Unit 2 Foc
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Unit 2 Foc

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COMPUTER SOFTWARE

COMPUTER SOFTWARE

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Unit 2 Foc Unit 2 Foc Presentation Transcript

  • UNIT -2 COMPUTER SOFTWARE
  • INTRODUCTION
    • SOFTWARE
    • HARDWARE
    • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE S/W AND H/W
  • TYPES OF SOFTWARE APPLICATION SYSTEM SOFTWARE
  • SOFTWARE
    • Application software
    • -Easy-to-use programs designed to perform specific tasks.
    • System software
      • -Set of programs designed to operate and control the computer.
  • OPERATING SYSTEM
    • It is a collection of programs that controls and manages the computer
    • Examples
    • Windows, Unix, MSDOS
  • Functions Of OS
    • It provide an interface between the hardware and the user.
    • It controls and co-ordinate the entire computer system.
    • It controls the allocation and use of various resource by various user and task.
    • It controls the various application programs.
    • Scheduling the jobs.
    • Process management, Memory management, Device management etc,.
  • TYPES OF OS
    • Single user/ single tasking OS
    • Single user/ multi tasking OS
    • Multi user/ multi tasking OS
    • Time sharing OS
    • Virtual storage OS
    • Real time system
  • Single user/Single tasking OS
    • One user works on the system
    • Performs one task at a time
    • Take up little space on disk
    • Run on inexpensive computers
    • Example MS-DOS
  • Single user/Multitasking OS
    • User performs many tasks at once
    • Most common form of OS
    • Require expensive computers
    • Tend to be complex
    • Example: Windows XP
  • Multi user/Multitasking OS
    • Many users connect to one computer
    • Each user has a unique session
    • Maintenance can be easy
    • Requires a powerful computer
    • Example: UNIX, Linux, etc,.
  • Time sharing OS
    • It handles multiple jobs at a time.
    • It switches the CPU among various jobs that are running on the computer whenever there is a program break or a fixed time has expired.
  • Virtual storage OS
    • It uses the technique Demand paging. i.e. whenever the program size is larger than the main memory it splits the program into many pages.
    • Only the needed page is loaded to the main memory for execution.
  • Real-time operating system
    • It gets data from an on going event.
    • Respond quickly to user input.
    • Example: Reservation system
  • LOGICAL SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
  • HARDWARE
    • The physical components present in the computer is called Hardware.
    • Example: Keyboard, Monitor etc,.
  • SOFTWARE
    • It is a collection of programs which, performs some task.
        • System s/w
        • Application s/w
  • System S/W
    • It is collection of programs that controls and manage the computer.
    • Types:OS,Language processor etc,.
  • TYPES OF SOFTWARE APPLICATION SYSTEM SOFTWARE Example: Operating system, Device drivers, Language Processor, System utilities etc,. Example: Ms-Office, Reservation system, Payroll processing system Hospital management system etc,. GENERAL CUSTOMISED
  • OS
    • It is a collection of programs that controls and manages all the components present in the computer
  • Device drivers
    • It is set of programs, which act as an interface between the computer and the device.
    • It is responsible for the proper functioning of the device.
    COMPUTER D R I V E R S DEVICE 1 DEVICE 2 DEVICE n
  • Language Processor
    • It is a system s/w that translates the programs written in High level language to Machine language.
    • Machine language: 0’s and 1’s.
    • High level language: C, C++, Java etc,.
    • Example: Compiler, Interpreter, Assembler
  • Compiler
    • It converts the programs written in high level language to machine language i.e. it translates the source code to object code.
    HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE C O M P I L E R MACHINE LANGUAGE
  • Interpreter
    • It converts the programs written in high level language to machine language.
    • It executes the source code in line-by-line manner.
    I N T E R P R E T R E HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE MACHINE LANGUAGE
  • Assembler
    • It converts the programs written in Assembly language to machine language.
    A S S E M B L E R ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE MACHINE LANGUAGE
  • System Utilities
    • These programs performs tasks related to the maintenance of computer
      • Example: Disk clean-up.
  • APPLICATION SOFTWARE
    • It is collection of programs that performs a specific task.
          • Customised
          • General
  • APPLICATION SOFTWARE (Cont)
    • Customised Application s/w
      • It is developed to meet the requirements of limited user.
    • General Application s/w
      • It is developed to meet the requirements of many user.
  • S/W Terminologies
    • Firmware
        • It is a software, which is permanently stored on the memory
        • Eg: BIOS
    • Open source
        • It is software developed by some programmers and released for public use
        • The programming code is available so that the user can modify it.
  • S/W Terminologies (Cont)
    • Freeware
        • It is a copyrighted software which is given away free by the owner.
    • Commercial s/w
        • It is developed by business organizations to earn profit
  • SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
    • Steps:
    • Requirement analysis
    • Design
    • Coding
    • Testing
    • Implementation & maintenance
  • SDLC Requirement Analysis Impl & Maintenance Testing Coding Design
  • Requirement analysis
    • It produce the Software requirement document (SRS),which specifies all requirements of the customer.
  • Design
    • It is the process of designing how the requirements to be implemented.
  • Coding
    • It is the process of developing code for the software.
  • Testing
    • It is the process of executing the software with sample data to verify whether it has errors or not.
  • Implementation & maintenance
    • It involves installation of the s/w, giving training to the customer etc,.
  • ASSIGNMENT
  • DECIMAL ↔ BINARY
    • 29
    • 68
    • 116
    • 202
    • 423
  • DECIMAL ↔ OCTAL
    • 27
    • 171
    • 262
    • 726
    • 3731
  • DECIMAL ↔ HEXA
    • 83
    • 796
    • 2947
    • 4321
    • 8239
  • DECIMAL ↔ OTHER
    • 85 ↔ BASE4
    • 76 ↔ BASE3
    • 317 ↔ BASE6
    • 186 ↔ BASE7
    • 251 ↔ BASE8
  • BINARY ↔ OCTAL,HEXA
    • 1110111
    • 1100001001
    • 10010101101011
    • 101011110001
    • 10110101011
  • OCTAL ↔ HEXA
    • 567
    • 649
    • 814
    • 2457
    • 4948
    • 61.625 10  BASE2
    • 427.29 10  OCTAL
    • 759.37 10  HEXA
  • INTERNET
    • Network of networks i.e. interconnection of networks.
  • EVOLUTION OF INTERNET
    • In 1960 US Dept of Defense created a network called ARPANET ( A dvanced R esearch P roject A gency Net work).It is the forerunner of today’s Internet.
    • By 1970’s ARPA helped in the development of TCP/IP ( T ransmission C ontrol P rotocol/ I nternet P rotocol) which is used for transferring of data between networks.
    • In 1980’s National Science Foundation (NSF) created the NSFNET.
    • In 1980’s e-mail was introduced.
    • In 1990’s the world wide web was introduced.
  • Internet Terminology
    • Webpage – It is an electronic document which contains information.
    • Website – It is a collection of related WebPages.
    • Homepage – It is starting point or doorway to the website. It is also known as the index page.
  • Internet Terminology (Cont)
    • Web Browser or Browser – It is a program that enables the user to access the Webpage and displays the webpage on the computer screen.
    • Uniform Resource Locator (URL) –It is the unique Address of the Webpage, which is used to identifies its location on the internet.
  • Internet Terminology (Cont)
    • Hypertext – It refers to the text that connects other documents.
    • Internet Service Provider (ISP) - It provides access to the internet to user.
    • Web Server – It is a computer that services the requests from the clients i.e. web browser
  • Internet Terminology (Cont)
    • Download - It is the process of receiving data from a remote computer to the local computer.
    • Upload – It is process of sending data from local computer to remote computer.
  • Getting connected to the Internet
    • Requirements
    • Modem
    • A Connection with the ISP
  • IP Address
    • The Internet Protocol Address is used for identifying the computer.
    • It can be expressed in dotted decimal form or binary form.
    • It has four octets i.e. it has four 8 bit number Eg: 175.192.0.1
      • 10101111.11000000.00000000.00000001
  • DNS
    • Domain Name System
    • It is used to maps the text to the IP Address.
  • URL
    • Uniform Resource Locator.
    • It contains the protocol name, domain name etc,.
    • Eg: http://www.microsoft.com
  • Internet Application
    • World Wide Web
    • It is a collection of information or collection websites.
    • e-mail
    • It is used to send electronic message to anyone.
  • Internet Application (Cont)
    • Chatting
        • It is online Conversation.
        • It is used to send message back and forth to anyone.
    • Remote Access
        • It is the process of accessing information present in a remote computer.
  • Internet Application (Cont)
    • File Sharing
        • It enables a group of user to share information.
        • The information has been placed on a shared location and the user access the information.
  • Internet Application (Cont)
    • IRC
        • Internet Relay Chat.
        • It is designed for group communication.
    • Video Conferencing
        • It allows two or more user to interact via video and audio transmission.
  • Internet Application (Cont)
    • FTP
        • File Transfer Protocol
        • It is used to transfer data from one computer to another computer.
    • TelNet
        • Telecommunication Network
        • This protocol is used to get services from the server.
  • Internet Application (Cont)
    • VOIP
        • Voice Over Internet Protocol.
        • It sends voice over the internet protocol.
  •  
  •  
  • SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE Requirements – defines needed information, function, behavior, performance and interfaces. Design – data structures, software architecture, interface representations, algorithmic details. Implementation – source code, database, user documentation, testing.