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Reading Skills 2


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TSL 591

TSL 591

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  • 1. TSL 591 Hudson, Chapter 4
  • 2.
    • Describe roughly as a cognitive ability which a person is able to use when interacting with written texts.
    • Seen as a part of the generalized reading process
    • Reading skills have been used to structure reading syllabi and for test construction.
    • Urquhart, S. & Weir, C. (1998). Reading in a second language: Process, product and practice .
  • 3.
    • In general reading skills are presented in categories or taxonomies:
      • Word attack skills
      • Comprehension skills
      • Fluency skills
      • Critical reading skills
  • 4.
    • Word attack skills (aka decoding skills)
      • Skills necessary to convert orthographic symbols into language
      • Requires readers to recognize that the script represents units of language, e.g. phonemes, syllable and words
      • Sub-skills include, recognizing syllable pattern, converting strings to sound, recognizing word boundaries
  • 5.
  • 6.
    • Comprehension skills
      • Represent the ability use context and knowledge to derive meaning from text
      • Examples:
        • Grammatical skills, knowledge of syntax, mechanics,
        • Using context to gain meaning, using schemata as aids
        • Using metacognitive knowledge
        • Recognizing text structure
        • Predicting what will come next in text
  • 7.
  • 8.
    • Fluency skills
      • Skills that allow a reader to see larger sentences and phrases as wholes
        • A process that aids in reading more quickly
      • Examples:
        • Sight word recognition and recognizing high-frequency letter cluster
        • Rapid reading
        • Possessing extensive vocabulary
  • 9.
  • 10.
    • Critical reading skills
      • Skills to analyze, synthesize and evaluate what is read
      • Involve the activities such as determining cause-effect or comparison relationship (types of organization) or adopting a critical stance toward the text
      • Examples:
        • Detecting bias
        • Making inferences
        • Predicting bias
        • Distinguishing fact and opinion
        • Generalization
  • 11.
  • 12.
    • Reading skills have been a major area of reading research over recent years (Urquhart & Weir, 1998)
    • As such there is a great variety of the specific skills identified by various teachers and researchers
    • Rosenshine (1980) examined the comprehension skills identified by five authoritative educational sources
  • 13.
    • The examination revealed 3 general types of skills associated with comprehension
      • Locating details
        • Simplest skills – recognition, paraphrase, matching
      • Simple inferential skills
        • Understanding words in context, recognizing sequence of events, recognizing cause-effect relationship
      • Complex inferential skills
        • Recognizing main idea, drawing conclusions, predicting outcomes
  • 14.
    • Rosenshine discovered 7 sub-skills across the 3 general reading skills
      • Recognizing sequence
      • Recognizing words in context
      • Identifying the main ideas
      • Decoding detail
      • Drawing inferences
      • Recognizing cause and effect
      • Comparing and contrast
    • Analysis of all college reading textbooks for L2 learners will show the inclusion of all the above skills.
  • 15.
    • Reading skills fall into a continuum of hierarchies
    • In many models of skill, focus of attention may change from lower-level skills to higher level skills as reading ability is acquired
    • The lower level skills involving visual perception and phonic analysis become automatic with practice and require less conscious monitoring
  • 16.
    • Many educators and researchers have identified reading skills at different levels of details
    • Clymer (1968) presented a taxonomy, developed by Barret (N.D), which is divided into 5 ordered skill levels:
      • Literal comprehension
      • Reorganization
      • Inferential comprehension
      • Evaluation
      • Appreciation
      • Refer Hudson, p. 86 for details of skills
  • 17.
    • Research on skills in second language has taken 2 primary orientations:
    • Examination on the role of traditionally termed lower-level word processing skills
    • Examination on the role of comprehension skills in 2 nd language reading
  • 18.
    • Several studies have been carried out the lower-level processing, i.e. word processing skills, in the 2 nd language especially on 2 nd language learners of different writing systems – Arabic, Japanese, Chinese
    • (Brown & Hayes, 1985; Koda, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1997; Haynes & Carr, 1990, pp 91-96 Hudson)
    • All studies indicate that lower-level processing in 2 nd language is affected by visual and orthographic coding
    • If a learner is at the low-level of word processing, comprehension will be impeded
  • 19.
    • Munby (1978) presents a taxonomy across 2 nd language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills
    • The taxonomy was developed to provide teachers and materials writers with a basis form to select skills appropriate for students with differing goals and needs
    • However, the taxonomy was not based on any empirical framework
  • 20.
    • Taxonomy of reading skills (Mundy,1978) (p.97, Hudson)
      • Recognizing the script of language
      • Deducing the meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items, through understanding word formation
        • Stems/ roots, affixation etc
      • Understanding explicitly stated information
      • Understanding information in the text, not explicitly stated through
        • Making inference, figurative language
  • 21.
    • Understanding relations between parts of a text through grammatical cohesion devices of
      • Reference, comparison, substitution
    • Distinguishing the main idea from supporting details, by differentiating
      • Primary from secondary significance etc
    • Basic reference skills: understanding and use of
      • Graphic presentation etc
  • 22.
    • Skimming to obtain
      • The gist of the text
      • General impression of the text
    • Relaying information
      • Directly and indirectly
  • 23.
    • Generally, L1 and L2 literature argue against the existence of strictly hierarchically ordered reading skills
    • There are broad categories of skills which are mediated by text, purpose and content
    • These skills helped in curriculum development and scope and sequence charts associated with textbooks and series
    • Nevertheless, these skills are not unitary in their structure
    • Thus, it is the teaching of multiple skills would be appropriate
  • 24.
    • In groups of maximum 3, choose a study presented in Hudson, Chapter 4, p 91 – 103
    • Identify the objective of the study, methods and the main findings.
    • Present the study to the class