GSBS6070: PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIPLeadership Profiles, Styles and AchievementsJames HuntJune, 2013
Leadership Images – Previous Slide1. Marissa Mayer (CEO of Yahoo)2. Richard Branson (Founder and Group Chairman at Virgin)...
Last Week’s Introductory Lecture: A Review1. Various definitions of leadership: to inspire confidence, to influence others...
A Framework for Understanding LeadershipSource: Andrew J. DuBrin (2010), Principles of Leadership, South-Western Cengage L...
Reading: Keith Grint (2005), Leadership: Limits and Possibilities, Palgrave MacMillanWhat is Leadership: person, result, p...
Key Characteristics of Successful Executives:1. Strong leadership skills2. An action orientation3. A vision of where the f...
Major Factors Influencing the Careers of Senior Executives:Influencing factor: Private sector ranking Public Sector rankin...
Key Characteristics of Successful Executives Today:1. Strategic leadership capabilities2. Energy and motivational drive3. ...
Leadership Profiles:Lewin , Lippit & White: Three Leadership Orientations (1939)Lewin, K., Lippit, R. & White, R. (1939) “...
Leadership Profiles:Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership ContinuumAutocratic StyleDemocratic Style1. Leadermakesdecision an...
The Leadership Orientation ParadigmINSPIRATIONAL(Visionary)LAISSEZ-FAIREAUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian)DEMOCRATIC(Participative)...
The Leadership Orientation Paradigm:The Autocratic-Democratic ContinuumAUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian)DEMOCRATIC(Participative)•...
The Leadership Orientation Paradigm:The Autocratic-Democratic ContinuumAUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian)DEMOCRATIC(Participative)H...
The Leadership Orientation Paradigm:Vertical Axis ContinuumINSPIRATIONAL(Visionary)LAISSEZ-FAIREAUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian)D...
The Leadership Orientation Paradigm ©James Hunt, University of Newcastle, 2010INSPIRATIONAL(Visionary)LAISSEZ-FAIREAUTOCRA...
Profiling Leaders: The Leadership Orientation ParadigmINSPIRATIONAL(Visionary)LAISSEZ-FAIREAUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian)DEMOCR...
Managers and Entrepreneurs:Who Makes a Better Leader?The Managerial Profile:1. Managers normally operate within relatively...
Managers and Entrepreneurs:Who Makes a Better Leader?The Entrepreneurial Profile:1. Entrepreneurs tend to operate in an un...
Four Systems of Action in Modern Organisations• The terms ‘leadership’ and ‘management’ are often used interchangeably wit...
Decision Making in Organisations TodayThe four terms may be viewed along a continuum which shows the degree of structure i...
Leadership as an Important Component of Modern Management PracticeToday’s managers often find they need a combination of e...
The POLC ModelPLANNING & DECISION MAKINGSetting the organisation’s goalsand deciding how best to achievethem.ORGANISINGDet...
Managerial Roles & Decision MakingHenry Mintzberg’s Research: 1975.• Managers perform a great quantity of work at an unrel...
Managerial RolesResearch by Henry MintzbergINTERPERSONAL ROLES1. Figurehead2. Leader3. LiaisonINFORMATIONAL ROLES1. Monito...
Managerial SkillsAnd Leadership ImplicationsResearch By Robert KatzTechnical SkillsInterpersonal (Human ) SkillsConceptual...
Recommended Readings:• Hunt, J. (2010) ‘Leadership Style Orientations of Senior Executives in Australia’, Journalof the Am...
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Leadership Profiles, Styles & Achievements

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This slideshow examines the meaning of leadership in modern organisations. How are we to understand leadership? Is it through the personality or behaviours of individuals who occupy leadership positions, or is it through the processes they enact, or the results they achieve? What are the key characteristics of successful executives today? This presentation explores these questions.

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Leadership Profiles, Styles & Achievements

  1. 1. GSBS6070: PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIPLeadership Profiles, Styles and AchievementsJames HuntJune, 2013
  2. 2. Leadership Images – Previous Slide1. Marissa Mayer (CEO of Yahoo)2. Richard Branson (Founder and Group Chairman at Virgin)3. Jill Barad (former CEO of Mattel)4. Rupert Murdoch (News Limited)5. Meg Whitman (former CEO of Ebay; current CEO of HP)6. Steve Jobs (co-founder and former CEO of Apple)7. Sheryl Sandberg (COO of Facebook)8. Andrea Jung (CEO of Avon)
  3. 3. Last Week’s Introductory Lecture: A Review1. Various definitions of leadership: to inspire confidence, to influence others,to exercise power, strategic positioning.2. Leadership versus management: leadership is more intuitive, bothmanagement and leadership can produce change in organisations.3. Does leadership make a difference? Under what conditions doesleadership have an impact, or the greatest impact?4. Substitutes for leadership: professional norms, intrinsic motivation,expertise.5. A framework for understanding leadership.6. Brainstorming exercise: characteristics and qualities necessary for effectiveleadership
  4. 4. A Framework for Understanding LeadershipSource: Andrew J. DuBrin (2010), Principles of Leadership, South-Western Cengage Learning
  5. 5. Reading: Keith Grint (2005), Leadership: Limits and Possibilities, Palgrave MacMillanWhat is Leadership: person, result, position or process ?PersonPositionProcess ResultsTraits, qualities,personalcharacteristicsFormal or informalrole - perception andexecutionLeadership style,behaviours, beliefsystem, methods ofexecutionOutcomes,achievementsLeader-memberexchangedynamic
  6. 6. Key Characteristics of Successful Executives:1. Strong leadership skills2. An action orientation3. A vision of where the firm is going4. Excellent communication skills5. Self-confidence6. The ability to take risks7. The ability to motivate8. The ability to generate loyalty9. High integrity10. Team-building skills11. Operations experience12. International ExperienceSource: Rowan, R. (1986) “America’s Most Wanted Managers”, Fortune Magazine, February 3rd, pp. 18-25.A survey of executive recruiters in the United States (1986) found that the mostsought-after managers had most, if not all of the following characteristics:
  7. 7. Major Factors Influencing the Careers of Senior Executives:Influencing factor: Private sector ranking Public Sector ranking1. Having a need to achieve results 1 12. Ability to work with a wide variety of people 2 33. Ability to negotiate and influence 3 24. Early overall responsibility 4 45. Desire to seek new opportunities 5 96. Breadth of experience prior to age 35 6 57. Ability to change managerial style 7 78. Leadership experience early in career 8 149. Stretched by immediate superiors 9 810. Willingness to take risks 10 1111. Having more ideas than colleagues 11 612. Visible to top management before age 30 12 1313. Family support 13 1514. Sound technical training 14 1215. Manager early in career as a role mode 15 1016. Having formal management training 16 1717. Overseas management or work experience 17 1618. Experience of leadership in armed forces 18 18Source: Mukhi, S. (1982), “Leadership Paths & Profiles”, Human Resources Management Australia,Volume 20, No.3, pp. 22-26.
  8. 8. Key Characteristics of Successful Executives Today:1. Strategic leadership capabilities2. Energy and motivational drive3. High self-confidence4. Entrepreneurial vision5. The capacity to communicate effectively6. The capacity to negotiate effectively7. The ability to persuade and influence others8. The ability to shape organisational culture9. Financial acumen10. Operational and industry-based experienceA joint research initiative in 2010 by a global consultancy firm and a prominentbusiness magazine found that in transnational corporations, the followingcapabilities were considered most necessary by senior executives:Indra Nooyi, Chairman & CEO, Pepsi.Ursula Burns, Xerox CEO, appointed June 2009
  9. 9. Leadership Profiles:Lewin , Lippit & White: Three Leadership Orientations (1939)Lewin, K., Lippit, R. & White, R. (1939) “Patterns of Aggressive Behaviour inExperimentally Created Social Climates” Journal of Sociology, Vol. 10: 271-299.Laissez-faire DemocraticAutocraticFreedomOrder
  10. 10. Leadership Profiles:Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership ContinuumAutocratic StyleDemocratic Style1. Leadermakesdecision andannounces itto followersindividuallyor in agroupwithoutdiscussingit.2. Leadermakesdecisionand sells ittofollowersthrough apresentation of why itis a goodidea.3. Leaderpresentsideas andinvitesfollowerquestions.4. Leaderpresentstentativedecisionsubject tochange.5. Leaderpresentsproblem,getssuggestedsolutions,and makesthe decision.6. Leaderdefineslimits andasks thefollowersto make adecision.7. Leaderpermitsfollowersto makeongoingdecisionswithindefinedlimits.Source: Tannenbaum, R. & Schmidt, W.H. (1958), “How to Chose a LeadershipPattern”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 36, No.2, March-April: 95-101.
  11. 11. The Leadership Orientation ParadigmINSPIRATIONAL(Visionary)LAISSEZ-FAIREAUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian)DEMOCRATIC(Participative)Four KeyLeadershipOrientations
  12. 12. The Leadership Orientation Paradigm:The Autocratic-Democratic ContinuumAUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian)DEMOCRATIC(Participative)•Aggressive•Competitive•Dominant•Forceful•Logical•Cautious•Conventional•Careful•Collaborative•Facilitative•Mediating•Process-oriented•Stable•Understanding•Responsive•Considerate
  13. 13. The Leadership Orientation Paradigm:The Autocratic-Democratic ContinuumAUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian)DEMOCRATIC(Participative)HighUncertaintyAvoidanceLowerTolerance ofAmbiguityLowUncertaintyAvoidanceHigherTolerance ofAmbiguity•Aggressive•Competitive•Dominant•Forceful•Logical•Cautious•Conventional•Careful•Collaborative•Facilitative•Mediating•Process-oriented•Stable•Understanding•Responsive•Considerate
  14. 14. The Leadership Orientation Paradigm:Vertical Axis ContinuumINSPIRATIONAL(Visionary)LAISSEZ-FAIREAUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian)DEMOCRATIC(Participative)High AchievementOrientationLow AchievementOrientation•Industrious•Energetic•Convincing•Inspiring•Individualistic•Persistent•Daring•Spontaneous•Abdicative•Avoidant•Neglecting•Unassertive•Permissive•Tolerant•Passive•Delegating
  15. 15. The Leadership Orientation Paradigm ©James Hunt, University of Newcastle, 2010INSPIRATIONAL(Visionary)LAISSEZ-FAIREAUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian)DEMOCRATIC(Participative)High AchievementOrientationLow AchievementOrientationHighUncertaintyAvoidanceLowUncertaintyAvoidance•Industrious•Energetic•Convincing•Inspiring•Individualistic•Persistent•Daring•Spontaneous•Abdicative•Avoidant•Neglecting•Unassertive•Permissive•Tolerant•Passive•Delegating•Aggressive•Competitive•Dominant•Forceful•Logical•Cautious•Conventional•Careful•Collaborative•Facilitative•Mediating•Process-oriented•Stable•Understanding•Responsive•ConsiderateReference: Hunt, J. (2010) ‘Leadership Style Orientations of SeniorExecutives in Australia’, Journal of the American Academyof Business, Cambridge, Vol. 16, No. 1: 207-217.
  16. 16. Profiling Leaders: The Leadership Orientation ParadigmINSPIRATIONAL(Visionary)LAISSEZ-FAIREAUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian)DEMOCRATIC(Participative)High AchievementOrientationLow AchievementOrientationHighUncertaintyAvoidanceLowUncertaintyAvoidance•Jack Welch•Lee Iacocca• Richard Branson• Brenda Barnes• ??• ??• ??• ??• Rupert Murdoch• Bill Gates• ??• ??• Ricardo Semler• Indra Nooyi• ??• ??
  17. 17. Managers and Entrepreneurs:Who Makes a Better Leader?The Managerial Profile:1. Managers normally operate within relatively clearly defined structures.2. Managers are role-fillers (corporate determinism).3. Managers are characteristically cautious and prone to risk-aversion.4. They tend to operate most effectively when given time to plan.5. They are rewarded for satisfactory performancePunitive constraints inhibit under/over performance.Effective Managers:1. Have good supervisory skills.2. Are able to coordinate a wide range of activities.3. Are able to delegate without relinquishing control.4. Are able to utilise interpersonal skills effectively.
  18. 18. Managers and Entrepreneurs:Who Makes a Better Leader?The Entrepreneurial Profile:1. Entrepreneurs tend to operate in an unstructured environment.2. They assume the role of their own choice and of their own design.3. They are moderate risk takers and typically high achievers..4. They tend to reap rewards most often only for high-level performance.Entrepreneurial Shortcomings:1. They often have a strong reluctance to relinquish control.2. They can be quite poor at planning.3. They frequently find it extremely difficult to delegate.4. They are typically poor administrators.5. Their cognitive style of inner-dependence leads entrepreneurs to tend not to delegateNaomi Simson, founder and Directorof RedBalloon, a leading Australian-based online gift retailer
  19. 19. Four Systems of Action in Modern Organisations• The terms ‘leadership’ and ‘management’ are often used interchangeably with otherrelated but nevertheless distinct terms.• It is useful to explore these differences in order to understand the subtle andobvious distinctions implied in each.The four terms may be viewed along a continuum which shows the degree of structureinherent in the decision-making process adopted by each of these.ENTREPRENEURSHIPRisk-takingSearch foropportunitiesDisregard for formalsystems or rulesPoor delegation skillsLEADERSHIPVisionGood communicationskillsGood motivatorsEncourage teamparticipationGain cooperationMANAGEMENTTechnical skillsInterpersonal SkillsConceptual skillsGood delegatorsThe progress andgenesis of changeADMINISTRATIONRule-drivenBound by regulationsAdherence to status-quoEmphasis onperfecting procedures.
  20. 20. Decision Making in Organisations TodayThe four terms may be viewed along a continuum which shows the degree of structure inherent in each of these.ENTREPRENEURSHIPRisk-takingSearch foropportunitiesDisregard for formalsystems or rulesPoor delegation skillsLEADERSHIPVisionGood communicationskillsGood motivatorsEncourage teamparticipationGain cooperationMANAGEMENTTechnical skillsInterpersonal SkillsConceptual skillsGood delegatorsThe progress andgenesis of changeADMINISTRATIONRule-drivenBound by regulationsAdherence to status-quoEmphasis onperfecting procedures.LOW STRUCTURE HIGH STRUCTUREReference: Hunt, J. (2006) ‘Key Components in the Development of Senior Executives in Australia’,The Business Review, Cambridge, Vol. 5, No. 1: 121-131.
  21. 21. Leadership as an Important Component of Modern Management PracticeToday’s managers often find they need a combination of each of these 4 aptitudes.ENTREPRENEURSHIPRisk-takingSearch foropportunitiesDisregard for formalsystems or rulesPoor delegation skillsLEADERSHIPVisionGood communicationskillsGood motivatorsEncourage teamparticipationGain cooperationMANAGEMENTTechnical skillsInterpersonal SkillsConceptual skillsGood delegatorsThe progress andgenesis of changeADMINISTRATIONRule-drivenBound by regulationsAdherence to status-quoEmphasis onperfecting procedures.MODERN MANAGEMENT PRACTICEVision Interpersonal skills Understanding systemsCreativity Ability to delegate Regulatory awareness
  22. 22. The POLC ModelPLANNING & DECISION MAKINGSetting the organisation’s goalsand deciding how best to achievethem.ORGANISINGDetermining how best to groupactivities and resources.LEADINGMotivating members of the organisationto work in the best interests of theorganisation.CONTROLLINGMonitoring and correcting ongoingactivities to facilitate goal attainment.
  23. 23. Managerial Roles & Decision MakingHenry Mintzberg’s Research: 1975.• Managers perform a great quantity of work at an unrelentingpace.• Managers work is typically varied, fragmented and brief.• Managers prefer to deal with current, specific, ad-hoc and non-routine issues.• Management life often appears spontaneous and chaoticrather than organised.• The most effective managers place themselves at the centre ofa vast network of contacts.• Managers prefer verbal media because it is often more current.• Aggregated, systematically gathered information and analyseddata is not weighed heavily by many managers..
  24. 24. Managerial RolesResearch by Henry MintzbergINTERPERSONAL ROLES1. Figurehead2. Leader3. LiaisonINFORMATIONAL ROLES1. Monitor2. Disseminator3. SpokespersonDECISIONAL ROLES1. Entrepreneur2. Disturbance Handler3. Resource Allocator4. NegotiatorMintzberg, H. (1975) ‘The manager’s job: Folklore and fact, Harvard Business Review, July-August,Vol. 53, no.6, pp. 49-61.
  25. 25. Managerial SkillsAnd Leadership ImplicationsResearch By Robert KatzTechnical SkillsInterpersonal (Human ) SkillsConceptual SkillsJunior Managers Middle Managers Senior ManagersKatz, R.L. (1974) ‘The skills of an effective administrator’, Harvard Business Review,September-October, pp. 90-102.
  26. 26. Recommended Readings:• Hunt, J. (2010) ‘Leadership Style Orientations of Senior Executives in Australia’, Journalof the American Academy of Business, Cambridge, Vol. 16, No. 1: 207-217.• Hunt, J. (2006) ‘Key Components in the Development of Senior Executives in Australia’,The Business Review, Cambridge, Vol. 5, No. 1: 121-131.Further Readings:Katz. R. L. (1974), “The Skills of an Effective Administrator”, Harvard Business Review, September-October, pp. 90-102.Mintzberg, H. (1975) “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 53, No.6, July-August: 49-61.Tannenbaum, R. & Schmidt, W.H. (1958), “How to Chose a Leadership Pattern”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 36, No.2,March-April: 95-101.Zaleznik, A. (1977), Managers and Leaders: Are they Different? Harvard Business Review, May-June.Thank you for Viewing this SlideshowJames.Hunt@newcastle.edu.auLecturer in Management, University of Newcastle, Australia
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