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  1. 1. How Safe Are You On The Road? Juwita bt. Radzi Nor Ashikin bt. Teh Hisham b. Bakar Nur Waheeda bt. Ismail
  2. 2. <ul><li>Clouded Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Ignoring Prevailing Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Inattention </li></ul><ul><li>Tailgating </li></ul><ul><li>Running The Amber Traffic Lights </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to Stop or Give Way </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Lanes Without Looking </li></ul><ul><li>Impatience To Overtake </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing the White Lines to “Look Around” the Vehicle in Front </li></ul><ul><li>Driving Without Seatbelts </li></ul>Driver’s Common Mistake
  3. 3. <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to focus, caused by the intake of substance that results drowsiness or slows down the brain functions </li></ul><ul><li>Substances which can affect driver’s performance: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>b) Drugs/Medication </li></ul><ul><li>a) Alcohol : </li></ul><ul><li>A sip? A glass? A bottle? Quantity doesn’t matter! </li></ul><ul><li>Slows down the brain functions </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to concentrate/focus </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Tips </li></ul><ul><li>- Don’t take alcohol before driving </li></ul><ul><li>- The safest blood alcohol level = ZERO </li></ul><ul><li>Clouded Thinking </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Clouded Thinking (Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Drugs/Medication : </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine that caused drowsiness and dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Drug Intake = Multiple Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Over-The-Counter Medicine vs Natural Remedy </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Tips </li></ul><ul><li>- Avoid taking medicines before driving </li></ul><ul><li>- Avoid taking drugs/ medicine with alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>- Take time-off! Rest and recuperate </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Ignoring Prevailing Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to notice existing conditions and the actions to be taken to manage such situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Ignored Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Speed Limit </li></ul><ul><li>Road Condition </li></ul><ul><li>Slow down when it rains </li></ul><ul><li>Driving right on sunrise or sunset </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Tips: </li></ul><ul><li>- Recognise the importance of prevailing factors and conditions </li></ul><ul><li>- Identify appropriate actions to handle and manage the conditions </li></ul><ul><li>- Use extreme caution </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Inattention </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of attention or focus caused by tiredness or other distracting factors. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Tiredness: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sleep, Mentally and physically stressed, Long journey trips </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes in one-fifth of all fatal or serious road accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue crashes = Severe crashes </li></ul><ul><li>Few seconds of ‘dreamland bliss’ can turn to ‘horrible nightmare crash’ </li></ul><ul><li>Warning Signs of Drowsy Driving </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Tips: </li></ul><ul><li>- Listen to your body and take a break </li></ul><ul><li>- Long journey trips on highways: Use Rest & Service Ares or Lay-Bys </li></ul><ul><li>b) Distracting factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Using hand-held mobile phones - talking or sending text messages </li></ul><ul><li>Changing radio stations, Checking out a cute car next to you, Eating </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Tips: </li></ul><ul><li>- Concentrate, concentrate, concentrate!!! </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Tailgating </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>To follow a vehicle too closely and in a dangerous manner </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Rear-enders’ make up a large proportion of motor vehicle collisions </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of the signs of aggressive drivers </li></ul><ul><li>What to do when you are confronted by an aggressive driver? </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Tips: </li></ul><ul><li>- Do not hog the Lane!! </li></ul><ul><li>- Patience and courtesy can lead to a safe journey! </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Running Amber Traffic Lights </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The failure to slow down to ready to stop whenever amber traffic lights flashes </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous and futile behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated traffic lights </li></ul><ul><li>To stop or not to stop? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the reason for hurrying up is worth dying for? </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Tips: </li></ul><ul><li>- Slow down whenever you see yellow lights </li></ul><ul><li>- Traffic Lights with ‘countdown timer’ </li></ul><ul><li>- Be sensible and always think of the safety of yourself as well as others </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Failing to Stop or Give Way </li></ul><ul><li>Asia-motorist failed to heed basic road rules </li></ul><ul><li>1 case in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Safety tips </li></ul><ul><li>- always check traffic conditions & give way </li></ul><ul><li>- Rubrico explain – stop sign where it is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Lanes Without Looking </li></ul><ul><li>Noriel Tigloa case </li></ul><ul><li>Lost in ‘blind spot’ if mirrors aren’t aligned correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Safety tips </li></ul><ul><li>- Check first to see the lane was clear </li></ul><ul><li>- To be aware of cars trying to overtake </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Impatience to Overtake </li></ul><ul><li>Following slow vehicles along narrow winding roads can lead to frustration if in a hurry </li></ul><ul><li>Safety tips </li></ul><ul><li>- Constant pressure </li></ul><ul><li>- Allow sufficient time for your journey </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing the White Lines to “Look Around” the Vehicle in Front </li></ul><ul><li>Still behind someone? </li></ul><ul><li>Need to look past it to see if the road ahead is clear? </li></ul><ul><li>Safety tips </li></ul><ul><li>- Have to look around the vehicle ahead is simply move back </li></ul><ul><li>- Sit back 75 to 100mm and you can see the road ahead with your wheels barely on the dividing line </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Driving Without Seatbelts </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of respondents admitted not wearing seatbelts </li></ul><ul><li>The proper use of seatbelts has saved many lives </li></ul><ul><li>Non seatbelts are at far greater risk of serious injury than those wearing seatbelts </li></ul><ul><li>Safety tips </li></ul><ul><li>- Make it a habit or family rule not to start your car until everyone belted up </li></ul>
  12. 12. CAR SAFETY <ul><li>Tyres </li></ul><ul><li>Braking System </li></ul><ul><li>Seatbelts & Airbags </li></ul>
  13. 13. Car Safety <ul><li>Tyres </li></ul><ul><li>Important component </li></ul><ul><li>Navigate the car and carries the car load </li></ul><ul><li>Four crucial tyre maintenance factors to look for </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment </li></ul><ul><li>- Adjusting the angles of the wheel so that they at the right angles and parallel to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause tyre to wear, wandering on straight level road </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the tyres and wheels to spin without causing vibration </li></ul><ul><li>To overcome vibration, measured lead weight will be placed on the heavy spot on wheel-tyre combination </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Tyres (Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Front tyres wear faster than the rear tyres </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven tyre thickness will give you uneven braking and poor handling </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate the rear tyre to the front and replace the rear wheel with new pair </li></ul><ul><li>Tread </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose? To enable the tyres to grip on to the road surface </li></ul><ul><li>2mm tread depth – minimum requirement </li></ul><ul><li>If tread wear off? Cause the car to slide and driver unable to control the car during raining condition </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Braking System </li></ul><ul><li>Brake enable the car to stop </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of brakes- disc brake (front) and drum brake (rear) </li></ul><ul><li>Each brake connected to brake pedal through tubes containing brake fluid </li></ul><ul><li>- When pedal pressed, brake fluid will force brake pads (disc brakes) and brake lining (drum brake) to clamp the disc or lining to stop the wheels </li></ul><ul><li>Check brake pads (disk brake) and brake shoe (drum brake), avoid wear out which cause the car to poor braking </li></ul><ul><li>Check brake fluid, make sure it is pure brake oil and not water </li></ul><ul><li>ABS? Anti-locking Braking System </li></ul><ul><li>ABS prevent the brakes from locking so that the car does not skid </li></ul>
  16. 16. Car Safety (Cont’d) <ul><li>Seatbelts and Airbags </li></ul><ul><li>Started with the idea for a system that would restrain automobile drivers and passengers in an accident, whether or not they were wearing their seat belts. </li></ul><ul><li>Airbags commonly available since the late 1980’s. First invented in 1953. </li></ul><ul><li>FACTS </li></ul><ul><li>An airbag can injure or kill in some circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger need to be seated properly to reduce the severity of injury </li></ul><ul><li>Children to ride at the backseat </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to be used with seat belts so please BUCKLE UP </li></ul>
  17. 17. Air bags – designed to be used with seat belts
  18. 18. Reducing injuries by spreading the force over a larger area Figure 1 When a body hits the steering wheel directly, the force of this impact is distributed over a small area of the body – resulting injuries to this area (in red)
  19. 19. Reducing injuries by spreading the force over a larger area Figure 2 When a body is restrained by an airbag, the force of the impact is distributed over a much larger area of the body – resulting in less severe injuries (in orange)
  20. 20. Car Safety (Cont’d) <ul><li>Other Safety Features </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder strap counts </li></ul><ul><li>-look for a vehicle with a lap & shoulder belt for every seat </li></ul><ul><li>Back seat designs </li></ul><ul><li>Door locks and window overrides </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>DRIVE CAREFULLY </li></ul>
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