GASTROENTERITIS• An infection or inflammation ofthe digestive tract, particularlythe stomach and intestines• It is frequently referred to as thestomach or intestinal flu
CAUSES• Viruses• An infective agent thattypically consists of anucleic acid molecule in aprotein coat, is too small tobe seen by light microscopy
CAUSES• Bacteria• A member of a large group ofunicellular microorganisms lackingorganelles and an organizednucleus, including some that cancause disease
CAUSES• Parasites• An organism that lives inor on another organism(its host) and benefits byderiving nutrients at thehosts expense
CAUSES• ChemicalExposure to heavy metals sometimespresent in drinking waterArsenicLeadMercury
SYMPTOMS• Loss of Appetite• Bloating• Nausea and Vomiting• Diarrhea• Abdominal pain• Aches• Lethargy• These symptoms aresometimes also accompaniedby Fever and Weakness• Bloody stools (in some cases)
COMPLICATION• If symptoms do not resolve within a week,Symptoms of great concern include:• High fever (102 ° F [38.9 °C] or above)• Blood or mucus in the diarrhea.• Blood in the vomit.• And severe abdominal pain or swelling.These symptoms require prompt medicalattention.
DIAGNOSIS• Diagnostic methods may include:- Medical history- Physical examination- Blood tests- Stool tests
TREATMENTTreatment depends on the cause butmay include:• Plenty of fluids and Right Diet• Oral rehydration drinks, availablefrom your chemist• Admission to hospital andintravenous fluid replacement, insevere cases
TREATMENT• Antibiotics, if bacteria are the cause• Drugs to kill the parasites, if parasitesare the cause• Avoiding anti-vomiting or anti-diarrhea drugs unless prescribed orrecommended by your doctor,because these medications will keepthe infection inside your body
PREVENTIONGeneral suggestions on how to reduce therisk of gastroenteritis include:• Wash hands thoroughly with soap andwater after going to the toilet , aftersmoking, after using a handkerchief ortissue, or after handling animals• Wash your hands thoroughly with soapand water before preparing food oreating
PREVENTION• Use disposable paper towels to dryyour hands rather than cloth towels,since the bacteria can survive forsome time on objects• Keep cold food cold (below 5°C) andhot foot hot (above 60°C) todiscourage the growth of bacteria• Make sure foods are thoroughlycooked
PREVENTION• Clean the toilet and bathroomregularly, especially the toilet seat,door handles and taps• When travelling overseas to countrieswhere sanitation is suspect, onlydrink bottled water. Don’t forget tobrush your teeth in bottled watertoo.
PROGNOSIS• Gastroenteritis is usually resolvedwithin 2 to 3 days and there are nolong-term effects. If dehydrationoccurs, recovery is extended by a fewdays.