Reading Strategies Inventory

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TSL 591

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Reading Strategies Inventory

  1. 1. INVENTORY OF STRATEGIES READING STRATEGIES
  2. 2. INVENTORY OF STRATEGIES <ul><li>Adapting the works of Oxford (1990) and Waxman and Padron (1987), Singhal (1999) produced an inventory of strategies that students might use in reading. These strategies are categorized as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive strategies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compensation strategies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>memory strategies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>metacognitive strategies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>affective strategies and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social strategies. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. COGNITIVE STRATEGIES <ul><li>According to Singhal (1999) cognitive strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are used by readers to manipulate or transform the language to facilitate understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These would include paraphrasing or summarizing the whole or part of a text. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readers would also look at titles, illustration, and information of a text for understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar words are analysed by readers for meaning such as dividing the words into parts and may sound or repeated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The texts is previewed, skimmed and read several times. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. COMPENSATION OF STRATEGIES <ul><li>Compensation strategies include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using context clues and using reference materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a reader does not understand a word he or she guesses the meaning from the clues in the sentences or from context or situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reader may also refer to glossaries or dictionaries to help them with the new language. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. MEMORY STRATEGIES <ul><li>Memory strategies are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to making associations to facilitate understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A reader may try to relate information in the text with what he or she already knows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He may try to associate an unfamiliar word with words or group of words he already knows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes the reader may use words from his L1 which may sound similar or resembles the new word. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES <ul><li>Metacognitive strategies refer to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviours undertaken by the reader to plan and evaluate reading. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anderson (2002, in Anderson 2003) defines metacognition as thinking about thinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In reading there are five primary components of metacognition: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(1) preparing and planning for effective reading; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(2) deciding when to use particular reading strategies; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(3) knowing how to monitor reading strategy use; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(4) learning how to orchestrate various reading strategies; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(5) evaluating reading strategy use (Anderson, 2003). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readers employing these strategies may continuously monitor and evaluate themselves while reading. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not look up for the meaning of unfamiliar words that they come across. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In evaluating themselves, errors are noticed and corrected. Purpose of the reading may be identified and they direct their attention to the task. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. AFFECTIVE STRATEGIES <ul><li>Affective strategies are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to strategies that lower anxiety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks are evaluated and wisely dealt with. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readers may constantly make statements to encourage themselves and may pay attention to factors that interfere with the success by dealing with them. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. SOCIAL STRATEGIES <ul><li>Social strategies refer to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining correction and feedback from other individuals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When comprehension is impeded, readers will ask assistance from teachers or peers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension check is done by verifying with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedbacks are also sought from others. </li></ul></ul>

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