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Reading Skills 2
 

Reading Skills 2

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TSL 591

TSL 591

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    Reading Skills 2 Reading Skills 2 Presentation Transcript

    • TSL 591 Hudson, Chapter 4
      • Describe roughly as a cognitive ability which a person is able to use when interacting with written texts.
      • Seen as a part of the generalized reading process
      • Reading skills have been used to structure reading syllabi and for test construction.
      • Urquhart, S. & Weir, C. (1998). Reading in a second language: Process, product and practice .
      • In general reading skills are presented in categories or taxonomies:
        • Word attack skills
        • Comprehension skills
        • Fluency skills
        • Critical reading skills
      • Word attack skills (aka decoding skills)
        • Skills necessary to convert orthographic symbols into language
        • Requires readers to recognize that the script represents units of language, e.g. phonemes, syllable and words
        • Sub-skills include, recognizing syllable pattern, converting strings to sound, recognizing word boundaries
      • http://www.cerritos.edu/reading/vocab.html
      • http://elc.polyu.edu.hk/cill/vocabula.htm#Vocabulary%20Strategies
      • Comprehension skills
        • Represent the ability use context and knowledge to derive meaning from text
        • Examples:
          • Grammatical skills, knowledge of syntax, mechanics,
          • Using context to gain meaning, using schemata as aids
          • Using metacognitive knowledge
          • Recognizing text structure
          • Predicting what will come next in text
      • http://www.cerritos.edu/reading/what.htm
      • Fluency skills
        • Skills that allow a reader to see larger sentences and phrases as wholes
          • A process that aids in reading more quickly
        • Examples:
          • Sight word recognition and recognizing high-frequency letter cluster
          • Rapid reading
          • Possessing extensive vocabulary
      • http://www.eslus.com/LESSONS/READING/READ.HTM
      • Critical reading skills
        • Skills to analyze, synthesize and evaluate what is read
        • Involve the activities such as determining cause-effect or comparison relationship (types of organization) or adopting a critical stance toward the text
        • Examples:
          • Detecting bias
          • Making inferences
          • Predicting bias
          • Distinguishing fact and opinion
          • Generalization
      • http://www.phschool.com/curriculum_support/ss_skills_tutor/content/pop.html
      • Reading skills have been a major area of reading research over recent years (Urquhart & Weir, 1998)
      • As such there is a great variety of the specific skills identified by various teachers and researchers
      • Rosenshine (1980) examined the comprehension skills identified by five authoritative educational sources
      • The examination revealed 3 general types of skills associated with comprehension
        • Locating details
          • Simplest skills – recognition, paraphrase, matching
        • Simple inferential skills
          • Understanding words in context, recognizing sequence of events, recognizing cause-effect relationship
        • Complex inferential skills
          • Recognizing main idea, drawing conclusions, predicting outcomes
      • Rosenshine discovered 7 sub-skills across the 3 general reading skills
        • Recognizing sequence
        • Recognizing words in context
        • Identifying the main ideas
        • Decoding detail
        • Drawing inferences
        • Recognizing cause and effect
        • Comparing and contrast
      • Analysis of all college reading textbooks for L2 learners will show the inclusion of all the above skills.
      • Reading skills fall into a continuum of hierarchies
      • In many models of skill, focus of attention may change from lower-level skills to higher level skills as reading ability is acquired
      • The lower level skills involving visual perception and phonic analysis become automatic with practice and require less conscious monitoring
      • Many educators and researchers have identified reading skills at different levels of details
      • Clymer (1968) presented a taxonomy, developed by Barret (N.D), which is divided into 5 ordered skill levels:
        • Literal comprehension
        • Reorganization
        • Inferential comprehension
        • Evaluation
        • Appreciation
        • Refer Hudson, p. 86 for details of skills
      • Research on skills in second language has taken 2 primary orientations:
      • Examination on the role of traditionally termed lower-level word processing skills
      • Examination on the role of comprehension skills in 2 nd language reading
      • Several studies have been carried out the lower-level processing, i.e. word processing skills, in the 2 nd language especially on 2 nd language learners of different writing systems – Arabic, Japanese, Chinese
      • (Brown & Hayes, 1985; Koda, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1997; Haynes & Carr, 1990, pp 91-96 Hudson)
      • All studies indicate that lower-level processing in 2 nd language is affected by visual and orthographic coding
      • If a learner is at the low-level of word processing, comprehension will be impeded
      • Munby (1978) presents a taxonomy across 2 nd language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills
      • The taxonomy was developed to provide teachers and materials writers with a basis form to select skills appropriate for students with differing goals and needs
      • However, the taxonomy was not based on any empirical framework
      • Taxonomy of reading skills (Mundy,1978) (p.97, Hudson)
        • Recognizing the script of language
        • Deducing the meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items, through understanding word formation
          • Stems/ roots, affixation etc
        • Understanding explicitly stated information
        • Understanding information in the text, not explicitly stated through
          • Making inference, figurative language
      • Understanding relations between parts of a text through grammatical cohesion devices of
        • Reference, comparison, substitution
      • Distinguishing the main idea from supporting details, by differentiating
        • Primary from secondary significance etc
      • Basic reference skills: understanding and use of
        • Graphic presentation etc
      • Skimming to obtain
        • The gist of the text
        • General impression of the text
      • Relaying information
        • Directly and indirectly
      • Generally, L1 and L2 literature argue against the existence of strictly hierarchically ordered reading skills
      • There are broad categories of skills which are mediated by text, purpose and content
      • These skills helped in curriculum development and scope and sequence charts associated with textbooks and series
      • Nevertheless, these skills are not unitary in their structure
      • Thus, it is the teaching of multiple skills would be appropriate
      • In groups of maximum 3, choose a study presented in Hudson, Chapter 4, p 91 – 103
      • Identify the objective of the study, methods and the main findings.
      • Present the study to the class