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  • 1. How Safe Are You On The Road? Juwita bt. Radzi Nor Ashikin bt. Teh Hisham b. Bakar Nur Waheeda bt. Ismail
  • 2.
    • Clouded Thinking
    • Ignoring Prevailing Conditions
    • Inattention
    • Tailgating
    • Running The Amber Traffic Lights
    • Failing to Stop or Give Way
    • Changing Lanes Without Looking
    • Impatience To Overtake
    • Crossing the White Lines to “Look Around” the Vehicle in Front
    • Driving Without Seatbelts
    Driver’s Common Mistake
  • 3.
    • Definition :
    • Inability to focus, caused by the intake of substance that results drowsiness or slows down the brain functions
    • Substances which can affect driver’s performance:
    • a) Alcohol
    • b) Drugs/Medication
    • a) Alcohol :
    • A sip? A glass? A bottle? Quantity doesn’t matter!
    • Slows down the brain functions
    • Impossible to concentrate/focus
    • Safety Tips
    • - Don’t take alcohol before driving
    • - The safest blood alcohol level = ZERO
    • Clouded Thinking
  • 4.
    • Clouded Thinking (Cont’d)
    • b) Drugs/Medication :
    • Medicine that caused drowsiness and dizziness
    • Multiple Drug Intake = Multiple Effects
    • Over-The-Counter Medicine vs Natural Remedy
    • Safety Tips
    • - Avoid taking medicines before driving
    • - Avoid taking drugs/ medicine with alcohol
    • - Take time-off! Rest and recuperate
  • 5.
    • Ignoring Prevailing Conditions
    • Definition :
    • Failure to notice existing conditions and the actions to be taken to manage such situations.
    • Popular Ignored Factors:
    • Speed Limit
    • Road Condition
    • Slow down when it rains
    • Driving right on sunrise or sunset
    • Safety Tips:
    • - Recognise the importance of prevailing factors and conditions
    • - Identify appropriate actions to handle and manage the conditions
    • - Use extreme caution
  • 6.
    • Inattention
    • Definition:
    • Lack of attention or focus caused by tiredness or other distracting factors.
    • a) Tiredness:
    • Lack of sleep, Mentally and physically stressed, Long journey trips
    • Contributes in one-fifth of all fatal or serious road accidents
    • Fatigue crashes = Severe crashes
    • Few seconds of ‘dreamland bliss’ can turn to ‘horrible nightmare crash’
    • Warning Signs of Drowsy Driving
    • Safety Tips:
    • - Listen to your body and take a break
    • - Long journey trips on highways: Use Rest & Service Ares or Lay-Bys
    • b) Distracting factors:
    • Using hand-held mobile phones - talking or sending text messages
    • Changing radio stations, Checking out a cute car next to you, Eating
    • Safety Tips:
    • - Concentrate, concentrate, concentrate!!!
  • 7.
    • Tailgating
    • Definition:
    • To follow a vehicle too closely and in a dangerous manner
    • ‘ Rear-enders’ make up a large proportion of motor vehicle collisions
    • Be aware of the signs of aggressive drivers
    • What to do when you are confronted by an aggressive driver?
    • Safety Tips:
    • - Do not hog the Lane!!
    • - Patience and courtesy can lead to a safe journey!
  • 8.
    • Running Amber Traffic Lights
    • Definition:
    • The failure to slow down to ready to stop whenever amber traffic lights flashes
    • Dangerous and futile behaviour
    • Coordinated traffic lights
    • To stop or not to stop?
    • Is the reason for hurrying up is worth dying for?
    • Safety Tips:
    • - Slow down whenever you see yellow lights
    • - Traffic Lights with ‘countdown timer’
    • - Be sensible and always think of the safety of yourself as well as others
  • 9.
    • Failing to Stop or Give Way
    • Asia-motorist failed to heed basic road rules
    • 1 case in Singapore
    • Safety tips
    • - always check traffic conditions & give way
    • - Rubrico explain – stop sign where it is necessary
    • Changing Lanes Without Looking
    • Noriel Tigloa case
    • Lost in ‘blind spot’ if mirrors aren’t aligned correctly
    • Safety tips
    • - Check first to see the lane was clear
    • - To be aware of cars trying to overtake
  • 10.
    • Impatience to Overtake
    • Following slow vehicles along narrow winding roads can lead to frustration if in a hurry
    • Safety tips
    • - Constant pressure
    • - Allow sufficient time for your journey
    • Crossing the White Lines to “Look Around” the Vehicle in Front
    • Still behind someone?
    • Need to look past it to see if the road ahead is clear?
    • Safety tips
    • - Have to look around the vehicle ahead is simply move back
    • - Sit back 75 to 100mm and you can see the road ahead with your wheels barely on the dividing line
  • 11.
    • Driving Without Seatbelts
    • 2/3 of respondents admitted not wearing seatbelts
    • The proper use of seatbelts has saved many lives
    • Non seatbelts are at far greater risk of serious injury than those wearing seatbelts
    • Safety tips
    • - Make it a habit or family rule not to start your car until everyone belted up
  • 12. CAR SAFETY
    • Tyres
    • Braking System
    • Seatbelts & Airbags
  • 13. Car Safety
    • Tyres
    • Important component
    • Navigate the car and carries the car load
    • Four crucial tyre maintenance factors to look for
    • Alignment
    • - Adjusting the angles of the wheel so that they at the right angles and parallel to each other
    • Purpose?
    • Can cause tyre to wear, wandering on straight level road
    • Balancing
    • Allow the tyres and wheels to spin without causing vibration
    • To overcome vibration, measured lead weight will be placed on the heavy spot on wheel-tyre combination
  • 14.
    • Tyres (Cont’d)
    • Rotation
    • Front tyres wear faster than the rear tyres
    • Uneven tyre thickness will give you uneven braking and poor handling
    • Rotate the rear tyre to the front and replace the rear wheel with new pair
    • Tread
    • Purpose? To enable the tyres to grip on to the road surface
    • 2mm tread depth – minimum requirement
    • If tread wear off? Cause the car to slide and driver unable to control the car during raining condition
  • 15.
    • Braking System
    • Brake enable the car to stop
    • Two types of brakes- disc brake (front) and drum brake (rear)
    • Each brake connected to brake pedal through tubes containing brake fluid
    • - When pedal pressed, brake fluid will force brake pads (disc brakes) and brake lining (drum brake) to clamp the disc or lining to stop the wheels
    • Check brake pads (disk brake) and brake shoe (drum brake), avoid wear out which cause the car to poor braking
    • Check brake fluid, make sure it is pure brake oil and not water
    • ABS? Anti-locking Braking System
    • ABS prevent the brakes from locking so that the car does not skid
  • 16. Car Safety (Cont’d)
    • Seatbelts and Airbags
    • Started with the idea for a system that would restrain automobile drivers and passengers in an accident, whether or not they were wearing their seat belts.
    • Airbags commonly available since the late 1980’s. First invented in 1953.
    • FACTS
    • An airbag can injure or kill in some circumstances
    • Passenger need to be seated properly to reduce the severity of injury
    • Children to ride at the backseat
    • Designed to be used with seat belts so please BUCKLE UP
  • 17. Air bags – designed to be used with seat belts
  • 18. Reducing injuries by spreading the force over a larger area Figure 1 When a body hits the steering wheel directly, the force of this impact is distributed over a small area of the body – resulting injuries to this area (in red)
  • 19. Reducing injuries by spreading the force over a larger area Figure 2 When a body is restrained by an airbag, the force of the impact is distributed over a much larger area of the body – resulting in less severe injuries (in orange)
  • 20. Car Safety (Cont’d)
    • Other Safety Features
    • Shoulder strap counts
    • -look for a vehicle with a lap & shoulder belt for every seat
    • Back seat designs
    • Door locks and window overrides
  • 21.
    • &