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46637300 huraian-sukatan-sains-tingkatan-2

  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications SCIENCE Form 2 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2002
  2. 2. Copyright © 2002 Curriculum Development CentreMinistry of Education MalaysiaPesiaran Duta Off Jalan Duta50604 Kuala LumpurFirst published 2002Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or byany electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, andrecording is forbidden without the prior written permission from the Director of the Curriculum DevelopmentCentre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS PageThe National Philosophy vNational Philosophy of Education viiNational Science Education Philosophy ixPreface xiIntroduction 1Aims and Objectives 2Scientific Skills 3Thinking Skills 4Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 10Teaching and Learning Strategies 11Content Organisation 14Themes Management and Continuity of Life 16 Man and the Variety of Living Things 26 Matter in Nature 33 Force and Motion 45 Technological and Industrial Development in Society 50 Acknowledgements 54 Panel of Writers 55
  4. 4. THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHYOur nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; maintaining ademocratic way of life; creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitablyshared; ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; building a progressivesociety which shall be orientated towards modern science and technology;The people of Malaysia pledge their united efforts to attain these ends guided by the followingprinciples:BELIEF IN GODLOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRYUPHOLDING THE CONSTITUTIONRULE OF LAWGOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY v
  5. 5. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONEducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of individuals in a holisticand integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally andphysically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort isdesigned to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess highmoral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well beingas well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, society and the nationat large. vii
  6. 6. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and ableto master scientific knowledge and technological competency. ix
  7. 7. PREFACEThe aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised In a recent development, the Government has made asociety depends on science and technology. It is decision to introduce English as the medium of instructionenvisaged that success in providing quality science in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics.education to Malaysians from an early age will serve to This measure will enable students to keep abreast ofspearhead the nation into becoming a knowledge society developments in science and technology in contemporaryand a competitive player in the global arena. Towards this society by enhancing their capability and know-how to tapend, the Malaysian education system is giving greater the diverse sources of information on science written in theemphasis to science and mathematics education. English language. At the same time, this move would also provide opportunities for students to use the EnglishThe Science curriculum has been designed not only to language and hence, increase their proficiency in theprovide opportunities for students to acquire science language. Thus, in implementing the science curriculum,knowledge and skills, develop thinking skills and thinking attention is given to developing students’ ability to usestrategies, and to apply this knowledge and skills in English for study and communication, especially in theeveryday life, but also to inculcate in them noble values early years of learning.and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that the educationalprocess en route to achieving these aims would produce The development of this curriculum and the preparation ofwell-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the the corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been theharmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. work of many individuals over a period of time. To all those who have contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, express myThe Science curriculum aims at producing active learners. sincere gratitude and thanks for the time and labourTo this end, students are given ample opportunities to expended.engage in scientific investigations through hands-onactivities and experimentations. The inquiry approach,incorporating thinking skills, thinking strategies andthoughtful learning, should be emphasised throughout theteaching-learning process. The content and contexts (Dr. SHARIFAH MAIMUNAH SYED ZIN)suggested are chosen based on their relevance and Directorappeal to students so that their interest in the subject is Curriculum Development Centreenhanced. Ministry of Education Malaysia xi
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION As articulated in the National Education Policy, education innovative, and able to apply scientific knowledge in decision-in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential making and problem solving in everyday life.of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produceindividuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and The elective science subjects prepare students who arephysically balanced and harmonious. The primary and secondary more scientifically inclined to pursue the study of science at post-school science curriculum is developed with the aim of producing secondary level. This group of students would take up careers insuch individuals. the field of science and technology and play a leading role in this field for national development. As a nation that is progressing towards a developed nationstatus, Malaysia needs to create a society that is scientifically For every science subject, the curriculum for the year isoriented, progressive, knowledgeable, having a high capacity for articulated in two documents: the syllabus and the curriculumchange, forward-looking, innovative and a contributor to scientific specifications. The syllabus presents the aims, objectives and theand technological developments in the future. In line with this, outline of the curriculum content for a period of 2 years for electivethere is a need to produce citizens who are creative, critical, science subjects and 5 years for core science subjects. Theinquisitive, open-minded and competent in science and curriculum specifications provide the details of the curriculumtechnology. which includes the aims and objectives of the curriculum, brief descriptions on thinking skills and thinking strategies, scientific The Malaysian science curriculum comprises three core skills, scientific attitudes and noble values, teaching and learningscience subjects and four elective science subjects. The core strategies, and curriculum content. The curriculum contentsubjects are Science at primary school level, Science at lower provides the learning objectives, suggested learning activities, thesecondary level and Science at upper secondary level. Elective intended learning outcomes, and vocabulary.science subjects are offered at the upper secondary level andconsist of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Additional Science. The core science subjects for the primary and lowersecondary levels are designed to provide students with basicscience knowledge, prepare students to be literate in science, andenable students to continue their science education at the uppersecondary level. Core Science at the upper secondary level isdesigned to produce students who are literate in science, 1
  9. 9. AIMSThe aims of the science curriculum for secondary school are toprovide students with the knowledge and skills in science and 5. Face challenges in the scientific and technological worldtechnology and enable them to solve problems and make and be willing to contribute towards the development ofdecisions in everyday life based on scientific attitudes and noble science and technology.values. 6. Evaluate science- and technology-related informationStudents who have followed the secondary science curriculum will wisely and effectively.have the foundation in science to enable them to pursue formaland informal further education in science and technology. 7. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes and good moral values.The curriculum also aims to develop a concerned, dynamic andprogressive society with a science and technology culture that 8. Realise the importance of inter-dependence among livingvalues nature and works towards the preservation and things and the management of nature for survival ofconservation of the environment. mankind. 9. Appreciate the contributions of science and technologyOBJECTIVES towards national development and the well-being of mankind.The science curriculum for secondary school enables students to: 10. Realise that scientific discoveries are the result of human endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual and mental1. Acquire knowledge in science and technology in the capabilities to understand natural phenomena for the context of natural phenomena and everyday life betterment of mankind. experiences. 11. Create awareness on the need to love and care for the2. Understand developments in the field of science and environment and play an active role in its preservation and technology. conservation.3. Acquire scientific and thinking skills.4. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and critical manner for problem solving and decision-making. 2
  10. 10. Using using numbers and tools with Numbers standardised units. MeasuringSCIENTIFIC SKILLS makes observation more accurate.Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry andproblem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are Inferring Using past experiences orutilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation previously collected data to drawsuch as conducting experiments and carrying out projects. conclusions and make explanations of events.Scientific skills encompass science process skills andmanipulative skills. Predicting Stating the outcome of a futureScience Process Skills event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences orScience process skills enable students to formulate their collected data.questions and find out the answers systematically. Communicating Using words or graphic symbolsDescriptions of the science process skills are as follows: such as tables, graphs, figures or models to describe an action, object or event.Observing Using the sense of hearing, touch, smell, taste and sight to collect information about an object or a Using Space- Describing changes in phenomenon. Time parameter with time. Examples Relationship of parameters are location, direction, shape, size, volume,Classifying Using observations to group weight and mass. objects or events according to similarities or differences. Interpreting Data Giving rational explanations about an object, event or patternMeasuring and Making quantitative observations derived from collected data. 3
  11. 11. Defining Defining concepts by describing Manipulative SkillsOperationally what must be done and what should be observed. Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor skills that enable students to:Controlling Identifying the fixed variable, Use and handle science apparatus and laboratory substancesVariables manipulated variable, and correctly. responding variable in an Handle specimens correctly and carefully. investigation. The manipulated Draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory substances variable is changed to observe accurately. its relationship with the Clean science apparatus correctly, and responding variable. At the Store science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly same time, the fixed variable is and safely. kept constant. THINKING SKILLSHypothesising Making a general statement about the relationship between a Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to manipulated variable and a responding variable in order to integrate knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand explain an event or observation. the environment. This statement can be tested to One of the objectives of the national education system is to determine its validity. enhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can be achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtfulExperimenting Planning and conducting learning. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills is a foundation for thoughtful learning. activities to test a certain hypothesis. These activities include collecting, analysing Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved in the teaching and learning process. Activities should be organised and interpreting data and 4
  12. 12. to provide opportunities for students to apply thinking skills in criteria such as commonconceptualisation, problem solving and decision-making. characteristics or features.Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills and Sequencing Arranging objects andcreative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always information in order based onevaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A the quality or quantity ofperson who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is common characteristics orable to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas features such as size, time,and products. shape or number.Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes thatinvolve various steps. Each step involves various critical and Prioritising Arranging objects andcreative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies information in order based onis the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching their importance or priority.and learning process.Critical Thinking Skills Analysing Examining information in detail by breaking it down into smaller parts to find implicitA brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: meaning and relationships. Attributing Identifying criteria such as characteristics, features, Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions qualities and elements of a that have the tendency to concept or an object. support or oppose something in an unfair or misleading way. Comparing and Finding similarities and Contrasting differences based on criteria such as characteristics, Evaluating Making judgements on the features, qualities and quality or value of something elements of a concept or based on valid reasons or event. evidence. Grouping and Separating and grouping Classifying objects or phenomena into Making Making a statement about the categories based on certain Conclusions outcome of an investigation 5
  13. 13. that is based on a hypothesis.Creative Thinking SkillsA brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: Synthesising Combining separate elements or parts to form a general Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a picture in various forms such discussion. as writing, drawing or artefact. Relating Making connections in a certain situation to determine a Making Making a general statement structure or pattern of Hypotheses on the relationship between relationship. manipulated variables and responding variables in order Making Using past experiences or to explain a certain thing or Inferences previously collected data to happening. This statement is draw conclusions and make thought to be true and can be explanations of events. tested to determine its validity. Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior Making Analogies Understanding a certain knowledge gained through abstract or complex concept experiences or collected data. by relating it to a simpler or concrete concept with similar Making Making a general conclusion characteristics. Generalisations about a group based on observations made on, or some information from, Inventing Producing something new or samples of the group. adapting something already in existence to overcome Visualising Recalling or forming mental problems in a systematic images about a particular idea, manner. concept, situation or vision. 6
  14. 14. an inductive and deductive manner. Figure 1 gives a general picture of thinking skills and thinking strategies.Thinking StrategyDescription of each thinking strategy is as follows: Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS) through the teaching and learning of science can be developedConceptualising Making generalisations based through the following phases: on inter-related and common characteristics in order to 1. Introducing TSTS. construct meaning, concept or 2. Practising TSTS with teacher’s guidance. model. 3. Practising TSTS without teacher’s guidance. 4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’s guidance.Making Decisions Selecting the best solution from 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish various alternatives based on thinking tasks. specific criteria to achieve a specific aim. Further information about phases of implementing TSTS can be found in the guidebook “Buku Panduan Penerapan KemahiranProblem Solving Finding solutions to challenging Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran or unfamiliar situations or Sains” (Curriculum Development Centre, 1999). unanticipated difficulties in a systematic manner.Besides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies,another skill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a skillused in making logical, just and rational judgements.Mastering of critical and creative thinking skills and thinkingstrategies is made simpler if an individual is able to reason in 7
  15. 15. Science process skills are skills that are required in the process of finding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a systematicFigure 1 : TSTS Model in Science Thinking Skills manner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative, analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science process skills and the possession of suitable attitudes and knowledge enable students to think effectively. Critical Creative The mastering of science process skills involves the Attributing Generating ideas mastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that are Comparing and Relating related to a particular science process skill are as follows: contrasting Making inferences Grouping and Predicting classifying Making Reasoning Sequencing hypotheses Science Process Skills Thinking Skills Prioritising Synthesising Analysing Making Detecting bias generalisations Observing Attributing Evaluating Visualising Comparing and contrasting Making Making analogies Relating conclusions Inventing Classifying Attributing Comparing and contrasting Thinking Strategies Grouping and classifying Conceptualising Measuring and Using Relating Making decisions Numbers Comparing and contrasting Problem solving Making Inferences Relating Comparing and contrasting AnalysingRelationship between Thinking Skills and Making inferencesScience Process Skills 8
  16. 16. Science Process Skills Thinking Skills Science Process Skills Thinking SkillsPredicting Relating Predicting Relating Visualising VisualisingUsing Space-Time Sequencing Using Space-Time SequencingRelationship Prioritising Relationship PrioritisingInterpreting data Comparing and contrasting Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting Analysing Analysing Detecting bias Detecting bias Making conclusions Making conclusions Generalising Generalising Evaluating EvaluatingDefining operationally Relating Defining operationally Relating Making analogy Making analogy Visualising Visualising Analysing AnalysingControlling variables Attributing Controlling variables Attributing Comparing and contrasting Comparing and contrasting Relating Relating Analysing AnalysingMaking hypothesis Attributing Making hypothesis Attributing Relating Relating Comparing and contrasting Comparing and contrasting Generating ideas Generating ideas Making hypothesis Making hypothesis Predicting Predicting Synthesising Synthesising 9
  17. 17. Science Process Skills Thinking Skills Explanation:Experimenting All thinking skills To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge of theCommunicating All thinking skills characteristics and uses of metals and non-metals in everyday life are learned through comparing and contrasting. The masteryTeaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important as theand Scientific Skills knowledge about the elements of metal and the elements of non-metal.This science curriculum emphasises thoughtful learning based on SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUESthinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery of thinking skills andscientific skills are integrated with the acquisition of knowledge in Science learning experiences can be used as a means tothe intended learning outcomes. Thus, in teaching and learning, inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students. Theseteachers need to emphasise the mastery of skills together with the attitudes and values encompass the following:acquisition of knowledge and the inculcation of noble values andscientific attitudes. Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data.The following is an example and explanation of a learning Being diligent and persevering.outcome based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the environment. Realising that science is a means to understand nature.Example: Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. Appreciating the balance of nature. Learning Outcome: Compare and contrast metallic Being respectful and well-mannered. elements and non-metallic elements. Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. Being thankful to God. Having critical and analytical thinking. Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrasting Being flexible and open-minded. Being kind-hearted and caring. Being objective. Being systematic. Being cooperative. 10
  18. 18. Being fair and just. Example: Daring to try. Thinking rationally. Form One Year: Being confident and independent. Learning Area: 1. MatterThe inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generallyoccurs through the following stages: Learning Objective: 2.3 Appreciating the importance of Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific the variety of earth’s resources to attitudes and noble values. man. Learning Outcome: Practise reducing the use, reusing and recycling of materials, e.g. Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values. using old unfinished exercise books Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and noble as notebooks and collecting old values. newspaper for recycling. Suggested Learning When planning teaching and learning activities, teachers Activities Carry out projects, campaigns, orneed to give due consideration to the above stages to ensure the competitions on reducing the use,continuous and effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and reusing and recycling of materials.values. For example, during science practical work, the teacher Scientific attitudes andshould remind pupils and ensure that they carry out experiments noble values Love and respect for thein a careful, cooperative and honest manner. environment. Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of Being responsible for the safety ofscientific attitudes and noble values during science lessons. oneself, others and theBefore the first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers environment.should examine all related learning outcomes and suggestedteaching-learning activities that provide opportunities for the Appreciating the balance of nature.inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values. Being systematic. The following is an example of a learning outcomepertaining to the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. Being cooperative. 11
  19. 19. Inculcating Patriotism Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through experiences. Inquiry generally means to find information, to question and toThe science curriculum provides an opportunity for the investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the environment.development and strengthening of patriotism among students. For Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. Learning throughexample, in learning about the earth’s resources, the richness and discovery occurs when the main concepts and principles ofvariety of living things and the development of science and science are investigated and discovered by students themselves.technology in the country, students will appreciate the diversity of Through activities such as experiments, students investigate anatural and human resources of the country and deepen their love phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves. Teachersfor the country. then lead students to understand the science concepts through the results of the inquiry. Thinking skills and scientific skills areTEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES thus developed further during the inquiry process. However, the inquiry approach may not be suitable for all teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it may be more appropriate for teachers toTeaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum present concepts and principles directly to students.emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a processthat helps students acquire knowledge and master skills that willhelp them develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful Constructivismlearning can occur through various learning approaches such asinquiry, constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning. Constructivism suggests that students learn about somethingLearning activities should therefore be geared towards activating when they construct their own understanding. The importantstudents’ critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined to attributes of constructivism are as follows:routine or rote learning. Students should be made aware of thethinking skills and thinking strategies that they use in their Taking into account students’ prior knowledge.learning. They should be challenged with higher order questions Learning occurring as a result of students’ own effort.and problems and be required to solve problems utilising their Learning occurring when students restructure theircreativity and critical thinking. The teaching and learning process existing ideas by relating new ideas to old ones.should enable students to acquire knowledge, master skills and Providing opportunities to cooperate, sharing ideas anddevelop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated experiences, and reflecting on their learning.manner. Science, Technology and SocietyTeaching and Learning Approaches in Science Meaningful learning occurs if students can relate their learningInquiry-Discovery with their daily experiences. Meaningful learning occurs in learning 12
  20. 20. approaches such as contextual learning and Science, Technology Learning Activities.” However, teachers can modify the suggestedand Society (STS). activities when the need arises. The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods canLearning themes and learning objectives that carry elements of enhance students’ interest in science. Science lessons that areSTS are incorporated into the curriculum. STS approach suggests not interesting will not motivate students to learn andthat science learning takes place through investigation and subsequently will affect their performance. The choice of teachingdiscussion based on science and technology issues in society. In methods should be based on the curriculum content, students’the STS approach, knowledge in science and technology is to be abilities, students’ repertoire of intelligences, and the availability oflearned with the application of the principles of science and resources and infrastructure. Besides playing the role oftechnology and their impact on society. knowledge presenters and experts, teachers need to act asContextual Learning facilitators in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers need to be aware of the multiple intelligences that exist amongContextual learning is an approach that associates learning with students. Different teaching and learning activities should bedaily experiences of students. In this way, students are able to planned to cater for students with different learning styles andappreciate the relevance of science learning to their lives. In intelligences.contextual learning, students learn through investigations as in theinquiry-discovery approach. The following are brief descriptions of some teaching and learning methods.Mastery LearningMastery learning is an approach that ensures all students are able Experimentto acquire and master the intended learning objectives. Thisapproach is based on the principle that students are able to learn An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. Inif they are given adequate opportunities. Students should be experiments, students test hypotheses through investigations toallowed to learn at their own pace, with the incorporation of discover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting anremedial and enrichment activities as part of the teaching-learning experiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, andprocess. manipulative skills.Teaching and Learning Methods Usually, an experiment involves the following steps:Teaching and learning approaches can be implemented through Identifying a problem.various methods such as experiments, discussions, simulations, Making a hypothesis.projects, and visits. In this curriculum, the teaching-learning Planning the experimentmethods suggested are stated under the column “Suggested - controlling variables. - determining the equipment and materials needed. 13
  21. 21. - determining the procedure of the experiment and situations so that students can visualise the said objects or the method of data collection and analysis. situations and thus understand the concepts and principles to be Conducting the experiment. learned. Collecting data. Analysing data. Project Interpreting data. Making conclusions. A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by an Writing a report. individual or a group of students to achieve a certain learning objective. A project generally requires several lessons to In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding complete. The outcome of the project either in the form of a report, students to do an experiment, where appropriate, teachers an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to the teacher should provide students with the opportunities to design their and other students. Project work promotes the development of own experiments. This involves students drawing up plans as to problem-solving skills, time management skills, and independent how to conduct experiments, how to measure and analyse data, learning. and how to present the outcomes of their experiment.Discussion Visits and Use of External ResourcesA discussion is an activity in which students exchange questionsand opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can be The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in theconducted before, during or after an activity. Teachers should play school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced throughthe role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questions the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, sciencethat stimulate thinking and getting students to express centres, research institutes, mangrove swamps, and factories.themselves. Visits to these places make the learning of science more interesting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learningSimulation opportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Students may be involved in the planning process and specific educational tasksIn simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation is should be assigned during the visit. No educational visit iscarried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and the complete without a post-visit discussion.use of models. In role-play, students play out a particular rolebased on certain pre-determined conditions. Games requireprocedures that need to be followed. Students play games in Use of Technologyorder to learn a particular principle or to understand the process ofdecision-making. Models are used to represent objects or actual 14
  22. 22. Technology is a powerful tool that has great potential in enhancing natural inculcation of attitudes and values. Learning areas in thethe learning of science. Through the use of technology such as psychomotor domain are implicit in the learning activities.television, radio, video, computer, and Internet, the teaching andlearning of science can be made more interesting and effective. Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurableComputer simulation and animation are effective tools for the behavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for ateaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts. particular learning objective are organised in order of complexity.Computer simulation and animation can be presented through However, in the process of teaching and learning, learningcourseware or Web page. Application tools such, as word activities should be planned in a holistic and integrated mannerprocessors, graphic presentation software and electronic that enables the achievement of multiple learning outcomesspreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation according to needs and context. Teachers should avoid employingof data. a teaching strategy that tries to achieve each learning outcomeThe use of other tools such as data loggers and computer separately according to the order stated in the curriculuminterfacing in experiments and projects also enhance the specifications.effectiveness of teaching and learning of science. The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning activitiesCONTENT ORGANISATION stated under the column Suggested Learning Activities are given with the intention of providing some guidance as to how learning outcomes can be achieved. A suggested activity may cover one or more learning outcomes. At the same time, more than oneThe science curriculum is organised around themes. Each theme activity may be suggested for a particular learning outcome.consists of various learning areas, each of which consists of a Teachers may modify the suggested activity to suit the ability andnumber of learning objectives. A learning objective has one or style of learning of their students. Teachers are encouraged tomore learning outcomes. design other innovative and effective learning activities to enhance the learning of science.Learning outcomes are written based on the hierarchy of thecognitive and affective domains. Levels in the cognitive domainare: knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesisand evaluation. Levels in the affective domain are: to be aware of,to be in awe, to be appreciative, to be thankful, to love, to practise,and to internalise. Where possible, learning outcomes relating tothe affective domain are explicitly stated. The inculcation ofscientific attitudes and noble values should be integrated intoevery learning activity. This ensures a more spontaneous and 15
  23. 23. THEME: MANAGEMENT AND CONTINUITY OF LIFELEARNING AREA: 1. THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.1 Carry out activities to make A student is able to: The five sensory brain – otakUnderstanding connection between the five organs have been nerve – sarafthe sensory senses, the sensory organs and identify and relate a sensory introduced in response – gerakbalasorgans and the stimuli. organ to its stimulus, Primary Science. stimuli – rangsangantheir functions. state the pathway from stimulus sensory organ – organ Discuss what happens in our body to response: deria after a stimulus is detected. Stimulus Sensory organs Nerves Brain Nerves Response1.2 Carry out activities to study the A student is able to: The structures of the cold – kesejukanUnderstanding following: receptors are not heat – kepanasanthe sense of a) structure of the human skin identify the structure of the required. pain – kesakitantouch. involved in stimuli detection, human skin involved in stimuli pressure – tekanan b) sensitivity of the skin at detection, receptor – hujung saraf different parts of the body state the function of different sensitivity – kepekaan towards stimuli. receptors – pressure, heat, pain, skin – kulit draw conclusion on the touch – sentuhan Discuss the sensitivity of the skin sensitivity of the skin at different in connection to the following parts of the body towards stimuli. situations: a) receiving an injection, b) using Braille. 16
  24. 24. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.3 Discuss the structure of the nose A student is able to: nose – hidungUnderstanding and the position of the sensory sensory cells – sel deriathe sense of cells using models, charts, identify the structure of the nose,smell. computer software and other identify the position of the teaching aids. sensory cells in the detection of smell.1.4 Carry out activities to detect the A student is able to: bitter – pahitUnderstanding different areas of the tongue that salty – masinthe sense of respond to different tastes. identify the different areas of the sour – masamtaste. tongue that respond to different sweet – manis Carry out activities to find how taste, taste – rasa taste is related to smell. relate the sense of taste with the tongue – lidah sense of smell.1.5 Observe and identify the structure A student is able to: Teacher is cochlea – kokleaUnderstanding of the human ear. encouraged to use ear – telingathe sense of identify the structure of the computer simulation ear drum – gegendanghearing. Discuss the function of each part human ear, to illustrate the telinga of the ear. explain the function of the hearing mechanism. different parts of the ear, Discuss the hearing mechanism. describe how we hear. 17
  25. 25. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.6 Examine the cow’s eye or model A student is able to:Understanding of a human eye.the sense of identify the structure of thesight. Collect information on structure human eye, and function of each part of the explain the functions of different eye. parts of the eye, describe how we see. Discuss how we see.1.7 Carry out activities to study: A student is able to: Relate the density – ketumpatanUnderstanding properties of light to medium –light and sight. a) reflection of light, describe the properties of light natural phenomena bahantara/medium b) refraction of light between two i.e. reflection and refraction, and daily usage. reflection – pantulan mediums of different density. state the various defects of Angles of incidence, refraction – pembiasan vision, reflection, refraction explain ways to correct vision and normal are not Collect information about the types defects, required. of defects of vision and the state and give examples of the contribution/use of technology to limitations of sight, Astigmatism, rectify them. connect stereoscopic and optical illusions, monocular visions with the blind-spot, survival of animals, monocular and identify the appropriate device to stereoscopic visions overcome the limitations of sight. should be introduced. 18
  26. 26. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Carry out activities to show what astigmatism – short sightedness and long astigmatisme sightedness are and how to blind spot – bintik (or titik) correct them. buta long sightedness – rabun Discuss what astigmatism is and dekat the way to correct it. monocular vision – penglihatan monokular Carry out activities to investigate optical illusion – ilusi optik the following: periscope – periskop a) optical illusion, short sightedness – rabun b) blind-spot. jauh stereoscopic vision – Discuss the connection between penglihatan stereoskopik stereoscopic vision and monocular vision with the survival of animals. Gather information about the Microscope, device to overcome the limitation magnifying glass, of sight. telescope, binoculars, ultrasound scanning device, X-ray, periscope should be included. 19
  27. 27. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.8 Carry out activities to investigate: A student is able to:Understanding a) the production of sound,sound and b) the need of medium for sound describe the properties of sound,hearing. to travel, explain the reflection and c) the reflection and absorption of absorption of sound, sound. explain the defects of hearing, explain ways of rectifying the Collect information about defects in hearing, a) the defects of hearing, state the limitations of hearing, b) ways to rectify the defects of state the device used to Include devices hearing. overcome the limitations of such as hearing aids hearing, and stethoscope. Discuss the limitations of hearing explain stereophonic hearing. and ways of improving it. Carry out activities to investigate the need for stereophonic hearing in determining the direction of sound. 20
  28. 28. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.9 Carry out experiments to A student is able to: Responses inUnderstanding investigate and identify: plants shouldthe stimuli and a) stimuli detected by plants, state the stimuli that cause includeresponses in b) the parts of the plants sensitive response in plants, phototropism,plants. to specific stimulus. identify the parts of plants geotropism, sensitive to specific stimulus, hydrotropism, Discuss in what ways the relate the response in plants to nastic movement, response of plants towards stimuli their survival. tigmotropism. are important for their survival. 21
  29. 29. LEARNING AREA: 2. NUTRITION Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.1 Discuss the classes of food i.e. A student is able to: Only the major fats – lemakAnalysing the carbohydrate, protein, fats, vitamins (A, B, C, fibre – pelawasclasses of food. vitamins, minerals, fibre and explain through examples the D, E and K) and potassium – kalium water and state their functions. classes of food, minerals (calcium, starch – kanji state the function of each class sodium, iron, sodium – natrium Carry out activities to test for of food, iodine, phosphorus starch (iodine solution), glucose test for starch, glucose, protein and potassium) are (Benedict solution), protein and fats. required. (Millon’s reagent) and fats Vitamin B need not (alcohol-emulsion test). be classified into B1, B2 and so on. Introduce alcohol- emulsion test for fat.2.2 Discuss: A student is able to: balanced diet – giziEvaluating the a) what a balanced diet is, seimbangimportance of a b) the factors that determine a state what a balanced diet is, calorific value – nilai kaloribalanced diet. person’s balanced diet: age, state the factors that must be climate – cuaca size, sex, job, climate, state considered when planning a food wrapper – bungkusan of health. balanced diet, makanan explain how the factors affect a The unit of energy Collect food wrappers that show balanced diet, in food can be calorific value of food and make a state the quantity of energy in measured either in list to show the calorific value for each gram of carbohydrate, joules or calories. each type of food. protein and fats, 22
  30. 30. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Discuss to estimate the calories estimate the calories of food of food taken in a meal. taken in a meal, plan a balanced diet. Plan a balanced diet for a day. (breakfast, lunch and dinner)2.3 Discuss that digestion is the A student is able to: alimentary canal – salurUnderstanding breakdown of large food penghadamanthe digestive molecules into smaller soluble explain what digestion is, anus – dubursystem in man. molecules that can be readily identify the parts of the digestive appendix – umbai usus absorbed by the body. system, bile – jus hempedu describe the flow of food digestion – penghadaman Identify parts of the digestive particles in the alimentary canal, enzyme – enzim system and the flow of food state the functions of the organs gall bladder – pundi particles in the alimentary canal in the digestive system, hempedu using model/chart/CD ROM. describe the process of digestion Enzymes should gut – salur penghadaman in the alimentary canal, only include insoluble – tidak larut Discuss the functions of the list the end products of digestion amylase, protease large intestine – usus various organs in the digestive of carbohydrate, protein and and lipase. besar system and the enzymes found. fats. liver – hati saliva – air liur Carry out activities to show the small intestine – usus kecil action of the enzyme in the saliva stomach – perut on starch. 23
  31. 31. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.4 Discuss the process of A student is able to: The structure of absorption – penyerapanUnderstanding absorption of the products of vilus is not analogise – membuatthe process of digestion in the small intestine. explain the process of required. Need only analogiabsorption of absorption of the products of mention vilus blood stream – alirandigested food. Carry out an experiment to show digestion, increases the darah the absorption of glucose through make inference about the surface area for diffusion – resapan a Visking tube. absorption of glucose through a absorption. Visking tube.2.5 Discuss the reabsorption of water A student is able to: constipation – sembelitUnderstanding by the large intestine and the defecation – penyahtinjaanthe reabsorption process of defecation. state how water is reabsorbed large intestine – ususof water and in the large intestine, besardefecation. Discuss the importance of good explain defecation, reabsoption – penyerapan eating habits to avoid relate the problem of defecation semula constipation. with eating habits. 24
  32. 32. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.6 Plan and carry out a healthy A student is able to: habits – amalanPut into practice eating habit. needy – sangat miskinthe habits of justify the importance of eating nutritious food – makananhealthy eating. Discuss the following topics : nutritious food, berkhasiat a) practicing good eating put in practice good eating underprivileged – kurang habits i.e. eating nutritious habits, bernasib baik food and eating in justify the generous distribution religious beliefs – moderation, of food to the underprivileged / kepercayaan agama b) the generous distribution needy, of food to the relate the dining culture of underprivileged / needy, different people conforming to c) cultural practices in dining sensitivities and religious conforming to sensitivities beliefs. and religious beliefs. 25
  33. 33. THEME: MAN AND THE VARIETY OF LIVING THINGSLEARNING AREA: 1. BIODIVERSITY Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.1 Discuss the diversity in the general A student is able to: Basic concept on amphibian – amfibiaUnderstanding characteristics of living organisms. variety of living bird – burungvariety of living explain the diversity of living organisms has dicotyledon – dikotiledonorganisms and Collect and classify various plants organisms in a habitat, been introduced in diversity – kepelbagaiantheir and animals into a system based classify various animals based primary science. fish – ikanclassification. on common characteristics. on common characteristics, flowering plant – tumbuhan - Animal: Invertebrate, classify various plants based berbunga vertebrate, mammal, fish, bird, on common characteristics, Emphasize only on invertebrate – amphibian, reptile. explain the importance of the classification in invertebrata - Plant : Flowering plant, non- biodiversity to the environment. the suggested living organism – flowering plant, monocotyledon, learning activities. organisma hidup dicotyledon. mammal – mamalia - Build a concept map on living monocotyledon – organisms based on the monokotiledon classification above. non-flowering plant – Malaysia is one of tumbuhan tidak berbunga Discuss the importance of the twelve mega- reptile – reptilia maintaining the biological diversity biodiversity vertebrates – vertebrata as one of the country’s natural countries in the heritage. world should be highlighted. 26
  34. 34. LEARNING AREA: 2. INTERDEPENDENCE AMONG LIVING ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.1 Carry out a field work to study A student is able to: Basic concept of community – komunitiAnalysing the species, habitat, population, habitat has been ecosystem – ekosisteminterdependence community in an ecosystem. state what species, population introduced in environment –among living and community are, primary school. persekitaranorganisms. Carry out a discussion on state what habitat and habitat – habitat interdependence among living ecosystem are, interdependence – saling organisms and the environment identify various habitats in one During the field bersandaran to create a balanced ecosystem. ecosystem, work the concept of predict – meramal explain through examples the ecology will be population – populasi interdependence among living constructed species – spesis organisms and the environment through contextual to create a balanced ecosystem. learning. 27
  35. 35. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.2 Collect and interpret data on the A student is able to: Basic concept of advantage – kebaikanEvaluating the types of interactions between prey predator and biological control –interaction living organisms as follows: list the types of interactions competition has kawalan biologibetween living a) prey-predator, between living organisms, been taught in competition – persainganorganisms. b) symbiosis: commensalism, explain with examples the primary school. disadvantage – keburukan mutualism and parasitism interactions between living interaction – interaksi e.g. remora and shark, organisms, parasitism – parasitisme algae and fungi, tape worm justify the importance of pest – perosak and man, interaction between living prey predator – c) competition. organisms and the environment, mangsa pemangsa explain through examples the Refer to local regulate – mengawal Conduct an activity to show the advantages and disadvantages issues like the crow symbiosis – simbiosis importance of the interaction of biological control in regulating problem in Kelang. between organisms and the the number of pest in certain environment. areas. Discuss the advantages of biological control in regulating the numbers of pests in certain areas. 28
  36. 36. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.3 Collect and interpret data on the A student is able to: Food chain has balance in nature-Synthesizing producer, consumer, decomposer been taught in keseimbangan alamfood web. and pyramid number. explain what producers, primary science. consumer- pengguna consumers and decomposers decomposer-pengurai Construct a food web from a few are, food web-siratan makanan food chains and identify the combine a few food chains to primary consumer – producer, consumer and construct a food web, pengguna primer decomposer. identify the producer, consumer producer-pengeluar and decomposer in a food web, pyramid number-piramid Discuss the energy flow in the construct a pyramid number nombor food web constructed. from a food chain, secondary consumer – relate the food web and the pengguna sekunder Conduct a game to show the pyramid number to energy flow, tertiary consumer – effects of an increase or decrease predict the consequences if a Refer to the crown pengguna tertier in the number of organisms in a certain component of living of thorn problem in pyramid number. Discuss the organisms in the ecosystem is the coral reef in the consequences if a component of missing. marine parks. living organisms in an ecosystem is missing. 29
  37. 37. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.4 Carry out discussion on what A student is able to: balanced ecosystem –Analysing photosynthesis is. ekosistem yang seimbangphotosynthesis. state what photosynthesis is, oxygen cycle - kitar Carry out experiments to state the factors required for The carbon and oksigen determine the factors needed for photosynthesis, oxygen cycles carbon cycle – kitar karbon photosynthesis i.e. carbon state the products of should be included. photosynthesis-fotosintesis dioxide, water, light and photosynthesis, chlorophyll. control the variables that are required for photosynthesis, Discuss the importance of explain the role of photosynthesis in maintaining a photosynthesis in maintaining a balanced ecosystem. balanced ecosystem. Discuss the carbon and oxygen cycles. 30
  38. 38. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.5 Collect and interpret data on the A student is able to: The role of man in conservation-pemuliharaanEvaluating the conservation and preservation of conservation and reserve forest – hutanimportance of living organisms. explain what conservation and preservation has simpanconservation preservation are, been highlighted highland forest – hutanand Carry out a field work in a natural explain the steps taken to in primary school. tanah tinggipreservation of forest reserve (wetlands, highland preserve and conserve living indigenous people – orangliving forest or tropical rain forest) or an organisms, asliorganisms. animal sanctuary to study the justify the importance of preservation-pemeliharaan conservation and preservation of conservation and preservation of sanctuary-santuari living organisms. living organisms, tropical rainforest – hutan support activities organised by hujan tropika Carry out a discussion on how the various parties to preserve and wetlands – tanah bencah / improvement in science and conserve the living organisms. lembap technology helps in the conservation and preservation of living organisms. Run a campaign to stress on the Forest is also home importance of conservation and to some indigenous preservation / Carry out a role play people should be involving the parties concerned in included. solving problems related to the conservation and preservation of living organisms. 31
  39. 39. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.6 Carry out a brainstorming session A student is able to: Examples of acid rain – hujan asidEvaluating the to discuss the environmental environmental brainstorming –role of man in issues affecting the balance in explain the effects of human issues: sumbangsaranmaintaining the nature and how to solve it. activities on the balance in Global climate climate change –balance in nature, change, perubahan iklimnature. Carry out a discussion to justify describe how man solves habitat destruction, deforestation – that man needs stable and problems related to environment, species extinction, penebangan hutan productive ecosystem to ascertain justify that human need a stable, air, soil and water excessive – berlebihan a harmonious life. productive and balanced pollution, loss of land overuse – ecosystem. wetlands, penggunaan tanah yang solid waste tidak terkawal management, green house effect – kesan deforestation, land rumah hijau overuse, over over fishing – fishing, toxin in the penangkapan ikan tidak environment, terkawal (release of pollution – pencemaran excessive solid waste management – chemicals into our pengurusan sisa pepejal environment – pesticides – pestisid includes pesticides, species extinction – fertilizers and kepupusan spesis pollutants). toxin – toksin 32

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