Gerardo O. Guevara, Jr.
CAUSES OF STRESS
Organizational factors
– Discrimination in pay/salary structure
– Strict rules and regulations
– Ineffective communication...
Individual Factors
 There are various expectations which the
family members, peer, superior and
subordinates have from th...
Individual Factors
 Other individual factors causing stress
among employees are inherent personality
traits such as being...
Job Concerning Factors
– Monotonous nature of job
– Unsafe and unhealthy working conditions
– Lack of confidentiality
– Cr...
WHAT IS STRESS
STRESS
 STRESS is the way we react, physically and
emotionally, to change. Stress is a general
term we apply to the press...
STRESS
 Stress is a person’s adaptive response to a
stimulus that places excessive psychological
or physical demands on t...
WHAT ARE THE POSITIVE AND
NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF STRESS?
POSITIVE STRESS
When we experienced positive stress, we tend
to feel:
 Better focused
 Energized
 Motivated
 Aware of ...
POSITIVE STRESS
 Positive Stress can help us concentrate and
focus.
 When positive stress enhances our individual
or gro...
NEGATIVE STRESS
 Stress may also become a negative force in
our lives.
 High stress may be dysfunctional.
NEGATIVE STRESS
With negative stress one tends to feel:
 Tense
 Anxious
 Angry or depressed
 Withdrawing from or lashi...
HOW DOES A PERSON REACT TO
STRESS?
HOW DOES A PERSON REACT TO
STRESS?
Avoid. We can attempt to ignore a
stressful situation and hope that whatever is
causin...
HOW DOES A PERSON REACT TO
STRESS?
Resist. We can fight stress. If the stress
is coming from our boss, co-workers, or
spo...
HOW DOES A PERSON REACT TO
STRESS?
Confront/ Adapt. We can work to
identify the real cause of our stress and
eliminate it.
STRESS MANAGEMENT
PERCEPTION
 An individual’s perception of a situation will
influence the level of stress. To the
individual, his or her p...
PERCEPTION
 Perception then will moderate the
relationship between a potentially stressful
condition and an individual’s ...
LOCUS OF CONTROL
 Locus of Control is a personality attribute.
 People with a high external locus of control
believe tha...
LOCUS OF CONTROL
 Those with a high internal locus of control
believe that they control their own destiny.
 The internal...
JOB EXPERIENCE
 The greater the job experience, the more
comfortable the employee becomes with the
environment of the wor...
SOCIAL SUPPORT
 Social support systems moderate the
negative effects of stress. Involvement with
family, friends, associa...
EFFECTS OF STRESS
Physiological Stress
 Doctors estimate that 75 percent of all
medical complaints are stress-related:
Insomnia, sleep diso...
Psychological Stress
 Job dissatisfaction is the simplest and most
obvious psychological effect of stress.
 Jobs providi...
Behavioral Stress
 Behaviorally related stress in the workplace
may cause changes in productivity,
absenteeism & turnover...
STRESS MANAGEMENT
TECHNIQUES
Establish Personal Priorities
 Establishing an objective means for
evaluating time demands and give a basis for
saying ‘n...
Physical Exercise
 To deal with excessive level of stress,
walking, jogging, swimming and riding a
bicycle are recommende...
Time Management
 A good time management system allows you
to keep track of appointments and to
organize important aspects...
Relaxation
 Relaxation stimulates the body’s
parasympathetic nervous system, which
controls stress responses like respira...
RELAXATION PROGRAMS
 Concentration-
Focusing
 Deep Breathing
 Progressive Muscle
relaxation
 Gentle Muscle
Stretching
...
FRUSTRATION
FRUSTRATION
 Frustration is a common emotional
response to opposition.
 Related to anger and disappointment, it
arises f...
Reactions of Frustration
 Frustration leads to some sort of negative
emotional state. Two important properties
are that t...
Effects of Organizational Frustration
 Emotional response of anger and
associated increased physiological arousal,
and th...
Effects of Organizational Frustration
 Frustration can increase task speed with no
additional errors for simple task, but...
Effects of Organizational Frustration
 Aggression in organizations can take many forms.
It can be directed covertly again...
Effects of Organizational Frustration
 Finally, frustration can lead a person to try
alternative courses of action to ach...
END
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Stress and Frustration by Jerry (Group 2)

  1. 1. Gerardo O. Guevara, Jr.
  2. 2. CAUSES OF STRESS
  3. 3. Organizational factors – Discrimination in pay/salary structure – Strict rules and regulations – Ineffective communication – Peer pressure – Goals conflicts/goals ambiguity – More of centralized and formal organization structure – Less promotional opportunities – Lack of employees participation in decision-making – Excessive control over the employees by the managers
  4. 4. Individual Factors  There are various expectations which the family members, peer, superior and subordinates have from the employee.  Failure to understand such expectations or to convey such expectations lead to role ambiguity/role conflict which in turn causes employee stress.
  5. 5. Individual Factors  Other individual factors causing stress among employees are inherent personality traits such as being impatient, aggressive, rigid, feeling time pressure always, etc. Similarly, the family issues, personal financial problems, sudden career changes all lead to stress.
  6. 6. Job Concerning Factors – Monotonous nature of job – Unsafe and unhealthy working conditions – Lack of confidentiality – Crowding
  7. 7. WHAT IS STRESS
  8. 8. STRESS  STRESS is the way we react, physically and emotionally, to change. Stress is a general term we apply to the pressures we feel in our lives and it is the wear and tear our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment.  STRESS is an unavoidable fact of life.
  9. 9. STRESS  Stress is a person’s adaptive response to a stimulus that places excessive psychological or physical demands on that person.
  10. 10. WHAT ARE THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF STRESS?
  11. 11. POSITIVE STRESS When we experienced positive stress, we tend to feel:  Better focused  Energized  Motivated  Aware of Options  Challenge rather than intimidated
  12. 12. POSITIVE STRESS  Positive Stress can help us concentrate and focus.  When positive stress enhances our individual or group performance, it is termed FUNCTIONAL STRESS.
  13. 13. NEGATIVE STRESS  Stress may also become a negative force in our lives.  High stress may be dysfunctional.
  14. 14. NEGATIVE STRESS With negative stress one tends to feel:  Tense  Anxious  Angry or depressed  Withdrawing from or lashing out at others  Frustrated
  15. 15. HOW DOES A PERSON REACT TO STRESS?
  16. 16. HOW DOES A PERSON REACT TO STRESS? Avoid. We can attempt to ignore a stressful situation and hope that whatever is causing stress, will go away. A common avoidance technique is reliance on alcohol or drugs. This behavior soon becomes destructive to the individual and the situation.
  17. 17. HOW DOES A PERSON REACT TO STRESS? Resist. We can fight stress. If the stress is coming from our boss, co-workers, or spouse, we can view stress as an assault by an external source and fight it. This is really a defensive response and often makes the stress worse.
  18. 18. HOW DOES A PERSON REACT TO STRESS? Confront/ Adapt. We can work to identify the real cause of our stress and eliminate it.
  19. 19. STRESS MANAGEMENT
  20. 20. PERCEPTION  An individual’s perception of a situation will influence the level of stress. To the individual, his or her perception of reality is reality.
  21. 21. PERCEPTION  Perception then will moderate the relationship between a potentially stressful condition and an individual’s reaction to it
  22. 22. LOCUS OF CONTROL  Locus of Control is a personality attribute.  People with a high external locus of control believe that their lives are controlled by outside forces.
  23. 23. LOCUS OF CONTROL  Those with a high internal locus of control believe that they control their own destiny.  The internals act to take control of the event, while the externals are likely to blame others and their environment and become defensive; because they are more likely to feel victimized in the stressful situations.
  24. 24. JOB EXPERIENCE  The greater the job experience, the more comfortable the employee becomes with the environment of the work situation and with fellow employees.  With this gain in job experience, stress is reduced or disappears.
  25. 25. SOCIAL SUPPORT  Social support systems moderate the negative effects of stress. Involvement with family, friends, associates and the community can provide the support against stress.
  26. 26. EFFECTS OF STRESS
  27. 27. Physiological Stress  Doctors estimate that 75 percent of all medical complaints are stress-related: Insomnia, sleep disorders, muscle aches, high blood pressure, heart attack, etc.
  28. 28. Psychological Stress  Job dissatisfaction is the simplest and most obvious psychological effect of stress.  Jobs providing low level of variety, significance, autonomy, feedback and identity to employees create stress & reduce satisfaction and involvement in the job.
  29. 29. Behavioral Stress  Behaviorally related stress in the workplace may cause changes in productivity, absenteeism & turnover.  This may result in changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, hurried speech, nervousness and sleep disorders.
  30. 30. STRESS MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
  31. 31. Establish Personal Priorities  Establishing an objective means for evaluating time demands and give a basis for saying ‘no’ to demands that conflict with priorities.
  32. 32. Physical Exercise  To deal with excessive level of stress, walking, jogging, swimming and riding a bicycle are recommended.  Departure from work environment provides a mental and physical diversion from work pressure.
  33. 33. Time Management  A good time management system allows you to keep track of appointments and to organize important aspects of your life.  Delegate those tasks to others that they are capable of doing.
  34. 34. Relaxation  Relaxation stimulates the body’s parasympathetic nervous system, which controls stress responses like respiration, heart rate and digestion.
  35. 35. RELAXATION PROGRAMS  Concentration- Focusing  Deep Breathing  Progressive Muscle relaxation  Gentle Muscle Stretching  Visualization/ Imagery  Music Therapy  Social Support  Adequate rest  Pets
  36. 36. FRUSTRATION
  37. 37. FRUSTRATION  Frustration is a common emotional response to opposition.  Related to anger and disappointment, it arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will.
  38. 38. Reactions of Frustration  Frustration leads to some sort of negative emotional state. Two important properties are that the emotions are aversive, and that it produces or results in increased physiological arousal. The aversive nature means that the individual will be highly motivated or reduced in it.
  39. 39. Effects of Organizational Frustration  Emotional response of anger and associated increased physiological arousal, and the behavioral responses of trying alternative course of action, aggression, and withdrawal. To the extent that it interferes with or blocks task performance, frustration can be directly harmful to organizations.
  40. 40. Effects of Organizational Frustration  Frustration can increase task speed with no additional errors for simple task, but interferes with correct performance on complex tasks.
  41. 41. Effects of Organizational Frustration  Aggression in organizations can take many forms. It can be directed covertly against the source of frustration (if a person) either verbally or physically. It can also be directed covertly against a person; that is, an individual can secretly perform behaviors which can hurt another person. Aggression can also be directed against the organization itself. The organizational aggression could be overt to covert.
  42. 42. Effects of Organizational Frustration  Finally, frustration can lead a person to try alternative courses of action to achieve goals or fulfill needs. In fact mild frustrations, which interfere rather than block can add challenge and include greater overall effort. Thus organizational frustration might have positive, motivating effects.
  43. 43. END
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