Chapter 18


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Chapter 18

  1. 1. Chapter 18: Africa World Geography Mr. Allen
  2. 2. Climate
  3. 3. Climate <ul><li>Over 50% of Africa has inadequate precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>92% of the continent of Africa experiences climatic contrasts; shortage of water where it is needed most and oversupply of water where it cannot be fully used </li></ul><ul><li>About 8% of Africa has a tropical climate with 10 to 12 months of rainfall </li></ul>
  4. 4. Climate <ul><li>Africa has about one-third of all the arid lands in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Climate definitions are based on the Koppen System. </li></ul><ul><li>Snow-capped mountains make up the smallest climate area in Africa </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nile River <ul><li>The longest river in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides 95 percent of Egyptians with their water. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile gets its name from the Greek word &quot; Nelios &quot;, meaning River Valley. </li></ul>
  6. 6. White Nile & Blue Nile <ul><li>2 main tributaries of the Nile River </li></ul><ul><li>White Nile flows into Lake Victoria </li></ul><ul><li>The White Nile is the longer of the tributaries, but the Blue Nile is the main source of water and fertile soil. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rift valleys <ul><li>Long, thin valleys that formed in Africa as continental plates pulled apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Geographers know that the eastern part of Africa is pulling apart from the rest of Africa because of rift valleys . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mount Kilimanjaro <ul><li>Africa's highest peak in north-eastern Tanzania rising 4,600 m (15,100 ft) from its base. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Escarpment & Silt <ul><li>Escarpment - A steep slope with a nearly flat plateau on top. </li></ul><ul><li>Silt - increases the fertility of soil. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Coffee <ul><li>The second most profitable commodity in Africa after oil. Ethiopia is Africa's biggest coffee producer about 12 million workers and 331,00 peasant farms. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sahara Desert <ul><li>The largest desert in the world. The highest peak in the Sahara is Emi Koussi (3,415 m/11,200 ft) in the Tibesti Mountains in northern Chad. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Aquifer <ul><li>Stores of underground water . Africa has 38 of the 273 shared aquifers in the world. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Oasis <ul><li>An area with water that supports vegetation and wildlife in a desert. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Canopy <ul><li>The tops of trees in a rain forest, about 150 feet above the ground. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sahel <ul><li>Means &quot;shore of the desert“ </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow band of grassland found along the southern edge of the Sahara desert. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Desertification <ul><li>Shift of the desert. Increasing desert-like conditions ( dry ) in arid and semi-arid lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Desertification: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drilling for water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overgrazing of livestock </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Niger delta <ul><li>Extends over about 70,000 km² and makes up 7.5% of Nigeria’s land mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich oil deposits were discovered in the Niger delta in 1956 . Oil has caused severe environmental damage in the region. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Aswan High Dam <ul><li>Built to regulate water supply along the Nile River </li></ul><ul><li>Produces around 15% of Egypt's electricity production. </li></ul><ul><li>The dam mitigated the effects of dangerous floods in 1964 and 1973 and of threatening droughts in 1972–73 and 1983–84, but has not solved all of Egypt's water problems. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Serengeti <ul><li>Tropical grassland area in north-central Tanzania. The Serengeti host many different animals including giraffes, elephants, flamingo and wildebeest . </li></ul>