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  • 1. Busy Android Developer's Guide to UI Ted Neward Neward & Associates http://www.tedneward.com | ted@tedneward.com
  • 2. Credentials
    • Who is this guy?
      • Architectural Consultant, Neudesic Software
      • Principal, Architect, Consultant and Mentor
        • ask me how I can help your project or your team
      • Microsoft MVP (F#, C#, Architect)
      • JSR 175, 277 Expert Group Member
      • Author
        • Professional F# 2.0 (w/Erickson, et al; Wrox, 2010)
        • Effective Enterprise Java (Addison-Wesley, 2004)
        • C# In a Nutshell (w/Drayton, et all; OReilly, 2003)
        • SSCLI Essentials (w/Stutz, et al; OReilly, 2003)
        • Server-Based Java Programming (Manning, 2000)
      • Blog: http://blogs.tedneward.com
      • Papers: http://www.tedneward.com/writings
      • Twitter: @tedneward
  • 3. Objectives
    • Our goal here today is...
      • ... to get familiar with the various Android UI elements
      • ... to come to understand XML layouts
      • ... to learn how to handle events within Android UIs
  • 4. Activities and Tasks
    • Activity
      • somewhat akin to a web page or screen
      • public class that extends android.app.Activity
      • activities have event methods for override
        • onCreate: activity "constructor"
        • onDestroy: activity "finalizer"
        • onStart/onResume/onPause/onStop/onRestart flow
        • remember to always call up the inheritance chain
  • 5. Activities and Tasks
    • Tasks
      • Tasks are the logical thread of use through Activities
        • usually starting from the Home screen
      • Tasks form a "back stack" of Activity instances
        • "back" button removes the top card, destroys that activity
      • Tasks are distinct from one another
        • a new task creates a new stack of cards
        • this means more than one Activity instance of the same type is possible
      • Tasks cross applications and processes
        • in this respect, Activities are like web pages
  • 6. Viewables
    • View and ViewGroups
      • View is the base class for "widgets"
      • ViewGroup is the base for Composite-patterned containers of other View objects (including other ViewGroup instances)
      • Each Activity can hold one content View
        • most often, this is a ViewGroup, forming a hierarchy
      • Custom Views and ViewGroups
        • you can do them, but it's pretty rare
  • 7. Viewables
    • Widgets (android.widget)
      • "Push Me": Button, CompoundButton, CheckBox, ImageButton, RadioButton
      • Text: EditText, TextView, NumberPicker, TextSwitcher
      • Graphics: Gallery, ImageSwitcher, ImageView
      • Selectors: RatingBar, SeekBar, Spinner, Switch
      • Time: AnalogClock, DigitalClock, Chronometer, CalendarView, DatePicker, TimePicker
      • Composite: ListView, SlidingDrawer, TabHost
      • Media: MediaController
      • Space (literally, just that--empty space!)
      • ... and a few more
  • 8. Viewables
    • Layouts (android.widget)
      • LinearLayout
      • RelativeLayout
      • TableLayout
      • GridLayout
      • AbsoluteLayout (bad!)
      • FrameLayout (mostly useless!)
  • 9. Viewables
    • Dialogs (android.app) are a special case of Activity
      • AlertDialog (OK/Cancel/Help, etc)
      • ProgressDialog (56 of 100...)
      • DatePickerDialog
      • TimePickerDialog
    • But Dialogs are not Activities
      • Dialogs are always created and displayed as part of (and are "owned" by) an Activity; as such, they are intimately wrapped up in their host Activity's code
      • AlertDialog is the workhorse here
  • 10. Creation
    • Two ways of creating UIs in Android
      • either create UI "by hand" in Java
      • or using XML-based layout (resource) file
        • layout resources are not tied to an Activity; they are just a group of Views laid out in an XML file
        • layout resources can be "inflated" from XML into UI objects (via a system service)
        • Activity.setContentView() is a shortcut way to do this
  • 11. Layout Resources
    • Layout resources are in res/layout directory
      • XML file name corresponds to R.layout.{filename}
      • Root element is (usually) a ViewGroup (Layout class)
      • android: namespace is mandatory
      • element attributes describe "setter" values
      • android:id is critical for manipulation
        • "@+{prefix}/{name}" defines new R.{prefix}.{name} id
        • {prefix} is most often "id" but isn't required
        • IDs don't have to be unique across the entire tree (but usually are)
  • 12. Layout Resources <LinearLayout xmlns:android=&quot;http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android&quot; android:orientation=&quot;vertical&quot; android:layout_width=&quot;fill_parent&quot; android:layout_height=&quot;fill_parent&quot;> <ListView android:id=&quot;@+my_team_ids/lstInvitees&quot; android:layout_width=&quot;fill_parent&quot; android:layout_height=&quot;wrap_content&quot; android:padding=&quot;6dip&quot; /> <LinearLayout android:orientation=&quot;horizontal&quot; android:layout_width=&quot;fill_parent&quot; android:layout_height=&quot;fill_parent&quot; android:gravity=&quot;bottom&quot;> <TextView android:text=&quot;Add:&quot; android:layout_width=&quot;wrap_content&quot; android:layout_height=&quot;wrap_content&quot; /> <EditText android:id=&quot;@+my_team_ids/txtNewTeamMember&quot; android:layout_width=&quot;wrap_content&quot; android:layout_height=&quot;wrap_content&quot; android:hint=&quot;(Email address)&quot; android:maxLines=&quot;1&quot; /> <ImageButton android:id=&quot;@+my_team_ids/btnInvite&quot; android:layout_width=&quot;wrap_content&quot; android:layout_height=&quot;wrap_content&quot; android:src=&quot;@android:drawable/sym_action_chat&quot; /> </LinearLayout> </LinearLayout>
  • 13. Layout Resources
    • Layout resources can be &quot;tuned&quot;
      • like all resources, layouts can be spceialized to particular scenarios
        • screen size: &quot;small&quot;, &quot;normal&quot;, &quot;large&quot;, &quot;xlarge&quot;
        • orientation: &quot;port&quot;, &quot;land&quot;
        • pixel density: &quot;ldpi&quot;, &quot;mdpi&quot;, &quot;hdpi&quot;, &quot;xhdpi&quot;, &quot;nodpi&quot;, &quot;tvdpi&quot;
        • platform version: &quot;v3&quot;, &quot;v4&quot;, &quot;v7&quot;, ...
      • this is one way to customize UI to different device profiles
        • the above qualifiers MUST be in that order
        • see ${SDK}/docs/guide/topics/resources/providing-resources.html
  • 14. Menus
    • Menus
      • Activities can also have menubar items associated with them
        • best used for actions that aren't common or frequent
      • Menus are often defined in layout (res/menu)
        • menu: define a menu, a container for menu items
        • item: define a menuitem, with id, icon and title (text)
        • group: convenience grouping of item elements (invisible)
  • 15. Menus <menu xmlns:android=&quot;http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android&quot;> <item android:id=&quot;@+id/new_game&quot; android:icon=&quot;@drawable/ic_new_game&quot; android:title=&quot;@string/new_game&quot; /> <item android:id=&quot;@+id/help&quot; android:icon=&quot;@drawable/ic_help&quot; android:title=&quot;@string/help&quot; /> </menu>
  • 16. Menus
    • ActionBar (3.0+)
      • A set of menus/menuitems appearing at the top
        • generally only useful for tablets
  • 17. Event-handling
    • Most Views/ViewGroups offer events for code to subscribe to
      • These are called &quot;InputEvents&quot;
      • Most of the time, this is the classic &quot;Listener&quot; idiom
        • View.OnClickListeners can be wired up in the XML layout
      • Most of the time, these are wired up in onCreate()
  • 18. Intents
    • Moving from one Activity to another requires an Intent
      • Intent = Action (verb) + Context (target)
      • easiest Intent is the &quot;launch the Activity&quot; Intent
        • Intent next = new Intent(this, NextActivity.class);
        • startActivity(next);
  • 19. Threading
    • Good Thread hygiene is critical here
      • This is a phone--you don't own the machine!
      • Android isn't quite like Java, and has a slightly different &quot;take&quot; on the threads-and-UI position
        • no blocking behaviors (in general)
        • NO UI modifications from non-UI thread
        • If the UI thread is inactive for more than 5 seconds, bye!
      • Android provides Handlers, which can be sent Messages that will then be processed on the Activity's UI thread
      • Java5 provides a few other constructs as well
  • 20. Wrapping up
    • &quot;What do you know?&quot;
  • 21. Summary
    • Android is a Java-based mobile device framework
      • ... but it's not Java
      • ... and it's not a web app technology
      • ... and it's definitely not Swing or SWT
  • 22. Resources
    • Busy Coder’s Guide to Android
      • Mark Murphy, http://www.commonsware.com
    • Android website
      • http://developer.android.com
    • Presentations by this guy
      • Busy Android Dev's Guide to Persistence
      • Busy Android Dev's Guide to Communication
      • ... and more