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Lecture 8 Reading Materials
 

Lecture 8 Reading Materials

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TSL591

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    Lecture 8 Reading Materials Lecture 8 Reading Materials Presentation Transcript

    • Reading Materials Week 8
      • Contents:
      • Four stages in reading
      • Areas of concern in the selection of texts
      • Role of texts in the L2 classroom
      • Simplified vs. authentic texts
      • Channel conversion
      • Implications for L2 teachers
    • Reading Materials – Stages in Reading In general, there are 4 stages in reading: Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005 Learning to read Reading to learn
      • Major areas of concern in the selection of texts:
      • Balance,
      • Suitability of language,
      • Concepts in the text,
      • Level of reasoning required,
      • Content, and
      • Pedagogic suitability.
      Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005 Reading Materials – Selection of Texts
      • Teacher need to skillfully exploit texts to help students acquire new reading skills or become fluent in using the skills:
      • Learning to read stage
      • Outcome of reading is to acquire the skills required when reading to learn;
      • Texts should contain pedagogic as well as real reading purposes.
      Reading Materials - Selection of Texts Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005
      • Reading to learn stage
      • Students tend to read slowly in order to understand & remember what they have read;
      • Texts should be information-rich;
      • Students read text to learn from the content;
      • Outcome of reading is to gain knowledge.
      Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005 Reading Materials - Selection of Texts
      • Role of text in the L2 classroom:
      • Text as a vehicle for teaching language structure & vocabulary;
      • Texts which teach language through reading;
      • Texts which offer high-interest content.
      Reading Materials – Role of Texts Source: Wallace, 2003
      • Text as a vehicle for teaching language structure & vocabulary
      • Language-focused texts;
      • Reading solely to learn a language – not for information or interest (Williams, 1984);
      • “ Usage” rather than “use” (Widdowson, 1978);
      • Lack of communicative function as texts aim at reinforcing sentence patterns;
      • Text-focused activities – focus on sentence patterns text & to highlight cohesive features;
      Reading Materials – Role of Texts Source: Wallace, 2003
      • 2. Texts which teach language through reading
      • Select texts to promote reading - learners develop language awareness through reading;
      • Select texts that can develop reading strategies;
      • Wide access to meaningful written language is effective in reinforcing English structures as well as learning new ones (Elley,1984);
      • To motivate L2 learners to read widely in the L2, the overall content of the selected text is more important than the linguistic features contained in the text.
      Reading Materials – Role of Texts Source: Wallace, 2003
      • 3. Texts which offer high-interest content
      • Text must be interesting for the learner to read;
      • However, difficult to address the issue of interest (individual differences and preferences);
      • Therefore, select texts that are inherently motivating – something about the content that makes learners interested to read;
      • E.g. in narratives that can stimulate readers’ schema;
      Reading Materials – Role of Texts Source: Wallace, 2003
    • Activity Which opening lines might be of the greatest general interest to secondary level students? ………………………………………………………………… . Joanne works for the Lincoln Company. There are two shifts in the Lincoln Company, a day shift and a night shift. Joanne works the day shift. Her schedule is Tuesday through Saturday from 8 o’clock to 5 pm. Her lunch time is 12.00 noon to1.00 pm. ………………………………………………………………… . Many, many years ago there was a very rich landlord who owned a lot of land and houses. ………………………………………………………………… . Reading Materials – Role of Texts Source: Wallace, 2003
      • Activity - Discussion
      • Both texts are linguistically simple;
      • However, something about the content in T2 make students more interested in reading;
      • Why? T2 begins with a recognizable kind of narrative and students engage with the text by activating a relevant schema;
      • T1 is not what we perceive as a “story”, events are unexceptional.
      Reading Materials – Role of Texts Source: Wallace, 2003
    • Texts are simplified for L2 learners for easy comprehension and to help prepare them for more advanced, authentic text (Young 1999); Advantages of simplified texts : - excludes unnecessary & distracting, idiosyncratic styles without suffering a loss of valuable communication features & concepts (Allen & Widdowson 1979), and - contains increased redundancy & amplified explanation (Kuo 1993). Reading Materials - Simplified Texts Source: Crossley & McNamara, 2008
      • However, simplified texts contain simplified &
      • frequent forms;
      • Widely criticized for removing authentic language,
      • Thus, denying learners the opportunity to learn
      • natural forms of language (Long & Ross 1993).
      Reading Materials - Simplified Texts Source: Crossley & McNamara, 2008
      • Definitions of Authenticity:
      • “ genuine communicative acts ” - written or spoken language between native speakers (Meinhof, 1987);
      • Authenticity is not a characteristic of the text in itself - the text can only be truly authentic in the context for which it was originally written (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987);
      • Authenticity does not lie in the materials but is created by the reader’s response – congruence between the writer’s intention & reader’s
      • interpretation (Widdowson,1979).
      Reading Materials - Authentic Texts
      • Authentic text
      • written to fulfill a social purpose for native
      • speakers within a language community (Lee, 1995)
      • Advantages:
      • introduces students to natural & contextualized language
      • Use of authentic linguistic features (e.g. cohesive devices) – development of reading comprehension skills & information processing skills,
      • contain natural lexical redundancy – aids in reconstructing text & understanding unfamiliar lexicon.
      Reading Materials - Authentic Texts Source: Crossley & McNamara, 2008
      • Simplified Vs. Authentic text?
      • Authentic text is assumed to provide more natural language and more naturally occurring cohesion than simplified text;
      • Simplified text is criticized as creating discourse that is unnatural and serves to reduce helpful redundancy, thus increasing text readability;
      • Simplified text , however, is thought to benefit L2 learners because it is lexically, syntactically, and rhetorically less difficult than authentic text.
      Reading Materials - Simplified vs. Authentic Source: Crossley & McNamara, 2008
        • Readers from a different sociocultural background may find the meaning of a simple text difficult to comprehend. This is due to the lack of familiarity with culture-specific features of the discourses in the text (Wallace, 2003).
        • Explore critically the discourse in minimal texts such as the following advertisement. In what way are the discourses in it culture-specific?
      Activity – Authentic Texts
    • TITLE: "Sucky Vacations" BRAND: San Diego AGENCY: NYCA
        • Message written to young parents who are considering where to take their children for a holiday;
        • Message makes assumptions that are culture specific, e.g.:
        • Parents are expected to take their children on family vacations;
        • The vacations are normally related to having fun at the beach;
        • Refer to a particular sociocultural practice – parents are sent to retirement homes when they get older.
      Discussion – Authentic Texts
      • Channel Conversion
      • Information transfer;
      • Information expressed in one medium, is converted into another medium;
      • E.g. from words to graphics, materials, actions, etc.
      Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005
      • Channel Conversion (Cont’d)
      • Why it is important?
        • Whenever the receptive skill is higher than the productive skill, we might use non-verbal responses;
        • Some information is better presented using tables, graphs, etc.;
        • Sometimes, information in graphs, diagrams, etc. is easier to remember;
      Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005 Reading Materials – Channel Conversion
      • Channel Conversion (Cont’d)
      • Why it is important?
        • Since many texts/textbooks include charts, graphs, etc. , it is important to teach students how to interpret them:
        • - students learn how to make sense of the forms & the special way of presenting information;
        • - students learn how to relate these forms to the verbal texts they accompany.
      Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005 Reading Materials – Channel Conversion
      • Channel Conversion (Cont’d)
      • Commonly-used graphics in channel conversion
      • Maps
      • – see relationships involving physical location
      Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005 Reading Materials – Channel Conversion
      • Channel Conversion (Cont’d)
      • Floor plans
      • - see relationships involving physical location
      Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005 Reading Materials – Channel Conversion
      • Channel Conversion (Cont’d)
      • Bus/train schedule
      • – gather information from schedules & how best to use them
      Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005 Reading Materials – Channel Conversion
      • Channel Conversion (Cont’d)
      • Pictures/diagrams
      • – form mental picture using information from the text
      Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005 Reading Materials – Channel Conversion
      • Channel Conversion (Cont’d)
      • Graphs/pie-charts/etc.
      • – present trends, relationship of parts to whole, information that is too complex to understand without the relationship being shown in written forms & hierarchical information.
      Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005 Reading Materials – Channel Conversion
      • Channel Conversion (Cont’d)
      • Time-lines & flow-charts
      • – follow sequence of events
      Reading Materials Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005 Reading Materials – Channel Conversion
    • Implications for L2 teachers: Reading Materials - Conclusion
      • Need to be aware of criteria involving the preparation & selection of material for teaching reading;
      • Need to expose learners to authentic materials at earlier stage;
      • Need to make reading lessons more enjoyable by introducing texts that are of interest to the learners;
      • Authentic reading is interactive – teachers need to facilitate interactions between readers and texts in the classroom.
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