Visual Principles

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Visual Principles

  1. 1. VISUAL PRINCIPLES EDU 573 TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN EDUCATION
  2. 2. Roles of Visual in Instruction <ul><li>1) Provide a concrete referent for ideas </li></ul><ul><li>- iconic i.e. more easily to be remembered as compared to words </li></ul>APPLE This visual image of an apple is the referent of the word ‘apple ’
  3. 3. Roles of Visual in Instruction <ul><li>2) Motivate learners </li></ul><ul><li>- by attracting learners’ attention and generating emotional responses </li></ul>
  4. 4. Roles of Visual in Instruction <ul><li>3) Simplify information that is difficult to understand </li></ul>
  5. 5. SERIES OF DESIGN DECISION Visual Design Element Visual Design Pattern Visual Design Arrangement Visual Element Verbal Element Realistic Analogic Organization Letter style Colour Capitals Number of style Size Spacing Add Appeals Surprise Texture Interaction Alignment Style Balance Shape Colour scheme Colour appeal Proximity Directionals Figure-ground contrast Consistency
  6. 6. Roles of Visual in Instruction <ul><li>4) Provide redundant channel </li></ul><ul><li>- comprehend spoken and written information </li></ul>
  7. 7. Visual Literacy <ul><li>The ability to interpret visual messages accurately and to create such messages </li></ul><ul><li>Two routes to visual literacy: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Input Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>2) Output Strategies </li></ul>
  8. 8. Visual Literacy <ul><li>1) Input strategies </li></ul><ul><li>- help learners to decode (read) visuals proficiently </li></ul><ul><li>2) Output strategies </li></ul><ul><li>- Help learners to encode (write) visuals to express themselves and communicate with others </li></ul>
  9. 9. Visual Literacy: Input Strategies <ul><li>1) Developmental effect </li></ul><ul><li>- how learners decode visual / information depends on the age of development </li></ul>
  10. 10. Visual Literacy: Input Strategies <ul><li>2) Cultural effect </li></ul>Usually thumbs up gesture means positive or okay But, for Balinese the thumbs-up is part of a ritual way of showing respect to someone of a higher caste
  11. 11. Visual Literacy: Input Strategies <ul><li>3) Visual preferences </li></ul><ul><li>- teacher should select between the preferred visual and effective visual </li></ul><ul><li>- learner is not necessarily learn best from the visual they preferred </li></ul>
  12. 12. Visual Literacy: Output Strategies <ul><li>1) Learners create their own visual presentation </li></ul><ul><li>- using camera / camcorder etc. </li></ul><ul><li>- sequencing – ability to arrange idea in logical order </li></ul>
  13. 13. Process of Visual Design <ul><li>Elements – selecting the verbal/visual elements to be incorporated into display </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern – choosing an underlying pattern for the elements of the display </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement – arranging the individual element within the underlying pattern </li></ul>
  14. 14. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN Visual Design Element Visual Design Pattern Visual Design Arrangement Visual Element Verbal Element Realistic Analogic Organization Letter style Colour Capitals Number of style Size Spacing Add Appeals Surprise Texture Interaction Alignment Style Balance Shape Colour scheme Colour appeal Proximity Directionals Figure-ground contrast Consistency
  15. 15. Process of Visual Design : Elements <ul><li>1) Visual elements </li></ul><ul><li>i) Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Analogic </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Organizational </li></ul>
  16. 16. Elements : Visual Elements <ul><li>1) Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Show the actual object under study </li></ul>ABSTRACT REALISTIC
  17. 17. Elements : Visual Elements <ul><li>1) Realistic visuals </li></ul><ul><li>The more realistic a visual is, the closer it is to the original </li></ul>
  18. 18. Elements : Visual Elements <ul><li>2) Analogic visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Convey topic by showing something else and implying a similarity </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. the function of human memory with the function of computer memory </li></ul>
  19. 19. Elements : Visual Elements <ul><li>3) Organizational visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Such as flowcharts, graphs, maps, classification charts </li></ul>
  20. 20. Elements : Verbal Elements <ul><li>1) Letter style </li></ul><ul><li>It should be consistent and harmonize with the other visual elements </li></ul><ul><li>Straightforward and plain style </li></ul>
  21. 21. Elements : Verbal Elements <ul><li>2) Number of lettering styles </li></ul><ul><li>Not more than 2 different type styles </li></ul><ul><li>Limit variations (bold, italic, underline, size changes) to four </li></ul>
  22. 22. Elements : Verbal Elements <ul><li>3) Capitals </li></ul><ul><li>Use lowercase letters </li></ul><ul><li>Adding capitals when it is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Headlines can be in capitals but not more than 3 words </li></ul>
  23. 23. Elements : Verbal Elements <ul><li>4) Colour of lettering </li></ul><ul><li>The lettering colour should contrast with the background colour </li></ul><ul><li>Think about your audience.. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Elements : Verbal Elements <ul><li>5) Size of lettering </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of thumb: make lower case letters ½ inch high for each 10 feet of viewer distance </li></ul>
  25. 25. Elements : Verbal Elements <ul><li>6) Spacing between letters </li></ul><ul><li>Consider ‘ optical spacing ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating approximately equal amounts of with space between letters </li></ul>L A B W O R K
  26. 26. Elements : Verbal Elements <ul><li>7) Spacing between lines </li></ul><ul><li>Letters should be not too cramped or too widely separate </li></ul><ul><li>Text is most legible when separation is 11/2 times average letter height </li></ul>
  27. 27. Elements : Elements that add appeals <ul><li>1) Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Think unusual metaphor, a dramatic change of size </li></ul><ul><li>2) Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Use 3 dimensional visuals (if possible) </li></ul><ul><li>It can convey clearer idea </li></ul>
  28. 28. Elements : Elements that add appeals <ul><li>3) Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>R of the ASSURE MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>Ask learners to respond visual displays by manipulating materials on the display </li></ul>
  29. 29. Process of Visual Design : Pattern <ul><li>Alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><li>Colour scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Colour appeal </li></ul>
  30. 30. Process of Visual Design : Pattern <ul><li>1) Alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Balance alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Same imaginary horizontal and vertical line </li></ul><ul><li>Viewer expend little effort making sense out of what they are seeing </li></ul>
  31. 31. Process of Visual Design : Pattern <ul><li>2) Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Put and arrange visual into shape that familiar to learner </li></ul><ul><li>Simple geometric figure – circle, rectangle </li></ul><ul><li>Consider of the ‘ Rule Of Thirds ’ </li></ul>
  32. 32. Rule of Thirds <ul><li>Place your important elements where these lines intersect </li></ul><ul><li>Good places to put things; third of the way up, third of the way in from the left </li></ul><ul><li>Duff places to put things; right in the middle, right at the top, right at the bottom, away in the corner </li></ul>
  33. 35. Process of Visual Design : Pattern <ul><li>3) Balance </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘weight’ of the elements in a display is equally distributed either horizontally or vertically </li></ul>
  34. 36. Process of Visual Design : Pattern <ul><li>4) Style </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, uncluttered </li></ul><ul><li>Primary colour for children </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic colour for adult </li></ul>
  35. 37. Process of Visual Design : Pattern <ul><li>5) Colour scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the harmoniousness of the colour – color wheel </li></ul><ul><li>6) Colour appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Consider ‘warm’ and ‘cool’ colour </li></ul><ul><li>Warm colour – active learner, children </li></ul><ul><li>Cool colour – thoughtful learner, adult </li></ul><ul><li>Consider cultural basis </li></ul>
  36. 38. Complimentary colours : any two colours that lie directly opposite each other Analogous colours : colours that lie next to each other Complimentary and Analogous colours may form pleasing combinations when used together in a display The Colour Wheel
  37. 39. <ul><li>Use cool colour for background </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight important cues in warm </li></ul><ul><li>colour such as red and orange </li></ul>
  38. 40. Process of Visual Design : Arrangement <ul><li>1) Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Element that close to each other are related and vice versa </li></ul><ul><li>2) Directionals </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to direct attention </li></ul><ul><li>Eye movement pattern </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. arrow, bold, ‘bullet’ </li></ul>
  39. 41. Process of Visual Design : Arrangement <ul><li>3) Figure-ground contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Wording should contrast to the background </li></ul><ul><li>4) Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent in the arrangement of the elements </li></ul><ul><li>Place similar element in similar location </li></ul><ul><li>Use same text for headlines </li></ul>

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