The authoring, publishing, dissemination, and reading of information produced for teaching, learning or research in whatever format, with the tools, measures and systems needed to provide access to and store these materials in perpetuity.
OR… Scholarly Communications is a system to manage the results of research and scholarly inquiry.
OR… Scholarly communication is the system of people, procedures, and tools through which the results of research and scholarship are registered, evaluated, disseminated, and preserved.
“ What you see and hear depends on a good deal on where you’re standing.” C.S. Lewis
Upload to Personal Webpage & Institutional Repository
Use of Digital Scholarly Resources Source: Current Models of Digital Scholarly Communication: Results of an Investigation Conducted by Ithaka Strategic Services for the Association of Research Libraries http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=jep;view=text;rgn=main;idno=3336451.0012.105
By “open access” to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public Internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the Internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.
Lower paid researchers in US won’t be able to afford to publish
Demise of Society Publishers/Publications
University budgets won’t be able to handle author fees
Create more difficulties in linking, indexing, providing access points
NIH Public Access Policy Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 Division G, Title II, Section 218 SEC. 218. The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed Central an electronic version of their final peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication: Provided, That the NIH shall implement the public access policy in a manner consistent with copyright law.
S. 1373 – Introduced June 25, 2009; Referred to Committee
The bill would provide for federal agencies, with research funding in excess of $100 million, to develop free online public access policies related to research conducted by employees of that agency or from funds administered by that agency.
OSTP – Request for Public Comment on Public Access to Federally-Funded Research
Learning Opportunities with Creation of Open Source Textbooks (LOW COST) Act of 2009
H.R. 1464 – Introduced March 12, 2009; Referred to Committee
The bill required each federal agency that expends more than $10 million in a fiscal year on scientific education and outreach to use at least 2% of such funds for collaboration on the development and implementation of open source materials as an educational outreach effort.
Implications of Current Publishing Practices on the Research Community
The current market structure does not operate in the long-term interests of the research community.
Commercial publishers are dominant though many top journals are published by not-for-profit organizations.
The “public good” element of scientific work means market solutions are inefficient.
Electronic publishing is not currently challenging the dominance of commercial publishers.
Fosters scientific rigor . Publication in refereed journals adds status to the research information, and to the source of the information, since the inclusion of an article is the result of scrutiny by experts in the field who signify that the research information is significant and the data have passed their critical evaluation.
Validates research strategies . Acceptance by experts indicates that the research information is original, useful, and provides valuable new knowledge.
Facilitates replication of research studies and generalizability of results . Journal articles generally provide in-depth and complex information that may serve as a basis upon which other researchers may conduct similar research or directly apply the research information to real world situations.
Improves accountability . Publishing in refereed journals has been the classical means by which academicians account for their research activities to their institutions. Journal publishing can provide accountability to stakeholders who review the researcher’s publications to determine whether they are a credible source of information.