up