English Renaissance

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English Renaissance

  1. 1. English Renaissance 1485-1660
  2. 2. A time of “rebirth” <ul><li>Two periods: </li></ul><ul><li>The Elizabethan (1485-1603) </li></ul><ul><li>The Jacobean (1603-1660) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Elizabeth Period <ul><li>Five monarchs </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VII (1485-1509) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII (1509-1547) </li></ul><ul><li>Edward VI (1547-1553) </li></ul><ul><li>Mary I (1553-1558) </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth I (1558-1603) </li></ul>
  4. 4. The term “Elizabethan Period” <ul><li>Ruled longer than any other monarch during the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Attained new heights in world affairs, in art, in literature, in music </li></ul>
  5. 5. The term “Jacobean Period” <ul><li>Left no heirs </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeded by son of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots: James IV of Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Became King James I of England </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled from 1603-1625 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Humanism <ul><li>New way of looking at the world </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning of authority and faith </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of rationalism and skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis from religious to secular matters </li></ul><ul><li>Great thinkers: Erasmus and More </li></ul>
  7. 7. Renaissance beginning <ul><li>Began in Italy in fourteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>Was a time of rebirth of intellectual and artistic energies that characterized ancient Greek and Roman civilization </li></ul>
  8. 8. Beginnings (Continued) <ul><li>Famous Italians </li></ul><ul><li>Petrach and Boccacio, writers </li></ul><ul><li>Giotto, painter </li></ul><ul><li>Brunelleschi, architecht </li></ul><ul><li>Donatelle, sculptor </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo, artists </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) <ul><li>Encouraged intellectual trends and artistic accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged the goals of Renaissance Humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized the capacities of the human mind and the achievement of human culture </li></ul>
  10. 10. Other Renaissance accomplishments in the world <ul><li>Territorial exploration and discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus in 1492 </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Thomas More, center of an active and brilliant circle of English Humanists </li></ul><ul><li>More’s Utopia (1516), first literary masterpiece of the English Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Copernicus and Galileo, forerunners of modern astronomy </li></ul>
  11. 11. Protestant Reformation <ul><li>Martin Luther, Ninety-Five Theses, Wittenberg, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>King Henry VIII, no divorce by Pope </li></ul><ul><li>Anglican church </li></ul>
  12. 12. Succession after Henry VIII <ul><li>Edward, nine-year-old son </li></ul><ul><li>Death after five years </li></ul><ul><li>Half-sister Mary (daughter of Henry and Catherine of Aragon) </li></ul><ul><li>Half-Spanish and a devout Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Reign of terror (“Bloody Mary”) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Succession (Continued) <ul><li>Death after five years (1558) </li></ul><ul><li>Half-sister Elizabeth (daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn) </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty-five </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplished linguist and poet </li></ul><ul><li>Clever diplomat and shrewd politician </li></ul>
  14. 14. Most powerful nation <ul><li>Defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller and more maneuverable ships </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Control of the seas </li></ul>
  15. 15. Entertainment <ul><li>First public theater near London in 1576 </li></ul><ul><li>Closing of theaters in 1593-94 because of plague </li></ul><ul><li>Public outcry; reopening of theaters </li></ul>
  16. 16. Jacobean Era <ul><li>1603-1625 </li></ul><ul><li>King James I </li></ul><ul><li>King James version of the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans, dissenting beliefs </li></ul>
  17. 17. End of Jacobean Era <ul><li>Death in 1625 </li></ul><ul><li>Ascension of King James I’s son Charles </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Puritan movement </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver Cromwell, commander of the Parliamentary forces (Ironsides, Roundheads </li></ul>
  18. 18. End of Jacobean Era (continued) <ul><li>Beheading of Charles I </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of Protectorate with Cromwell at the head </li></ul><ul><li>Military dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>1653-1658 </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Cromwell (1658) </li></ul>
  19. 19. “Restoration” of the monarchy <ul><li>Return of Charles II as king (1660) </li></ul><ul><li>Election of Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of new era </li></ul>
  20. 20. References <ul><li>Adventures in English Literature (1985). United States: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich Inc. 99-118. </li></ul><ul><li>Commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Holbein-erasmus2.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Lorenzo_il__Magnifico </li></ul><ul><li>En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_i_of_england </li></ul><ul><li>The Renaissance 1485-1660. Elements of Literature Sixth Course (1993). United States: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 165-186. </li></ul><ul><li>The Renaissance 1485-1660. Elements of Literature Sixth Course (2000). United States: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 190-212. </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 3: The Renaissance (1485-1660). McDougal, Littel Literature Purple Level (1985). Evanston, IL: McDougal, Littel. </li></ul><ul><li>College Notes (1967) and common knowledge </li></ul>*I have been using these notes since the mid-eighties with modifications over the course of time! All slides created by JB Hale.

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