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Lecture 3 Models Of Reading 2 (2)

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TSL 591

TSL 591

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  • 1. MODELS OF READING: INTERACTIVE-CONSTRUCTIVE & NEW LITERACY APPROACHES TSL 591: LECTURE 3 HUDSON (CHAP 2)
  • 2. SIGNPOST
    • INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS
    • INTERACTIVE APPROACHES
    • RUMELHART MODEL
    • STANOVICH MODEL
    • ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC
    • VIEW
    • PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL
    • MATHEWSON’S MODEL
    • NEW LITERACY APPROACHES
  • 3. INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS
    • Bottom-up + top-down models of reading
    • Focus either on the reading process (cognitive processes)
    • Or the product of reader’s interaction with the info & prior knowledge
  • 4. INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS – ctd.
    • Important features:
    • A) Automaticity (application of lower level skills)
      • In other words application of lower level reading skills is done automatically
    • B) Interaction between text & background knowledge
      • Interaction of the writer’s intentions and the reader’s interpretations
      • What are the two meanings of the following sentence?
      • Flying planes can be dangerous
        • Shows that the writer’s intention and the reader’s background knowledge sometimes do not match
    • C) The role of social, contextual & political variables affecting meaning making
  • 5. INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS – ctd.
    • CONSIDER (lecture 2 notes):
    • Psycholinguistic’s point of view
    • Sociolinguistic’s point of view
    • Intertextuality’s point of view
  • 6. Problems with BU and TD
    • Drawbacks of Bottom-Up
      • The idea of linear processing
      • Underestimated the contribution of the reader
      • Failed to recognize that students utilize their expectations about the text based on their knowledge of language and how it works
      • Failure to include previous experience and knowledge into processing
  • 7. Problems with BU and TD
    • Drawback of Top-Down
      • When reading topics which are completely new and foreign, it is inefficient, impractical and perhaps impossible to make predictions about the reading
      • E.g. Imagine an ‘ orang asli ’ boy who has never left the village reading about MP3
      • Or a boy from Hmong tribe in Vietnam reading about Halloween
  • 8. INTERACTIVE READING MODEL
    • An interactive reading model attempts to combine the valid insights of bottom-up and top-down models.
    • It attempts to take into account the strong points of the bottom-up and top-down models, and tries to avoid the criticisms levelled against each, making it one of the most promising approaches to the theory of reading today. ( McCormick, T. 1988 )
  • 9. INTERACTIVE READING MODEL
    • To reiterate:
    • An interactive reading model is a reading model that recognizes the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes simultaneously throughout the reading process.
  • 10. INTERACTIVE APPROACHES
    • Emphasize the role of prior knowledge or pre-existing knowledge in providing the reader with non-visual or implicit information in the text.
    • Also, add the fact that the role of certain kind of information-processing skills is also important.
    • Interactive approaches see the advent of the incorporation of bottom-up and top-down approaches to reading (Eskey, 1988; Samuels and Kamil, 1988).
  • 11. INTERACTIVE APPROACHES – ctd.
    • Both modes of information processing, top-down and bottom-up alike, are seen as strategies that are flexibly used in the accomplishment of the reading tasks (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983; Carrell, 1988; Clarke, 1979; Eskey, 1988; Grabe, 1988) .
    • Hence,the interactive approaches rely on both the graphic and contextual information
  • 12. Interactive Models
    • Based on influential articles written throughout the late 1970’s and 1980s
    • The Rumelhart Model (1977)
    • The Kintsch and van Dijk models (1978,1988,1998)
    • The Just and Carpenter Model (1980)
    • The Stanovich Model (1980)
    • The Anderson & Pearson Schema-Theoretic view (1984)
    • The Pearson & Tierney Reading/Writing Model (1984)
    • Perfetti’s Model (1985, 1988, 1991)
    • The McClelland, Rumelhart, et. Al Model (1986)
    • The Rayner & Pollatsek Model (1989)
    • Mathewson’s Model of Attitude Influence (1976, 1985, 1994)
    • New Literacy Approaches
  • 13. RUMELHART MODEL
    • Successful reading is both a perceptual and a cognitive process
    • Stresses the influence of various sources namely feature extraction, orthographic knowledge, lexical knowledge, syntactic knowledge and semantic knowledge on the text processing and the reader’s interpretation.
    • Incorporates a mechanism labeled as the ‘ message centre ’, which holds the information and then redirects them as needed.
    • This mechanism allows the sources of knowledge to interact with each other and thereby enable higher-level processing to influence lower-level processing .
    David E. Rumelhart
  • 14. RUMELHART MODEL
    • In his model:
      • Graphic information enters the process through a Visual Information Store (VIS)
      • A cognitive Feature Extraction Device selects the important features of the graphic input
      • A Pattern Synthesizer takes this information along with syntactic, semantic, orthographic, lexical and pragmatic knowledge (context) in order to produce the most probable interpretation for the graphic input.
      • The reading process is the result of the parallel application of sensory and non-sensory sources of information
  • 15. RUMELHART MODEL Grapheme Input VIS Feature extraction device Pattern Synthesizer Orthographic Knowledge Lexical Knowledge Syntactical Knowledge Semantic knowledge Model of probable interpretation Once a Feature Extraction Device has operated on the Visual Information Store , it passes the data to a Pattern Synthesizer which receives input from Syntactical, Semantic, Lexical and Orthographic Knowledge , all operating at the same point.
  • 16. STANOVICH MODEL
    • Stanovich introduced the interactive-compensatory reading model
    • Neither BU or TD address all areas of reading comprehension
    • But the interactive-compensatory taps into the strengths of both BU and TD
    • Says that readers rely on both BU and TD processes simultaneously and alternatively depending on the reading purpose, motivation, schema and knowledge of the subject
    Keith E. Stanovich
  • 17. STANOVICH MODEL
    • Incorporates the ‘compensatory mode’ to his model with the interaction between the top-down and bottom-up processing .
    • The compensatory mode enables the reader to, “ at any level compensate for his or her deficiencies at any other level ” (Samuels and Kamil, 1988: 32) .
    • This model has enabled researchers to theorize how good and poor readers approach a text.
  • 18. STANOVICH MODEL
    • If there is a deficiency at an early print-analysis stage (BU), higher order knowledge structures (TD) will attempt to compensate.
    • For the poor reader, who may be both inaccurate and slow at word recognition but who has knowledge of the text-topic, TD processing may allow for this compensation
    • E.g. A beginning reader who is weak at decoding reads this and do not know the word emerald.
      • The jeweler put the green emerald in the ring
    • He will still understand the meaning of the sentence because he may use context and knowledge of gems to decide what the word is
  • 19. STANOVICH MODEL
    • States that if one of the processors (i.e, orthographic, lexical, syntactic and semantic) fails, other processors will facilitate comprehension
    • For example in a cloze vocabulary exercises:
      • Beagles, Retriever, Spaniels, as well as other ____ of dogs are favorite canines for hunting enthusiast.
      • The lexical information is absent, but students would guess the word breeds or types, since syntactic and semantic cues compensate for the absent processors
  • 20. ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW
    • Focus on the role of schemata, knowledge stored in memory , in text comprehension
    • Comprehension = interaction between old & new information
    • Schema Theory: Already known general ideas subsume & anchor new information
    • Include: a) info about the relationships among the components, b) role of inference & c) reliance on knowledge of the content, + abstract & general schemata.
    P. David Pearson
  • 21. ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW
    • Schemata:
      • Knowledge already stored in memory, function in the process of interpreting new information and allowing it to enter and become part of the knowledge store
    • Schema:
      • An abstract knowledge structure
      • A structure that represents the relationship among its component parts
  • 22. ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW
    • Read this:
      • Queen Elizabeth participated in a long-delayed ceremony in Clydebank. Scotland yesterday. While there is still bitterness here following the protracted strike, on this occasion a crowd of shipyard workers numbering in the hundreds joined dignitaries in cheering as the HMS Pinafore slipped into the water.
    • What is the name of the ceremony?
  • 23. ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW Ship-Christening Schema Done by celebrity Involves new ship Bottle broken on bow Done before launching In dry dock To bless ship Water Shipyard The Ship Christening Schema
  • 24. PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL
    • Negotiation of meaning between writer & reader who both create meaning through the text as the medium.
    • Readers as composers:
    • “ the thoughtful reader …is the reader who reads as if she were a writer composing a text yet for another reader who lives within her ”.
    • Reader reads with the expectation that the writer has provided sufficient clues about the meaning
    • Writer writes with the intention the reader will create meaning
    • Consider: pragmatic theories of language that every speech acts, utterance, or attempt at comprehending an utterance is an action
  • 25. PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL
    • Reading is an act of composing rather than recitation or regurgitation
    • Context is important
      • Knowing why something was said is as crucial to interpreting the message as knowing what was said
    • Failing to recognize author’s goal can interfere with comprehension of the main idea or point of view
  • 26. PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL
    • Focus on the thoughtful reader with 4 interactive roles:
      • Planner – creates goal, use existing knowledge, decides how to align with the text
      • Composer – searches for coherence in gaps with inferences about the relationship within the text
      • Editor – examines his interpretations
      • Monitor – directs the other 3 roles
  • 27. MATHEWSON’S MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE
    • A model that addresses the role that attitude and motivation play in reading
    • Attitude intention to read reading
    • Attitude = tri-componential construct :
      • Cognitive component (evaluation), affective component (feeling) , & conative component (action readiness)
    • * Conative = personality, volition, temperament
    • All these influence the intention to read, & the intention to read affects reading behaviour.
    • This model provides feedback on how motivation may change & how important it is to address affective issues in teaching reading.
  • 28. MATHEWSON’S MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE Cognitive Component Affective Component Conative Component Attitude Towards Reading Intention to Read Reading Behavior
  • 29. MATHEWSON’S MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE
    • Attitude toward reading may be modified by a change in reader’s goal
      • Examples:
        • Topic of no interest
        • Examination on comprehension
    • Feedback during reading may affect attitude and motivation
      • Satisfaction with affect developed through reading
      • Satisfaction with ideas developed through reading
      • Feelings generated by ideas from the reading process
      • Ideas constructed from in the information read
      • How the reading affects values, goals and self-concept
  • 30. NEW LITERACY APPROACHES
    • Emphasize on multiple literacies embedded in social & societal contexts
    • Reading should not be treated as an isolated activity
    • Reading must account for socially & culturally events & the associated literacy acts (e.g e-mailing, memo writing, note taking, blogging)
    • The influence of ‘culture’ on the reader-writer expectations
    • Not on the reader-writer relationship BUT on the social & cultural event around written language .
    • Hence, readers construct meaning as individuals within a culture AND
    • Their interpretation not necessarily incorrect due to their background (culture)
  • 31. GROUP DISCUSSION (20 minutes)
    • In groups of not more than 4, choose one of the models for discussion.
    • KINTSCH & VAN DIJK MODELS
    • JUST & CARPENTER MODEL
    • PERFETTI’S MODEL
    • McCLELLAND, ET AL MODEL
    • RAYNER & POLLATSEK MODEL
  • 32. GROUP PRESENTATION ( 10 minutes)
    • Describe to the class the model you have chosen.
    • Notice the similarities and differences of the focus in each model.