English Renaissance

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  • 1. English Renaissance 1485-1660
  • 2. A time of “rebirth”
    • Two periods:
    • The Elizabethan (1485-1603)
    • The Jacobean (1603-1660)
  • 3. Elizabeth Period
    • Five monarchs
    • Henry VII (1485-1509)
    • Henry VIII (1509-1547)
    • Edward VI (1547-1553)
    • Mary I (1553-1558)
    • Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
  • 4. The term “Elizabethan Period”
    • Ruled longer than any other monarch during the Renaissance
    • Attained new heights in world affairs, in art, in literature, in music
  • 5. The term “Jacobean Period”
    • Left no heirs
    • Succeeded by son of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots: James IV of Scotland
    • Became King James I of England
    • Ruled from 1603-1625
  • 6. Humanism
    • New way of looking at the world
    • Questioning of authority and faith
    • Rise of rationalism and skepticism
    • Emphasis from religious to secular matters
    • Great thinkers: Erasmus and More
  • 7. Renaissance beginning
    • Began in Italy in fourteenth century
    • Was a time of rebirth of intellectual and artistic energies that characterized ancient Greek and Roman civilization
  • 8. Beginnings (Continued)
    • Famous Italians
    • Petrach and Boccacio, writers
    • Giotto, painter
    • Brunelleschi, architecht
    • Donatelle, sculptor
    • Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo, artists
  • 9. Lorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent)
    • Encouraged intellectual trends and artistic accomplishments
    • Encouraged the goals of Renaissance Humanism
    • Emphasized the capacities of the human mind and the achievement of human culture
  • 10. Other Renaissance accomplishments in the world
    • Territorial exploration and discovery
    • Columbus in 1492
    • Sir Thomas More, center of an active and brilliant circle of English Humanists
    • More’s Utopia (1516), first literary masterpiece of the English Renaissance
    • Copernicus and Galileo, forerunners of modern astronomy
  • 11. Protestant Reformation
    • Martin Luther, Ninety-Five Theses, Wittenberg, Germany
    • King Henry VIII, no divorce by Pope
    • Anglican church
  • 12. Succession after Henry VIII
    • Edward, nine-year-old son
    • Death after five years
    • Half-sister Mary (daughter of Henry and Catherine of Aragon)
    • Half-Spanish and a devout Catholic
    • Reign of terror (“Bloody Mary”)
  • 13. Succession (Continued)
    • Death after five years (1558)
    • Half-sister Elizabeth (daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn)
    • Twenty-five
    • Accomplished linguist and poet
    • Clever diplomat and shrewd politician
  • 14. Most powerful nation
    • Defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588
    • Smaller and more maneuverable ships
    • Storm
    • Control of the seas
  • 15. Entertainment
    • First public theater near London in 1576
    • Closing of theaters in 1593-94 because of plague
    • Public outcry; reopening of theaters
  • 16. Jacobean Era
    • 1603-1625
    • King James I
    • King James version of the Bible
    • Puritans, dissenting beliefs
  • 17. End of Jacobean Era
    • Death in 1625
    • Ascension of King James I’s son Charles
    • Civil war
    • Puritan movement
    • Oliver Cromwell, commander of the Parliamentary forces (Ironsides, Roundheads
  • 18. End of Jacobean Era (continued)
    • Beheading of Charles I
    • Establishment of Protectorate with Cromwell at the head
    • Military dictatorship
    • 1653-1658
    • Death of Cromwell (1658)
  • 19. “Restoration” of the monarchy
    • Return of Charles II as king (1660)
    • Election of Parliament
    • Beginning of new era
  • 20. References
    • Adventures in English Literature (1985). United States: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich Inc. 99-118.
    • Commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Holbein-erasmus2.jpg
    • Commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Lorenzo_il__Magnifico
    • En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_i_of_england
    • The Renaissance 1485-1660. Elements of Literature Sixth Course (1993). United States: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 165-186.
    • The Renaissance 1485-1660. Elements of Literature Sixth Course (2000). United States: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 190-212.
    • Unit 3: The Renaissance (1485-1660). McDougal, Littel Literature Purple Level (1985). Evanston, IL: McDougal, Littel.
    • College Notes (1967) and common knowledge
    *I have been using these notes since the mid-eighties with modifications over the course of time! All slides created by JB Hale.