Reading Skills 2


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Reading Skills 2

  1. 1. TSL 591 Hudson, Chapter 4
  2. 2. <ul><li>Describe roughly as a cognitive ability which a person is able to use when interacting with written texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as a part of the generalized reading process </li></ul><ul><li>Reading skills have been used to structure reading syllabi and for test construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Urquhart, S. & Weir, C. (1998). Reading in a second language: Process, product and practice . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In general reading skills are presented in categories or taxonomies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word attack skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical reading skills </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Word attack skills (aka decoding skills) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills necessary to convert orthographic symbols into language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires readers to recognize that the script represents units of language, e.g. phonemes, syllable and words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-skills include, recognizing syllable pattern, converting strings to sound, recognizing word boundaries </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Comprehension skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent the ability use context and knowledge to derive meaning from text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grammatical skills, knowledge of syntax, mechanics, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using context to gain meaning, using schemata as aids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using metacognitive knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing text structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting what will come next in text </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Fluency skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills that allow a reader to see larger sentences and phrases as wholes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A process that aids in reading more quickly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sight word recognition and recognizing high-frequency letter cluster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possessing extensive vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Critical reading skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills to analyze, synthesize and evaluate what is read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve the activities such as determining cause-effect or comparison relationship (types of organization) or adopting a critical stance toward the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detecting bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making inferences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguishing fact and opinion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Reading skills have been a major area of reading research over recent years (Urquhart & Weir, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>As such there is a great variety of the specific skills identified by various teachers and researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Rosenshine (1980) examined the comprehension skills identified by five authoritative educational sources </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The examination revealed 3 general types of skills associated with comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locating details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simplest skills – recognition, paraphrase, matching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple inferential skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding words in context, recognizing sequence of events, recognizing cause-effect relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex inferential skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing main idea, drawing conclusions, predicting outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Rosenshine discovered 7 sub-skills across the 3 general reading skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing words in context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying the main ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoding detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing inferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing cause and effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing and contrast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis of all college reading textbooks for L2 learners will show the inclusion of all the above skills. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Reading skills fall into a continuum of hierarchies </li></ul><ul><li>In many models of skill, focus of attention may change from lower-level skills to higher level skills as reading ability is acquired </li></ul><ul><li>The lower level skills involving visual perception and phonic analysis become automatic with practice and require less conscious monitoring </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Many educators and researchers have identified reading skills at different levels of details </li></ul><ul><li>Clymer (1968) presented a taxonomy, developed by Barret (N.D), which is divided into 5 ordered skill levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literal comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferential comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer Hudson, p. 86 for details of skills </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Research on skills in second language has taken 2 primary orientations: </li></ul><ul><li>Examination on the role of traditionally termed lower-level word processing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Examination on the role of comprehension skills in 2 nd language reading </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Several studies have been carried out the lower-level processing, i.e. word processing skills, in the 2 nd language especially on 2 nd language learners of different writing systems – Arabic, Japanese, Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>(Brown & Hayes, 1985; Koda, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1997; Haynes & Carr, 1990, pp 91-96 Hudson) </li></ul><ul><li>All studies indicate that lower-level processing in 2 nd language is affected by visual and orthographic coding </li></ul><ul><li>If a learner is at the low-level of word processing, comprehension will be impeded </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Munby (1978) presents a taxonomy across 2 nd language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills </li></ul><ul><li>The taxonomy was developed to provide teachers and materials writers with a basis form to select skills appropriate for students with differing goals and needs </li></ul><ul><li>However, the taxonomy was not based on any empirical framework </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Taxonomy of reading skills (Mundy,1978) (p.97, Hudson) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing the script of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deducing the meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items, through understanding word formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stems/ roots, affixation etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding explicitly stated information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding information in the text, not explicitly stated through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making inference, figurative language </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Understanding relations between parts of a text through grammatical cohesion devices of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference, comparison, substitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distinguishing the main idea from supporting details, by differentiating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary from secondary significance etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic reference skills: understanding and use of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic presentation etc </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Skimming to obtain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gist of the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General impression of the text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relaying information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly and indirectly </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Generally, L1 and L2 literature argue against the existence of strictly hierarchically ordered reading skills </li></ul><ul><li>There are broad categories of skills which are mediated by text, purpose and content </li></ul><ul><li>These skills helped in curriculum development and scope and sequence charts associated with textbooks and series </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, these skills are not unitary in their structure </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, it is the teaching of multiple skills would be appropriate </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>In groups of maximum 3, choose a study presented in Hudson, Chapter 4, p 91 – 103 </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the objective of the study, methods and the main findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Present the study to the class </li></ul>