MODELS OF READING: INTERACTIVE-CONSTRUCTIVE & NEW LITERACY APPROACHES TSL 591: LECTURE 3 HUDSON (CHAP 2)
SIGNPOST <ul><li>INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>INTERACTIVE APPROACHES </li></ul><ul><li>RUMELHART M...
INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS <ul><li>Bottom-up + top-down models of reading </li></ul><ul><li>Focus either on the re...
INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS – ctd. <ul><li>Important features: </li></ul><ul><li>A)  Automaticity  (application of ...
INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS – ctd. <ul><li>CONSIDER (lecture 2 notes): </li></ul><ul><li>Psycholinguistic’s point o...
Problems with BU and TD <ul><li>Drawbacks of Bottom-Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The idea of linear processing </li></ul></ul>...
Problems with BU and TD <ul><li>Drawback of Top-Down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When reading topics which are completely new an...
INTERACTIVE READING MODEL <ul><li>An interactive reading model attempts to combine the valid insights of  bottom-up  and  ...
INTERACTIVE READING MODEL <ul><li>To reiterate:  </li></ul><ul><li>An interactive reading model is a  reading model  that ...
INTERACTIVE APPROACHES <ul><li>Emphasize the role of prior knowledge or pre-existing knowledge in providing the reader wit...
INTERACTIVE APPROACHES – ctd. <ul><li>Both modes of information processing,  top-down and bottom-up  alike, are seen as st...
Interactive Models <ul><li>Based on influential articles written throughout the late 1970’s and 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
RUMELHART MODEL <ul><li>Successful reading is both  a perceptual  and a  cognitive process </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses the ...
RUMELHART MODEL <ul><li>In his model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic information enters the process through a  Visual Infor...
RUMELHART MODEL Grapheme  Input  VIS Feature extraction device Pattern Synthesizer Orthographic  Knowledge Lexical  Knowle...
STANOVICH MODEL <ul><li>Stanovich introduced the interactive-compensatory reading model </li></ul><ul><li>Neither BU or TD...
STANOVICH MODEL <ul><li>Incorporates the ‘compensatory mode’ to his model with the  interaction between the top-down and b...
STANOVICH MODEL <ul><li>If there is a deficiency at an early print-analysis stage (BU), higher order knowledge structures ...
STANOVICH MODEL <ul><li>States that if one of the processors (i.e, orthographic, lexical, syntactic and semantic) fails, o...
ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW <ul><li>Focus on the role of  schemata,  knowledge stored in memory ,  in text co...
ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW <ul><li>Schemata: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge already stored in memory, funct...
ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW <ul><li>Read this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen Elizabeth participated in a long-d...
ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW Ship-Christening Schema Done by celebrity Involves new ship Bottle broken on bow ...
PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL <ul><li>Negotiation of meaning between writer & reader who both create meaning through the tex...
PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL <ul><li>Reading is an act of composing rather than recitation or regurgitation  </li></ul><ul>...
PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL <ul><li>Focus on the thoughtful reader with 4 interactive roles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planner...
MATHEWSON’S MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE <ul><li>A model that addresses the role that attitude and motivation play in readi...
MATHEWSON’S MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE Cognitive Component Affective Component Conative Component Attitude Towards Readin...
MATHEWSON’S MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE <ul><li>Attitude toward reading may be modified by a change in reader’s goal </li>...
NEW LITERACY APPROACHES <ul><li>Emphasize  on multiple literacies embedded in social & societal contexts </li></ul><ul><li...
GROUP DISCUSSION (20 minutes) <ul><li>In groups of not more than 4, choose one of the models for discussion. </li></ul><ul...
GROUP PRESENTATION  ( 10 minutes) <ul><li>Describe to the class the model you have chosen. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the si...
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Lecture 3 Models Of Reading 2 (2)

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Lecture 3 Models Of Reading 2 (2)

  1. 1. MODELS OF READING: INTERACTIVE-CONSTRUCTIVE & NEW LITERACY APPROACHES TSL 591: LECTURE 3 HUDSON (CHAP 2)
  2. 2. SIGNPOST <ul><li>INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>INTERACTIVE APPROACHES </li></ul><ul><li>RUMELHART MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>STANOVICH MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC </li></ul><ul><li>VIEW </li></ul><ul><li>PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>MATHEWSON’S MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>NEW LITERACY APPROACHES </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS <ul><li>Bottom-up + top-down models of reading </li></ul><ul><li>Focus either on the reading process (cognitive processes) </li></ul><ul><li>Or the product of reader’s interaction with the info & prior knowledge </li></ul>
  4. 4. INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS – ctd. <ul><li>Important features: </li></ul><ul><li>A) Automaticity (application of lower level skills) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In other words application of lower level reading skills is done automatically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B) Interaction between text & background knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction of the writer’s intentions and the reader’s interpretations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the two meanings of the following sentence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flying planes can be dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows that the writer’s intention and the reader’s background knowledge sometimes do not match </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>C) The role of social, contextual & political variables affecting meaning making </li></ul>
  5. 5. INTERACTION IN THE READING PROCESS – ctd. <ul><li>CONSIDER (lecture 2 notes): </li></ul><ul><li>Psycholinguistic’s point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Sociolinguistic’s point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Intertextuality’s point of view </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problems with BU and TD <ul><li>Drawbacks of Bottom-Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The idea of linear processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underestimated the contribution of the reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed to recognize that students utilize their expectations about the text based on their knowledge of language and how it works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to include previous experience and knowledge into processing </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Problems with BU and TD <ul><li>Drawback of Top-Down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When reading topics which are completely new and foreign, it is inefficient, impractical and perhaps impossible to make predictions about the reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Imagine an ‘ orang asli ’ boy who has never left the village reading about MP3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or a boy from Hmong tribe in Vietnam reading about Halloween </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. INTERACTIVE READING MODEL <ul><li>An interactive reading model attempts to combine the valid insights of bottom-up and top-down models. </li></ul><ul><li>It attempts to take into account the strong points of the bottom-up and top-down models, and tries to avoid the criticisms levelled against each, making it one of the most promising approaches to the theory of reading today. ( McCormick, T. 1988 ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. INTERACTIVE READING MODEL <ul><li>To reiterate: </li></ul><ul><li>An interactive reading model is a reading model that recognizes the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes simultaneously throughout the reading process. </li></ul>
  10. 10. INTERACTIVE APPROACHES <ul><li>Emphasize the role of prior knowledge or pre-existing knowledge in providing the reader with non-visual or implicit information in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, add the fact that the role of certain kind of information-processing skills is also important. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive approaches see the advent of the incorporation of bottom-up and top-down approaches to reading (Eskey, 1988; Samuels and Kamil, 1988). </li></ul>
  11. 11. INTERACTIVE APPROACHES – ctd. <ul><li>Both modes of information processing, top-down and bottom-up alike, are seen as strategies that are flexibly used in the accomplishment of the reading tasks (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983; Carrell, 1988; Clarke, 1979; Eskey, 1988; Grabe, 1988) . </li></ul><ul><li>Hence,the interactive approaches rely on both the graphic and contextual information </li></ul>
  12. 12. Interactive Models <ul><li>Based on influential articles written throughout the late 1970’s and 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>The Rumelhart Model (1977) </li></ul><ul><li>The Kintsch and van Dijk models (1978,1988,1998) </li></ul><ul><li>The Just and Carpenter Model (1980) </li></ul><ul><li>The Stanovich Model (1980) </li></ul><ul><li>The Anderson & Pearson Schema-Theoretic view (1984) </li></ul><ul><li>The Pearson & Tierney Reading/Writing Model (1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Perfetti’s Model (1985, 1988, 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>The McClelland, Rumelhart, et. Al Model (1986) </li></ul><ul><li>The Rayner & Pollatsek Model (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathewson’s Model of Attitude Influence (1976, 1985, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>New Literacy Approaches </li></ul>
  13. 13. RUMELHART MODEL <ul><li>Successful reading is both a perceptual and a cognitive process </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses the influence of various sources namely feature extraction, orthographic knowledge, lexical knowledge, syntactic knowledge and semantic knowledge on the text processing and the reader’s interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates a mechanism labeled as the ‘ message centre ’, which holds the information and then redirects them as needed. </li></ul><ul><li>This mechanism allows the sources of knowledge to interact with each other and thereby enable higher-level processing to influence lower-level processing . </li></ul>David E. Rumelhart
  14. 14. RUMELHART MODEL <ul><li>In his model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic information enters the process through a Visual Information Store (VIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cognitive Feature Extraction Device selects the important features of the graphic input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Pattern Synthesizer takes this information along with syntactic, semantic, orthographic, lexical and pragmatic knowledge (context) in order to produce the most probable interpretation for the graphic input. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reading process is the result of the parallel application of sensory and non-sensory sources of information </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. RUMELHART MODEL Grapheme Input VIS Feature extraction device Pattern Synthesizer Orthographic Knowledge Lexical Knowledge Syntactical Knowledge Semantic knowledge Model of probable interpretation Once a Feature Extraction Device has operated on the Visual Information Store , it passes the data to a Pattern Synthesizer which receives input from Syntactical, Semantic, Lexical and Orthographic Knowledge , all operating at the same point.
  16. 16. STANOVICH MODEL <ul><li>Stanovich introduced the interactive-compensatory reading model </li></ul><ul><li>Neither BU or TD address all areas of reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>But the interactive-compensatory taps into the strengths of both BU and TD </li></ul><ul><li>Says that readers rely on both BU and TD processes simultaneously and alternatively depending on the reading purpose, motivation, schema and knowledge of the subject </li></ul>Keith E. Stanovich
  17. 17. STANOVICH MODEL <ul><li>Incorporates the ‘compensatory mode’ to his model with the interaction between the top-down and bottom-up processing . </li></ul><ul><li>The compensatory mode enables the reader to, “ at any level compensate for his or her deficiencies at any other level ” (Samuels and Kamil, 1988: 32) . </li></ul><ul><li>This model has enabled researchers to theorize how good and poor readers approach a text. </li></ul>
  18. 18. STANOVICH MODEL <ul><li>If there is a deficiency at an early print-analysis stage (BU), higher order knowledge structures (TD) will attempt to compensate. </li></ul><ul><li>For the poor reader, who may be both inaccurate and slow at word recognition but who has knowledge of the text-topic, TD processing may allow for this compensation </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. A beginning reader who is weak at decoding reads this and do not know the word emerald. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The jeweler put the green emerald in the ring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He will still understand the meaning of the sentence because he may use context and knowledge of gems to decide what the word is </li></ul>
  19. 19. STANOVICH MODEL <ul><li>States that if one of the processors (i.e, orthographic, lexical, syntactic and semantic) fails, other processors will facilitate comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>For example in a cloze vocabulary exercises: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beagles, Retriever, Spaniels, as well as other ____ of dogs are favorite canines for hunting enthusiast. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lexical information is absent, but students would guess the word breeds or types, since syntactic and semantic cues compensate for the absent processors </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW <ul><li>Focus on the role of schemata, knowledge stored in memory , in text comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension = interaction between old & new information </li></ul><ul><li>Schema Theory: Already known general ideas subsume & anchor new information </li></ul><ul><li>Include: a) info about the relationships among the components, b) role of inference & c) reliance on knowledge of the content, + abstract & general schemata. </li></ul>P. David Pearson
  21. 21. ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW <ul><li>Schemata: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge already stored in memory, function in the process of interpreting new information and allowing it to enter and become part of the knowledge store </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schema: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An abstract knowledge structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A structure that represents the relationship among its component parts </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW <ul><li>Read this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen Elizabeth participated in a long-delayed ceremony in Clydebank. Scotland yesterday. While there is still bitterness here following the protracted strike, on this occasion a crowd of shipyard workers numbering in the hundreds joined dignitaries in cheering as the HMS Pinafore slipped into the water. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the name of the ceremony? </li></ul>
  23. 23. ANDERSON & PEARSON SCHEMA-THEORETIC VIEW Ship-Christening Schema Done by celebrity Involves new ship Bottle broken on bow Done before launching In dry dock To bless ship Water Shipyard The Ship Christening Schema
  24. 24. PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL <ul><li>Negotiation of meaning between writer & reader who both create meaning through the text as the medium. </li></ul><ul><li>Readers as composers: </li></ul><ul><li>“ the thoughtful reader …is the reader who reads as if she were a writer composing a text yet for another reader who lives within her ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Reader reads with the expectation that the writer has provided sufficient clues about the meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Writer writes with the intention the reader will create meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: pragmatic theories of language that every speech acts, utterance, or attempt at comprehending an utterance is an action </li></ul>
  25. 25. PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL <ul><li>Reading is an act of composing rather than recitation or regurgitation </li></ul><ul><li>Context is important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing why something was said is as crucial to interpreting the message as knowing what was said </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failing to recognize author’s goal can interfere with comprehension of the main idea or point of view </li></ul>
  26. 26. PEARSON & TIERNEY R/W MODEL <ul><li>Focus on the thoughtful reader with 4 interactive roles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planner – creates goal, use existing knowledge, decides how to align with the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composer – searches for coherence in gaps with inferences about the relationship within the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Editor – examines his interpretations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor – directs the other 3 roles </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. MATHEWSON’S MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE <ul><li>A model that addresses the role that attitude and motivation play in reading </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude intention to read reading </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude = tri-componential construct : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive component (evaluation), affective component (feeling) , & conative component (action readiness) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Conative = personality, volition, temperament </li></ul><ul><li>All these influence the intention to read, & the intention to read affects reading behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>This model provides feedback on how motivation may change & how important it is to address affective issues in teaching reading. </li></ul>
  28. 28. MATHEWSON’S MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE Cognitive Component Affective Component Conative Component Attitude Towards Reading Intention to Read Reading Behavior
  29. 29. MATHEWSON’S MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCE <ul><li>Attitude toward reading may be modified by a change in reader’s goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topic of no interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examination on comprehension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback during reading may affect attitude and motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction with affect developed through reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction with ideas developed through reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings generated by ideas from the reading process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas constructed from in the information read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the reading affects values, goals and self-concept </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. NEW LITERACY APPROACHES <ul><li>Emphasize on multiple literacies embedded in social & societal contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Reading should not be treated as an isolated activity </li></ul><ul><li>Reading must account for socially & culturally events & the associated literacy acts (e.g e-mailing, memo writing, note taking, blogging) </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of ‘culture’ on the reader-writer expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Not on the reader-writer relationship BUT on the social & cultural event around written language . </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, readers construct meaning as individuals within a culture AND </li></ul><ul><li>Their interpretation not necessarily incorrect due to their background (culture) </li></ul>
  31. 31. GROUP DISCUSSION (20 minutes) <ul><li>In groups of not more than 4, choose one of the models for discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>KINTSCH & VAN DIJK MODELS </li></ul><ul><li>JUST & CARPENTER MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>PERFETTI’S MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>McCLELLAND, ET AL MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>RAYNER & POLLATSEK MODEL </li></ul>
  32. 32. GROUP PRESENTATION ( 10 minutes) <ul><li>Describe to the class the model you have chosen. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the similarities and differences of the focus in each model. </li></ul>
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