Determining Public Relations Roles in Creating Awareness of Babies’ Abandonment Cases in Malaysia<br />By<br />Tong Tiong ...
Research Objectives……………………………………………………………….4
Theories……………………………………………………………………………4
Literature Review………………………………………………………………….5
Hypothetical Statements………………………………………………………….10
It’s an urge for government to employ Public Relations experts……………………………………………………………..…10
Public Relations should act as a problem solver in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia…………………………..10
Public Relations tools are important for PR experts in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia……………….11
There is lack of sex education for teenagers…………………………11
The public doesn’t really aware of the seriousness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia……………………………………...12
Methodology……………………………………………………………………..12
Research Method……………………………………………………..13
Research Sample……………………………………………………..13
Sampling Method…………………………………………………….14
Data Collection……………………………………………………….14
Data Analysis………………………………………………………...14
Research Scope…………………………………………………………………..14
Research Implication……………………………………………………………..15</li></ul>1.10 Operational Implication…………………………………………………………15<br />Chapter...
To determine how PR professionals can contribute themselves in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia
To justify what are the most effective PR tools that can help in building awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia
To prevent happening of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia</li></ul>1.4 Theories<br />There are four basic elements of ...
What are the most effective public relations tools that could be used by the PR experts in building awareness in the case ...
Figure out what are the main reasons that cause babies’ abandonment cases to happen</li></ul>Researcher will further discu...
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia
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PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia

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A Dissertation submitted to the
Faculty of Communication, Multimedia & Broadcasting
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Professional Communication with Honors

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PR roles in creating awareness of babies abandonment cases in Malaysia

  1. 1. Determining Public Relations Roles in Creating Awareness of Babies’ Abandonment Cases in Malaysia<br />By<br />Tong Tiong Vee<br />A Dissertation submitted to the <br />Faculty of Communication, Multimedia & Broadcasting <br />in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of <br />Bachelor of Professional Communication with Honors<br />Limkokwing University of Creative Technology<br />November 2010<br />Abstract<br />The increasing of babies’ abandonment cases every year in Malaysia has grabbed the government and public attention. The government and NGOs have pushed out few strategies such as setting up of a baby hatch by OrphanCARE and run a laboratory research on babies’ abandonment issues to tackle these cases and to reduce the deadness of abandoned infants since the past few years. However, there have no signs that show that those strategies are working. <br />Public Relations (PR), on the other hand, are commonly known as skilled publicists who are able to deliver messages effectively to the public. They mostly play an important role in building brand awareness for an organization to achieve its goals.<br />Hence, this research is to gain an understanding of how PR professionals could contribute themselves together with the government in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. At the same time, to figure out what are the most effective PR tools to be used and public perception on the reasons that cause babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia.<br />Table of Contents<br />Declaration……………………………………………………………………………...……..I<br />Abstract…………...………………………………………………………………………….II<br />Acknowledgement………………………..…………………………………………………III<br />Table of Contents……………………..…………………………………………………….IV<br />List of Table and Figures……………………………………….…………………………VII<br />List of Abbreviations…………………………………..………………………………….VIII<br />Chapter 1<br /><ul><li>Introduction………………………………………………………………………..1</li></ul>1.1 Research Problem………………………………………………………………….2<br /><ul><li>Research Goals…………………………………………………………………….3
  2. 2. Research Objectives……………………………………………………………….4
  3. 3. Theories……………………………………………………………………………4
  4. 4. Literature Review………………………………………………………………….5
  5. 5. Hypothetical Statements………………………………………………………….10
  6. 6. It’s an urge for government to employ Public Relations experts……………………………………………………………..…10
  7. 7. Public Relations should act as a problem solver in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia…………………………..10
  8. 8. Public Relations tools are important for PR experts in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia……………….11
  9. 9. There is lack of sex education for teenagers…………………………11
  10. 10. The public doesn’t really aware of the seriousness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia……………………………………...12
  11. 11. Methodology……………………………………………………………………..12
  12. 12. Research Method……………………………………………………..13
  13. 13. Research Sample……………………………………………………..13
  14. 14. Sampling Method…………………………………………………….14
  15. 15. Data Collection……………………………………………………….14
  16. 16. Data Analysis………………………………………………………...14
  17. 17. Research Scope…………………………………………………………………..14
  18. 18. Research Implication……………………………………………………………..15</li></ul>1.10 Operational Implication…………………………………………………………15<br />Chapter 2<br /><ul><li>Introduction………………………………………………………………………17</li></ul>2.1 Respondents Background………………………………………………………...18<br />2.2 Research Findings………………………………………………………………..20<br />2.2.1 It’s an urge for government to employ Public Relations experts………20<br />2.2.2 Public Relations should act as a problem solver in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia……………………………………...23<br />2.2.3 Public Relations tools are important for PR experts in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia…………………………………..24<br />2.2.4 There is lack of sex education to teenagers……………………….……28<br />2.2.5 The public doesn’t really aware of the seriousness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia……………………………………………...31<br />2.3 Other Findings……………………………………………………………………32<br />2.3.1 Public Relations (PR) still not famous enough in Malaysia……………32<br />2.4 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………..34<br />Chapter 3<br /><ul><li>Introduction………………………………………………………………………35</li></ul>3.1 Discussion and Implication………………………………………………………36<br />3.1.1 Research Objective 1: To figure out the reasons that cause babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia……………………………………………...36<br />3.1.2 Research Objective 2: To determine how PR professionals can contribute themselves in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia……………………………………………………………………...38<br />3.1.3 Research Objective 3: To justify what are the most effective PR tools that can help in building awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia……………………………………………………………………...40<br />3.1.4 Research Objective 4: To prevent happening of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia……………………………………………………………..41<br />3.1.5 Other finding: Public Relations (PR) still not famous enough in Malaysia……………………………………………………………………...43<br />3.2 Achieving Research Goals……………………………………………………….43<br />3.3 Limitations of Research / Research Problems……………………………………44<br />3.4 Future Research and Recommendations…………………………………………45<br />3.5 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………..46<br />References…………………………………………………………………………………...47<br />Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………….52<br />List of Tables and Figures<br />Table 1.0.1 Statistic of Baby Abandonment among Teenagers in Malaysia from 2005 to 2010……..1<br />Table 2.1.1 Respondents’ Gender……………………………………………………………18<br />Table 2.1.2 Respondents’ Age……………………………………………………………….18<br />Table 2.1.3 Respondents’ Occupation……………………………………………………….19<br />Table 2.1.4 Respondents’ Education Level…………………………………………………..20<br />Table 2.2.1.1 Statistics of Question 10……………………………………………………….21<br />Table 2.2.1.2 Reasons for government to employ PR professionals…………………21<br />Table 2.2.1.3 Reasons for government not to employ PR professionals……………..22<br />Table 2.2.2.1 Statistics of Question 3………………………………………………………...23<br />Table 2.2.2.2 Other Respondents’ Opinion…………………………………………..24<br />Table 2.2.3.1 Statistics of Question 4………………………………………………………...24<br />Table 2.2.3.2 Reasons of PR tools are important for a PR professional……………..25<br />Table 2.2.3.3 Reasons of PR tools are not important for a PR professional…………26<br />Table 2.2.3.4 Statistics of Question 5………………………………………………………...27<br />Table 2.2.3.5 Statistics of Question 8………………………………………………………...27<br />Figure 2.2.4.1 Statistics of Question 9……………………………………………………….28<br />Table 2.2.4.1 Other reasons for a mother to abandon a newborn…………………….29<br />Figure 2.2.4.2 Statistics of Question 11……………………………………………………...30<br />Table 2.2.4.2 Other effective ways for PR to build awareness………………………30<br />Figure 2.2.5.1 Statistics of Question 7……………………………………………………….31<br />Table 2.3.1.1 Statistics of Question 1………………………………………………………..32<br />Table 2.3.1.2 Definitions of PR by respondents……………………………………..32<br />List of Abbreviations<br />PRPublic Relations<br />NGONon-governmental Organization<br />UPMUniversity Putra Malaysia<br />OSAOptical Society of America<br />SPMSijil Pelajaran Malaysia<br />HKLHospital Kuala Lumpur<br />BNBarisan National<br />RRAAMReproductive Rights Advocacy Alliance Malaysia<br />HIVHuman immunodeficiency virus<br />AIDSAcquired Immune Deficiency<br />Chapter 1<br />INTRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>Introduction</li></ul>An earlier definition of Public Relations (PR) by The first World Assembly of Public Relations Associations, held in Mexico City in August 1978 was "the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counselling organizational leaders, and implementing planned programs of action, which will serve both the organization and the public interest (PRII, 2010)." As PR is commonly known as skilled publicists, PR is able to present information to the public as well as world in the best light. They play an important role in building awareness on particular information among the public for an organization includes government. They also help an organization to achieve its goals and manage its crisis. <br />Table 1.0.1: Statistic of Baby Abandonment among Teenagers in Malaysia from 2005 to 2010<br />NoStateTotal (case)1Selangor1052Johor833Sabah 654Sarawak345Negeri Sembilan246Pulau Pinang227Perak198Pahang 17Total 407<br />(Source: bius2010, 2010)<br />According to statistic from Malaysia’s NGOs reveal there were 228 abandoned baby cases nationwide between 2004 and 2006. The Malaysia’s Social Welfare Department recovered 315 abandoned babies between 2001 and 2004 and police statistics shown an average of 100 cases annually. As stated in Table 1.0.1 above, Women, Family and Community Development Ministry revealed that cases of abandoned babies among teenagers in Malaysia numbered 407 over the past five years from 2005 to 2010. These figures do not include abandoned babies who died when being or after discovered (Syed Zahar, 2010). <br />The babies’ abandonment attitude might cause death of an innocent baby or contempt of others when the baby grows up. Effects and harms for the baby’s health and psychological should be put in the consideration too. Furthermore, the grave consequences brought by babies’ abandonments are not only to the babies but also to the society itself. <br />As stated in the statistics infant mortality by irresponsible person in 2 years ago disclosed that this negative behaviour: throwing a newborn baby into the trash had been mimic by other which increased 135 cases from 2008 to 2009 (Hussain, 2010). This shown that baby’ abandonment cases had created an adverse impact to the society. Therefore, researcher believes that it’s an urge for the government to employ PR professionals to build awareness in babies’ abandonment cases to the Malaysia’s public.<br />1.1 Research Problem<br />Malaysian media reported that Malaysia is facing growing problems of babies’ abandonment cases. There are 65 infants found so far in 2010, and many of them had dead which make the government worried that it will exceed the average of 100 per year. Some people blame internet pornography, bad parenting, and an over-exposure to western culture for the increase in unwanted babies. Some say the fact that having a child out of wedlock is seen as deeply shameful drives many desperate women to abandon their babies (Lynn Curwin, 2010). <br />Hence, researcher is interested in the major factors that compel those irresponsible parents to abandon their baby. Are they influenced by the media or society? Are they just lack of information for single mother? Are sex education for teenagers had been overlooked? And etc. At the same time, Public Relations who have known as an important expert in delivering messages lead researcher really wants to know how they could contribute themselves in this issue together with the government. What are the roles they can play in achieving essential public’s awareness for these fatal babies’ abandonment cases? And of course what are the persuasive PR tools or methods that can be used to educate the public?<br />Researcher believes that by solving out the questions above, we will know where is the problem exist and how to annihilate it. This will definitely be much easier to reduce the abandoned babies’ cases than without knowing the main reason which cause this issue to happen. Furthermore, it will bring good image and reputation to the country by annihilating babies’ abandonment cases. It shows that our citizens are morality and educated well in every perspectives.<br />1.2 Research Goals<br />By the end of this study, researcher wants to know from the public as how Public Relations experts could contribute themselves in creating awareness in the case of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia for the government due to researcher believes that by creating awareness from the public helps prevent happening of babies’ abandonment cases.<br />Furthermore, researcher aspires to justify public opinions in what are the most effective PR tools that could be used by the PR experts in building awareness in the case of babies’ abandonment in Malaysia after figure out what are the main reasons that cause babies’ abandonment cases to happen. <br />1.3 Research Objectives<br />In order to achieve the ultimate goals, researcher has broken the study to the following objectives:<br /><ul><li>To figure out the reasons that cause babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia
  19. 19. To determine how PR professionals can contribute themselves in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia
  20. 20. To justify what are the most effective PR tools that can help in building awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia
  21. 21. To prevent happening of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia</li></ul>1.4 Theories<br />There are four basic elements of communication for Public Relations which are sender, message, medium and receiver. PR, the sender should determine who the message aimed to and affected to before PR choose tools to convey the message. PR is more focus on creating awareness and building interest of public to an issue.<br />One of the PR theories is framing. ‘Framing’ is the shaping of views and discussions through selective choice of facts, themes and words (Brett Atwood, 2007). PR has a huge influence in verifying how to discuss a topic via media to the public. For example, PR could send the disadvantages of babies’ abandonment cases and educate the public on how to prevent the cases happen.<br />Persuasion is main goal for a PR professional. It is much easier if the audience be aware of the topic and willing to accept it however it will be more difficult if the audience has less interested in the issue (Brett Atwood, 2007). Therefore, M-O-A model which stands for motivation, ability and opportunity can be used to entice the inactive audience into the topic. <br />In the babies’ abandonment cases, PR could motivate the audience by choosing unique style for the message in order to build the public awareness about these cases. The message should be as simple as it can to enable the public understand well or it must be related to what the public already know. Then, look for an effective and interesting way to convey the message so that it is attractive to the public. <br />1.5 Literature Review<br />Researcher had looked for many Public Relations roles study which had done by older generations before starting this study. From those researcher reports, researcher found out that one of the most common roles that play by Public Relations is building relationships or interests. A joint research done by Dr. Zulhamri Abdullah from UPM and Terry Threadgold from Cardiff University of United Kingdom has pointed out that:<br />The role of PR practitioners has changed from handling publicity in the production line to being involved in policy making in the dominant coalition within an organization. These changing trends need to be understood by PR practitioners and academics. Thus, the changing role of public relations has become important to build a favourable relationship between an organization and its public.<br />This definition comes close to describe Public Relations are playing an important role in building relationship between an organization and its stakeholders. An organization may succeed in its planning if its stakeholders are aware of or interested in. Cutlip, Center, & Broom (1994) also claimed that Public Relations is “the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the public on whom its success or failure depends.”<br />In discussing the roles of Public Relations, James L. Horton (2003) argued that there are three roles of PR which are lead, follow, and get out of the way. One can use public relations to lead opinion when there is power over media that transmit messages to target audiences while message effectiveness is based on the central control element in Public Relations to the target audiences. If a target audience is unalterably opposed to a message, distribution power and message strength are useless (James L. Horton, 2003). This probably explained that Public Relationship could manage the message before passing to the audience through the media in order to lead them to follow what had been conveyed. <br />However, Sharon Sim-Krause (2010) affirmed that there are five roles of Public Relations which are brand builders, message developers, lead generators, communications commandos and increase valuations. She pointed out that:<br />Public relations plays a critical role in shaping messages for the right audiences, and helping you tweak your messages to resonate with those who have the power to influence. Public relations pros, through our skills and methodologies, help build companies’ reputations day after day, year after year.<br />This nearly explains that Public Relations will help to design and shape the messages before they send out the messages to the target audience. They hope that the messages they transmitted could influence the audience while building the companies’ reputation. This helps to maintain relationship between companies and public too. <br />Moreover, researcher had read a news story posted by Pauline Almeida (2010) which its title “Increasing awareness on child abuse and abandoned babies through notice and ads” on the Malay Mail official webpage. In the news mentioned that the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development calls for more public notices and community advertisements to be placed on air to create awareness on the need to protect the wellbeing of infants and children. <br />“These notices and community advertisements are urgently needed as we need to revive the community’s responsibility towards protecting children, which is now virtually non-existent,” said an official from the ministry (Pauline Almeida, 2010). From this news, researcher realized that the government has started to be aware of the seriousness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia and wanted to prevent them by creating awareness via Public Relations tools, notice and ads.<br />In discussing Public Relations tools, Kate Le Page (2010) defined that effective PR tools involve the ability to engage attention, create catchy press releases, and use digital media, media and workouts. One of the most important PR tools is the use of research as this is extremely popular to the media and has a huge impact on potential customers. In addition to third-part research there are several other key tools used within PR including writing press releases, internet communication, media interviews and workouts (Kate Le Page, 2010).<br />According to Boarder Babies, Abandoned Infants, and Discarded Infants fact sheet done by National AIA Resource Centre (2005) concluded that:<br />Identification of women who are at greatest risk for discarding their infants remains a difficult task. Our understanding of these mothers, their motivations, and their circumstances is extremely limited, making intervention a challenge. At present, public education about resources available to pregnant women and alternatives to discarding an infant remains the primary method for addressing this issue. In view of the lack of information, efforts to collect data about the circumstances and characteristics of parents who discard their infants and tracking the experiences of discarded infants and those dropped off in safe havens are critical to addressing this problem.<br />This conclusion had explained that there is still lack of information and efforts to collect data on the primary reasons for the parents to abuse or abandon their babies. This makes us difficult to look for an effective solution for this particular problem. Apart of that, as U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher (2001) observed, it is important to “provide access to education about sexual health and responsible sexual behaviour that is thorough, wide-ranging, begins early, and continues throughout the lifespan (Satcher D., 2001).”<br />However, Bernard Richard (2009) argued that there is no single solution to the problem of infanticide; however, a response which considers the various facets of the issue may improve outcomes. By developing a combination of policies, services, education, training, and research, the Department of Social Development will hopefully succeed in averting similar situations in the future. It has been said that “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” (Bernard Richard, 2009). <br />Lupe Hittle and Bianca I. Laureano also stated that “Long-term solutions for child abandonment cases will require governments, social service agencies, and concerned individuals to be committed to prevention and education. Protecting children from harm as a result of abandonment is an important and necessary goal, but it is not a sufficient response to the problem. Ultimately, unwanted pregnancies must be prevented, and parents must be provided with the supports and services to make safe and beneficial decisions for themselves and their children.”<br />These researchers might mean that in order to prevent babies’ abandonment cases happened again, each individual should be aware of the negative impact of these cases and then unite and committed together. In addition to that, sex education and support should be provided to the teenagers by parents as well as the government. <br />Recently, Women, Family and Community Development Minister Datuk Seri Shahrizat Abdul Jalil pointed out that there are four strategies - advocacy, prevention, support and research - to be used in tackling the issue of abandoned babies, which have become rampant of late (BERNAMA, 2010). This reflects that Malaysia’s government has considered that babies’ abandonment cases are increasing rapidly, and government should increase public awareness for prevention.<br />Nonetheless, Martha Ackmann (1998) argued that we are a nation that marches to the beat of statistics. "Show me the numbers" is the mantra that frequently determines whether a concern becomes a public issue. Although these stories frequently generate sympathetic public interest, they also unfortunately contribute to misunderstanding about the seriousness and nature of infant abandonment, leaving us uniformed about those complex circumstances that culminate in deserting a newborn (Martha Ackmann, 1998). <br />She probably means that if government wants to increase public awareness of babies’ abandonment cases, government should announce the babies’ abandonment statistics to the public. Show the public how serious babies’ abandonment cases have gone. Thus, researcher hopes to determine Public Relations roles in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia with effective Public Relations tools assistance in this study. By understanding the facts of causing babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia should be able for Public Relations professionals to come out with solutions to prevent these from happening again. <br />1.6 Hypothetical Statements<br />1.6.1 It’s an urge for government to employ Public Relations experts<br />Bernays, Lesly, and other experts agree that public relations involve two-way communication between an organization and its stakeholders. It requires listening to the public on which an organization is dependent as well as analyzing and understanding the attitudes and behaviours of those audiences. Only then can an organization undertake an effective public relations campaign consisting of actions as well as words (David P. Bianco, 2010). <br />Thus, researcher strongly believes that to create awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia to the public, Public Relations experts are necessary for the government. Public Relations could contribute themselves well managing communication (information flows) among the government and the public. Then, only can the government undertake an effective public relations campaign to build the public awareness on babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia.<br />1.6.2 Public Relations should act as a problem solver in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia<br />In the field of public relations, practitioners are always seeking cost-effective ways to reach target audiences and disseminate positive messages about the clients. The roles played by public relations practitioners are varied depending on the relational circumstances between organizations and publics. This is the reason why some clients may view public relations agencies as problem solvers, especially when the awareness or reputation of the organization is weak (Fangyin Chiang, 2007). Therefore, researcher believes that PR should act as a problem solver in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia.<br />1.6.3 Public Relations tools are important for PR experts in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia <br />In most of the countries, Public Relations are effective in helping the non-profit organizations such as government boost support of awareness programs and to increase support to the programs (Susan Jan, 2006). Public relations in present times employs diverse techniques such as opinion polling and focus groups to evaluate public opinion, combined with a variety of high-tech techniques for distributing information on behalf of their clients, including the internet, satellite feeds, broadcast faxes, and database-driven phone banks (Susan Jan, 2006). <br />Therefore, researcher believes that Public Relations plays an important role for government in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia with the help of Public Relations tools.<br />1.6.4 There is lack of sex education for teenagers<br />Between 2005 and 2009, the police reported 407 cases of child abandonment, nationwide. Shelter Home executive director James Nayagam, who has been assisting pregnant teenagers for 30 years, said no amount of campaigning and counselling would prevent teenagers from experimenting with sex (The Star, 2010). James Nayagam claimed that a comprehensive sex education will be a better source of information than their friends. Therefore, the ultimate goal of sex education is to preventing unwanted pregnancies and abandoned babies (The Star, 2010).<br />Christine Alphonse, a counsellor at the Ti-Ratana Welfare Society’s welfare home, claimed youths should also be taught about the consequences of having sex and if they were prepared to handle issues such as unwanted pregnancies. At the same time, Dr Hartini Zainudin, the general manager of the Nur Salam halfway house for single mothers and children in Chow Kit asked: “Which is the bigger problem? Us being shy to teach our kids about sex, or having to deal with rising cases of abandoned babies?” (The Star, 2010). As a result, researcher strongly believes that lack of sex education to the teenagers is the main reason to cause babies’ abandonment cases continue to happen.<br />1.6.5 The public doesn’t really aware of the seriousness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia<br />Martha Ackmann (1998) claimed that in our public discussions of child abuse, infant abandonment often is not a central part of the conversation, adding to the impression that abandonment belongs in some other category and is not as critical as, for example, sexual abuse (Martha Ackmann, 1998). According to researcher’s observation so far, not much of people are aware of babies’ abandonment cases statistic in Malaysia. They don’t even discuss about this topic in their conversation. Hence, researcher believes that the public does not really aware of the seriousness (data) of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. <br /> <br />1.7 Methodology<br />It’s important to determine that which research methods are suitable for this study so that the researcher could collect the information needed effectively. Thus, this section will specify on what are the research methods used for the study, where are the researcher going to collect the data from and how the data being analyzed.<br />1.7.1 Research Method<br />After considering various methods of data collection such as descriptive research, ethnographic style, experimental style, narrative enquiries, and survey, researcher had chose to use questionnaire survey as the research method for this study as questionnaire is very cost effective method when compare to face-to-face interviews. It can be used in large geographic areas and large sample sizes (StatPac Inc., 2010).<br />Furthermore, questionnaires are familiar to most of the people. Nearly everyone has had some experience in answering a questionnaire. It’s easier for researcher to summarize and analyze the data due to there is standard questions and format for questionnaire, researcher’s own opinion will not influence the respondents to answer the question in a certain manner.<br />1.7.2 Sample<br />150copies of questionnaire were given out to the 20 years old to 40 years old respondents who are randomly chosen by outward appearances from the public places as well as via the internet. Researcher trusts that adults in this range will be much mature than the others in giving out their opinions. They shall have lots of views and willing to share their opinions for these babies’ abandonment cases which could help the researcher collect more useful information<br />1.7.3 Sampling Method<br />The survey was carried out at leisure centres and public spaces in Klang Valley to avoid respondents’ time constraint. It seems that people are willing to co-operate in a comfortable place if they are not in a rushing time. Furthermore, a survey questionnaire had been uploaded on Kwik Surveys (www.kwiksurveys.com), free online survey software, to help collect respondents’ opinion. This survey link had been promoted through researcher’s Facebook, msn and blog.<br />1.7.4 Data Collection<br />The questionnaire has been categorized in three sections. Section A is focus on respondents’ demographic. Section B then concentrate on public opinion for Public Relations roles and tools while Section C is cover on respondents’ views of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. <br />1.7.5 Data Analysis<br />Researcher began the data analysis by drawing pie charts and graphs that showed the percentages of the opinions which will lead the researcher to the results and findings. The figures are calculated with the help of Kwik Surveys (www.kwiksurveys.com). Moreover, similar answers for the open-ended questions are categorized into tables which listed the numbers of respondents and their answers.<br /><ul><li>Research Scope</li></ul>Raises of babies’ abandonment cases have become an important issue in our country. As such, this study is focus on defining Public Relations roles in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia for the government. Researcher hope that the findings of this study would figure out the main reasons of causing these cases to occur which might lead the researcher to comprehend PR roles in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia with the help of effectiveness PR tools. <br /><ul><li>Research Implications</li></ul>According to Jennifer Wolf, a Certified Parent Coach and fervent advocate of single moms and dads, there are four main negative effects of abandonment in babies and children. She claimed that children who have been abandoned may reject everything about the absent parents, may idealize the absent parent, may develop poor self-esteem, and may have difficulty expressing their emotions (Jennifer Wolf, 2010). Furthermore, these cases brought negative impact to the society too. This immoral behaviour has been mimicked by the other which creates more and more babies’ abandonment cases happened in Malaysia year by year. <br />However, there are still no specific strategies used by the government for preventing babies’ abandonment cases. Hence, researcher hope to figure out how PR, as a problem solver and communication expert could play a role in creating awareness in the case of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. Researcher strongly believes that by hiring PR professional could create awareness of the public while decreasing the number of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. <br /><ul><li> Operational Definitions</li></ul>1.10.1 Public Relation tools<br /> The types of key tools which are available to carry out the public relations functions such as Media Relations, Media Tours, Newsletters, Special Events, Speaking Engagements, Sponsorships, Employee Relations, Community Relations, and Philanthropy (KnowThis.com, 2010).<br />1.10.2 Descriptive Research<br />Descriptive research describes the present status of people, attitudes, and progress. There are five forms of Descriptive Research which include Ex post facto (after the fact), Case studies, Correlation studies, Developmental studies and Survey studies.<br />1.10.3 Experimental Style<br />Experimental style could be explained as relying on observation or experiment.<br />1.10.4 Narrative Enquiry<br />Narrative research can be defined as collecting and analyzing the accounts people tell to describe experiences and offer interpretation. Narrative research provides an option to explore personal experiences beyond the boundaries of a questionnaire, providing insight into decisions (Janine A. Overcash, 2003).<br />1.10.5 Ethnography Style<br />Ethnography is a qualitative research method that is used by anthropologists to describe a culture. Culture has many definitions but usually consists of origins, values, roles, and material items associated with a particular group of people. Ethnographic research, therefore, attempts to fully describe a variety of aspects and norms of a cultural group to enhance understanding of the people being studied (Michelle Byrne, 2001).<br />Chapter 2<br />RESEARCH FINDINGS<br /><ul><li>Introduction</li></ul>In this chapter, researcher is going to show the research findings from the questionnaire surveys researcher done to determine Public Relations roles in creating babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. Respondents’ background will be first discussed in this chapter. As mentioned in Chapter1, this study is targeting on 150 respondents which are 75 male and 75 female. The respondents’ background will be divided by three sections which are respondents’ age, occupation and level of education. Respondents’ age and level of education will be shown in pie charts while occupation will be categorized in table.<br />Then, researcher will lists down all the findings accordingly to each question through tables, graphs and pie charts. Findings which matched the hypothetical statements mentioned in Chapter1 will be categorized under each statement. The percentages of the findings will be calculating with the help of Kwik Surveys (www.kwiksurveys.com), free online survey software. After calculating the percentages, graphs and pie charts will be draw with Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. <br />For open-ended questions, researcher listed down all the answers manually to make sure every single answer is being mentioned or categorized. Furthermore, researcher will list down the unexpected findings which are not related to the hypothetical statements or research goals under “Other Findings” section. Researcher will conclude all the findings in the last part of this chapter.<br />2.1 Respondent Background<br />Table 2.1.1: Respondents’ Gender<br />It happens to meet an equality of female and male respondents in this study. From 150 respondents, 50% of them are male and another 50% are female respondents.<br />Table 2.1.2: Respondents’ Age<br />Out of 75 male and 75 female respondents, 76% of them are from 20 to 25 years old while 13% of them are 26 to 30 years old. 31 to 35 years old stand for 7%, at the same time, 4% of the respondents are from 36 to 40 years old. The average age of these 150 respondents is 24years old.<br />Table 2.1.3: Respondents’ Occupation<br />OccupationNumberStudent92Manager11Sales Person9Businessman4Hair Stylish4Event Executive3Marketing Executive3Self-Employed3Counselor2Customer Service2Hawker2Admin Executive2Account Associate2Component assembler2Designer1Editor1Engineer1Housewife1Operator1OSA (The Optical Society)1Real Estate Agent1Technician1Vision Merchandiser1Total Respondents 150<br />With an equality of 150 female and male respondents from average of 24years old, 92 of the respondents are students while 11 of them are managers. There are 9 sales persons within the respondents while businessman and hair stylish have four respondents each. Other occupations include event executive, marketing executive, self-employment, counselor, customer service, hawker, admin executive, account associate, component assembler, designer, editor, engineer, housewife, operator, OSA, real estate agent, technician and vision merchandiser. Please refer to table 2.1.3 above for the respondents’ occupation details.<br />Table 2.1.4: Respondents’ Education Level<br />For respondents’ education background, 60% of them are degree holders while 31% of them are diploma or advanced diploma holders. There are 7% of master holders while only 2% of them are with SPM education level.<br />2.2 Research Findings<br />2.2.1 It’s an urge for government to employ Public Relations experts<br />Question 10: Do you think that it's an urge for government to employ PR professional in creating awareness for babies' abandonment cases in Malaysia? Why?<br />Table 2.2.1.1: Statistics of Question10<br />Out of 150 respondents, 135 respondents think that it’s an urge for government to employ PR professional in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia while 15 of them said no. Please refer to the table below for details. <br />Table 2.2.1.2: Reasons for government to employ PR professional<br />AnswerNumberTo decrease the number of these cases39To educate the public become more responsible11At least do something3So public could be aware of the problems, when they have meet this kind of situation. 1To let people alert that this isn’t a social responsibility. Facing the fact is most important. And also, BABIES ARE INNOCENT!!!1Government is the only organization that can affect education1Government should give more info about sex education1To work out more than what we have done now 1Lack of babies abandonment awareness campaign in Malaysia1Public need to be aware of the situation and to deal with it 1For better human rights 1Help in the struggle against advocating for babies abandonment 1Creating awareness in a large community can always work 1Those babies are innocent 1Let people to know PR is the best cost effective to use1PR professional can do with most impact1PR has the skills and knowledge on how to reach a wide audience1PR brings in new idea and communicates with different stakeholders1PR are professional 1PR has strength to telling people about it1PR is expert in communication and they always have good plans to any cases 1No answers64<br />Most of the respondents think that it’s an urge for government to employ PR professional in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia because this can helps reduce babies’ abandonment cases from happening and to educate the public. Three of the respondents think that it’s better than do nothing. 64 respondents did not mention why.<br />Table 2.2.1.3: Reasons for government not to employ PR professional<br />AnswerNumberBabies abandonment cases is a crime not on public relations 1There are many more important cases 1We need educator1It's depends on how people act1Most of them done by Malays 1Anything done by government is bad1No answer9<br />One of the respondents who think that it’s not an urge because he think that there are many more important cases out there; another one think that it’s depends on one’s personality. There is one respondent that think that Malaysian need more educator instead of Public Relations professionals. ‘There is nothing to do with PR since babies abandonment is a crime,’ answered by a respondent. A respondent think that everything done by the government is bad. Others did not mention why they think that it’s not an urge for government to employ PR professional in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases.<br />2.2.2 Public Relations should act as a problem solver in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia<br />Question 3: In your opinion, what are PR roles for an organization? (You can choose more than one answer)<br />Table 2.2.2.1: Statistics of Question 3<br />There is 36% of the respondents think that PR play as communication experts for an organization while 33% think that managing relationships with different audience including media and stakeholders is a role played by PR for an organization. Unfortunately, there are only 21% of them agree that PR act as a problem solver for an organization. This shows that the public think that instead of a problem solver, PR should act as a communication expert in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. This also shows that the hypothetical statement made by researcher is different from the public opinion.<br />By the way, there are 9% of them that believe PR is a management counselor for an organization and 1% has other opinions. These opinions have been listed in table 2.2.2.2 below.<br />Table 2.2.2.2: Other Respondents’ Opinion<br />AnswerNumberBribers1Celebrities and politicians1Crisis management1Sell alcohol1<br />2.2.3 Public Relations tools are important for PR experts in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia<br />Question 4: Do you think that PR tools are important for a PR professional to reach his/her goal? Why?<br />Table 2.2.3.1: Statistics of Question4<br />For this question, the pie chart above shows that 136 (91%) of the respondents think that PR tools are important for a PR professional to reach his or her goals while 14 (9%) of them don’t think so. It’s obvious that the majority of respondents identify with the importance of PR tools to a PR professional which fit the hypothetical statement.<br />Table 2.2.3.2: Reasons of PR tools are important for a PR professional<br />AnswerNumberWithout PR tools, a PR practitioner is like a man without hands27It helps to spread news easier and faster19Added advantages to speed up their works5Give a clear picture to the public5Can fully utilize the skills to achieve and fight for company benefit4Provide sufficient support/professional advice1Help in implementing the strategies1To run a successful campaign1Sell more alcohol1No answer62<br />29 of the respondents think that PR tools are essential for a PR professional because without PR tools, a PR practitioner is like a man without hands. Nine of them think that PR tools are important because they help PR practitioner spread news easier and faster. Five respondents think that PR tools added advantages to PR professional by speeding up their works while another five think that PR tools can help give a clear image to the public on what is happening. <br />There are four respondents that think that through PR tools, PR professional can fully utilize the skills to achieve and fight for company benefits. Other reasons like provide sufficient support, help in implementing strategies, run a successful campaign and sell more alcohol have been mentioned by one respondents. 62 of them did not answer.<br />Table 2.2.3.3: Reasons of PR tools are not important for a PR professional<br />AnswerNumberIs not only PR tools are important for a PR professional because PR professional also need to take into consideration about other resources allocation such as money and human capital.4Without a good communication3Sometimes will face the problem that can't be solve1PR should able to work without any tool as they provided idea and solution1Professional PR have their own skills to reach their goals1Depends on their communication skills and personalities1No answer3<br />Out of 14 respondents that think that PR tools are not important for a PR professional to achieve his or her goals, four of them think that other than PR tools, PR professional also need to take into consideration about other resources allocation such as money and human capital. Three of them believe that via PR tools, PR can’t communicate effectively with the stakeholders due to some of them prefer direct communication. One thinks that PR should be able to work without any tool as PR provides idea and solution; another thinks that professional PR practitioners has their own skills to achieve their goals. Three persons did not give out the reasons.<br />Question 5: In your opinion, what are the most effective PR tools? (You can choose more than one answer)<br />In regards to the above question: In your opinion, what are the most effective PR tools, 32% respondents believe that special events or campaigns are the most effective PR tools while 28% think that TV and radio advertisements are most effective tools for PR. Newsletter / news release/ feature story and websites and online communities stand 20% of respondents each. For better illustration, please refer to table 2.2.3.4 below.<br />Table 2.2.3.4: Statistics of Question 5<br />Question 8: From where do you know about babies' abandonment cases? (You can choose more than one answer)<br />Table 2.2.3.5: Statistics of Question8<br />As stated in the pie chart above, out 150 respondents, 124 respondents which are 40% of them got the babies’ abandonment news from newspaper while 103 respondents know about these cases from news on TV or radio. 44 respondents know about babies’ abandonment cases from people around. Meanwhile, 41 respondents got these cases from websites and online communities. Only one respondent know about babies’ abandonment cases from other movies and games content.<br />Overall 86% of the respondents know about babies’ abandonment cases from PR tools such as newspaper, news on TV or radio, and websites and online communities, etc. This shows that without PR tools, it’s hard for a PR professional to communicate with the public. Hence, this finding is corresponding to the hypothetical statement: Public Relations tools are important for PR experts in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia too.<br />2.2.4 There is lack of sex education for teenagers<br />Question 9: Why would a mother abandon a newborn in your opinion? (You can choose more than one answer)<br />Figure 2.2.4.1: Statistics of Question9<br />According to the graph above, there are 30% of the respondents believe that lack of sex education may cause a mother abandon a newborn while 26% of them think that it’s because of unwanted pregnancies such as secrecy and shame. 23% respondents think that lack of supports and services to single mother may cause babies’ abandonment cases happen and 19% think that the parents just simply don’t want to be responsible. Only 3% of them think that there are other reasons for the parents to abandon their babies.<br />Table 2.2.4.1: Other reasons for a mother to abandon a newborn<br />OthersNumberPoverty4Mentally illness2Political condition might affect1They’re heartless1<br />For other reasons, three respondents think that babies’ abandonment may cause if the parents are facing financial problems such as not affordable for a baby. Two respondents think that it could because of mentally illness. There is one thinks that poor political condition might affect while another thinks that the parents are just heartless.<br />Question 11: In your opinion, what is the most effective way for PR to build awareness in babies' abandonment cases in Malaysia among the public?<br />According to 68% of respondents’ opinion, in order to build awareness in babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia, PR should advise the government to provide sex education to the teenagers. 15% of them think that run an on ground event on babies’ abandonment issues is the most effective way for PR to build awareness among the public. 7% think that should provide more help to single mother while 6% think that should publish more informative news on babies’ abandonment issues. Only 4% of them think that there are other ways. For better illustration, please refer to Figure 2.2.4.2 below.<br />Figure 2.2.4.2: Statistics of Question11<br />Table 2.2.4.2: Other effective ways for PR to build awareness<br />OthersNumberImpose heavy punishment to all parties3Provide awareness about how to avoid these cases happen such as play safe when having sex? Use condom? Etc.1Provide strong moral / religion education1<br />Three of the respondents who have other reasons think that to build awareness in babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia, government should impose heavy punishment to all parties. One thinks that maybe PR could provide information on how to avoid these cases happen such as ask the public to use condom. A respondent thinks that should provide strong moral or religion education to the public in order to build awareness in babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia.<br />For both of the questions, lack of sex education and provide sex education to the teenagers have the most votes from the respondents. This explains that the public also agree that there is lack of sex education to the teenagers which cause babies’ abandonment cases to happen. Both of these fit the fourth hypothetical statement mentioned above.<br />2.2.5 The public doesn’t really aware of the seriousness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia<br />Question 7: In your opinion, how many babies' abandonment cases had occurred in Malaysia the past few years?<br />Figure 2.2.5.1: Statistics of Question7<br />Based on the graph above, 27% of them think that there is 201 to 300 babies’ abandonment cases happen in Malaysia the past few years. 22% think that it’s more than 501 cases while 19% think that should be 301 to 400 cases. There is 17% believe that in the past few years, below 200 babies’ abandonment cases had occurred in Malaysia. Finally, 15% think that should be between 401 to 500 cases.<br />It’s happy to know that there is 22% (33 respondents) of respondents answer correctly which shows that they really aware of the seriousness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. Nonetheless, there are 78% (117 respondents) who don’t know the actual statistics for these cases. This shows that the public doesn’t really aware of the seriousness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia which is matched with the hypothetical statement.<br />2.3 Other Findings<br />2.3.1 Public Relations (PR) still not famous enough in Malaysia<br />Question 1: Have you heard of Public Relations (PR) before?<br />Table 2.3.1.1: Statistics of Question 1<br />It’s a surprise that there is 12% of the respondents did not hear about PR before while 88% heard before. This probably explains that PR is still not a very famous job in Malaysia.<br />Question 2: Can you briefly explain what PR is in your opinion?<br />Table 2.3.1.2: Definition of PR by respondents<br />AnswerNumberA communication of managing relationship with public and personal where to get closer with every individual28PR is a field concerned with maintaining public image and reputation for businesses, non-profit organizations or high-profile people, such as celebrities and politicians24A communication expert that know about everything include managing communication22No idea18Public Relations14Specialist help in solve problem for an organization5PR is a profession with varying definitions because of its many functions and the differentiating perceptions held by its practitioners and the public (PR is about everything) 4PR is a way for corporations to communicate with the society3Public speaking3Creating awareness and brand reputation of an organization3Doing good for the company2A practice of establishing relationship, building good reputation and overcoming any communication and relationship issue or crisis between a company with its key public1Entertain and serve your consumers1Free publicity1Girls who sit with you in pubs 1Helps company to achieve its objectives1Is an entertaining client services, and a consultant of an organization1Introduce something new to the public1Managing information flow1Office Activities1People who helps a company held an event1PR is another option to convey the message. Like a medium1PR is about social1PR is mediator between a company and public1Professional medium to maintain event/function, run according to plan, smoothly & successful1Provide service for company to promote1Publicist of a company internally and externally1Serve people1Service industry1Skilled publicists1To pass messages to public1Use the mass media to inform some information or new announcement to public1<br />Out of 150 respondents, 131 of them define PR well which show that they really understand what is PR. However, there are 18 respondents that said that they have no idea what PR is. One interesting answer is a respondent think that PR is girls who sit with people in pubs. This shows that there still have people that misunderstood what a real PR professional is.<br />2.4 Conclusion<br />Out of five hypothetical statements made by researcher in Chapter 1, four of them have been proved that have achieved through the findings. The only hypothetical statement that could not be achieved is ‘Public Relations should act as a problem solver in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia’ due to the public think that PR should act as a communication experts instead of problem solver. <br />This result is because the public perceive PR as managing relationships and communication than a professional that could helps to solve the problems faced by an organization. This can be seen from the findings of Question 2. From this study, there is one unexpected result which is there is still respondents who didn’t hear about PR before. This may because of there is lack of information about PR published in Malaysia or PR is still not that famous or important in Malaysia like other countries did.<br />Thus, with most of the hypothetical statements have been achieved, researcher wants to conclude that each of the findings have lead researcher to reach this study’s goals: <br /><ul><li>How Public Relations experts can contribute themselves in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases
  22. 22. What are the most effective public relations tools that could be used by the PR experts in building awareness in the case of babies’ abandonment in Malaysia
  23. 23. Figure out what are the main reasons that cause babies’ abandonment cases to happen</li></ul>Researcher will further discuss on how these being achieve in Chapter 3 later.<br />Chapter 3<br />CONCLUSION<br />3.0 Introduction<br />In this chapter, researcher will start by discussion and implication based on the research objectives. Do the findings achieve research objectives for this study? And what is the implication to do so? The discussion will be supporting with elder researchers’ idea or findings. The very important part in researcher’s opinion is whether the findings achieved research goals that set in Chapter 1. If achieved, how does it achieved? If didn’t, why it doesn’t? Researcher believes that the whole study is to achieve the research goals or else this study might have failed.<br />Every research study will encounter some problems or limitations in the process. Therefore, researcher will discuss on the limitations faced by researcher when doing this study as well as the solutions to overcome these problems in the future. By doing this, researcher will be able to avoid the same mistakes or problems next time. This may also give a guideline to readers who are interested to do relevant study in the future.<br />Then, researcher will give some recommendations on what scope to focus on in the future for researcher myself or other researchers who want to do a further study. Furthermore, researcher will also discuss on the questionnaire design for the further study. Finally, researcher will do a review on everything researcher has done in this study and highlights the important findings.<br />3.1 Discussion and Implication<br />3.1.1 Research Objective 1: To figure out the reasons that cause babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia<br />According to public opinion done by researcher, 30% of the respondents think that the main reason that causes babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia is because of lack of sex education. Raneesha Raj, a 20years old student, pointed out that whether we like it or not, irresponsible sex and discarding unwanted babies will always take place. If babies’ abandonment issues were to be combated, sex education in schools and at home is the only way (Firdaus Helmy & Mariam Abbas, 2010). <br />Haryati Azlan, 25years old, believes that not addressing sex or not having sex education is one of the main reasons why young women get into these situations. “Remember women are emotional, men are physical. Sex education can teach a woman to say no, rather than give in to the man if he insists on having sex while she doesn't want it. But that is just one of the things that proper sex education could impart to the young,” said Haryati (Firdaus Helmy & Mariam Abbas, 2010).<br />HKL senior consultant Dr J. Ravindran also claimed that from the many cases they have come across, it was found that many youths did not know their own bodies. Some did not even know that they will get pregnant if they have sex. Surely this is a telling statement and should provide the authorities with a good reason that it is time to have sex education in schools (Mariam Mokhtar, 2010)).<br />The second main reason from public opinion is unwanted pregnancies which are caused accidently, secrecy or shameful. Shireen Tan claimed that she believe the main reason for baby dumping is due to unexpected pregnancies happening to young and can’t afford to the society’s prejudice (Firdaus Helmy & Mariam Abbas, 2010). Other psychologists have suggested that mothers cannot handle the enormous social pressures from the unplanned or early pregnancy, and they panic which will cause them to abandon their babies (Mariam Mokhtar, 2010).<br />Khairy Jamaluddin, chairman of Barisan Nasional (BN) Youth, also claimed that society must realise that the issue of abandoning babies arises because the couple or a mother is not yet prepared. This is because such problems seldom occur among married mothers (MySinchew, 2010).<br />23% of the respondents think that it’s because of lack of support to single mothers. Abandonment could result because inexperienced mothers do not know how to deal with their babies properly. Reproductive Rights Advocacy Alliance Malaysia (RRAAM) co-chair Rashidah Abdullah also pointed out that (Hariati Azizan, 2010):<br />Many unwed mothers here go through their pregnancy alone. Many of them do not have anyone to turn to. Most would have been abandoned by their boyfriends, if they were not raped. Those who dare tell their parents would either be forced to marry or be disowned from the family or be punished in some way. Very rarely will the family help, especially if the girl decides to keep the baby and raise him or her on her own.<br />There are four respondents who think that the reason that causes babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia is because of the parents is facing financial problems. They can’t afford to raise a baby. As Mariam Mokhtar (2010) believes: some women abandon their babies as an alternative to abortion and so leave the infant so that it can be found for a chance of a better life (Mariam Mokhtar, 2010).<br />After figuring out the reasons that cause babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia, PR practitioners will be able to come out with suggestions and idea that could increase awareness of babies’ abandonment cases among the public. This could probably help to decrease the rate of babies’ abandonment cases as well as prevent it from happening again.<br />3.1.2 Research Objective 2: To determine how PR professionals can contribute themselves in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia<br />As stated by the 36% of the respondents in Question 3, PR acts as a communication expert for an organization. Hence, researcher believes that PR professionals could first contribute themselves in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia by sending public opinion to the government. What are the suggestions given by the public and what the public really concern of in babies’ abandonment cases? Evaluate the public exposure, opinions and attitudes before any decisions made. <br />Then, ‘frame’ the messages which are going to pass to the public from the government by developing the policies for communicating with the public. PR professionals could try to persuade the government to provide sex education to the teenagers by letting them know that a large number (68%) of the respondents think that this is the most effective way to reduce babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. This not only could maintain good relationships between the government and the public (PR roles for an organization supported by 33% respondents), it can also help reduce babies’ abandonment cases.<br />A research done by Charley Angel (2010) shows that a campaign is use to organize a series of activities to try to achieve something. PR campaign’s purpose mostly uses to do publicity and create awareness among the public (Charley, 2010). Thus, as a problem solver (agreed by 21% respondents), PR professionals could run an on ground event or campaign on babies’ abandonment issues to increase the public awareness on the seriousness of babies’ abandonment issues. This suggestion has been supported by 15% of the respondents. <br />For public opinion in Question 11, 6% of the respondents think that PR practitioners could help the government to spread out more informative news and do publicity on the babies’ abandonment issues to educate the public to become more responsible (one of the reasons why government should employ PR professionals stated by 11 respondents). A respondent stated that creating awareness in a large community will always work. This probably define that by spreading all the informative news and publicizing more on babies’ abandonment issues may effective in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia.<br />There is 9% of the respondents think that PR could play as a management counsellor for the government. As a counsellor, PR could help the government in suggesting ideas on babies’ abandonment cases. Furthermore, PR could also help the government to manage news, campaigns, advertisements, and etc which are going to publish to the public to make sure that these messages have been pass to the receiver while creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia.<br />By understanding well on how PR professionals can contribute themselves in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases, the government may now realize the important of a PR professional in creating public awareness of these cases. <br />3.1.3 Research Objective 3: To justify what are the most effective PR tools that can help in building awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia<br />According to the findings on Question 5, 32% of the respondents think that special events or campaign is the most effective PR tool in helping the PR professional in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases. 28% of them think that press release or feature story will be the most effective PR tool. An equality of 20% respondents thinks that TV and radio advertisements and websites or online communities will be the most effective PR tools.<br />However, 40% of the respondents know about babies’ abandonment from the newspapers while 30% of them know from TV or radio. This can probably prove that in order to build awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia, press releases and publicity on TV or radio will be the most effective tools. This doesn’t mean that other tools are not important. Just, since most of the people aware of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia through newspapers, TV, and radio, PR professional could be easier to spread information to the public via these PR tools. <br />Christopher J Ryan also claimed that press releases are the backbone of public relations because they are highly informational and tell an ongoing story of the organization's progress (or lack thereof). Press releases work best, and are published more often, when they are factual instead of sales-oriented, and concise instead of wordy (Christopher Ryan, 2010).<br />From all these findings, researcher could justify that press releases and advertisements on TV or radio are the most effective PR tools that can help in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases which will lead the PR practitioners to reach the target audience easier. Special events and awareness campaigns could also be run to increase the awareness and knowledge of public on babies’ abandonment issues.<br />3.1.4 Research Objective 4: To prevent happening of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia<br />Out of 150 respondents, 135 respondents think that it’s an urge for government to employ PR professionals in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia due to they believe that this could help reduce babies’ abandonment cases. One of the respondent claimed that PR is expert in communication and they always have good plans to any cases. Therefore, in order to prevent happening of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia, government should employ PR professionals to increase public awareness. <br />On the other hand, KAS (2010) stated that any suggestions for action before finding out the causes for baby dumping would be mere conjecture which might cause more social ills and can be likened to putting a square peg into a round hole (KAS, 2010). Mariam Mokhtar (2010) also stated that we need to understand why the parents or mother did it, and apply the appropriate solutions. The parents of the abandoned babies, especially the mothers are already in a traumatised state and need help. They do not need a death sentence hanging over them (Mariam Mokhtar, 2010).<br />Hence, by figuring out the reasons that cause babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia from public opinion, 68% of the respondents think that provide sex education to the teenagers may help to prevent babies’ abandonment cases to happen. Mariam Mokhtar (2010) pointed out that:<br />Sex education is about giving our children informed choices. Sex education will teach the child about his or her body, changes to the body at puberty, hormones, how to form stable meaningful relationships, responsible relationships, and the role of contraceptives, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDs, unprotected sex, consequences of having sex, peer pressure and how to say ‘no’. We may not be able to stop our teenagers from having sex before marriage, but we can at least tell them about responsibilities and consequences. If we want to solve or reduce the problem of abandoned babies, our approach has to be couched in a language that our youth will understand.<br />Khairy Jamaluddin also agreed that sex education was necessary to give an understanding to the young which was not merely exposure from the scientific and biological aspects but must also be looked at from the religious and eastern values (MySinchew, 2010).<br />15% of the respondents believe that preventing babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia could be done by run an on ground event on babies’ abandonment issues. Tell the public the seriousness of babies’ abandonment cases nowadays, and provide more information on how to avoid these from happening. 7% of them think that should provide more helps to single mother such as financial supports. Other suggestions such impose heavy punishment to all parties who abandoned baby or provide strong moral/religion education to the teenagers are suggested by few respondents.<br />By understanding the public opinion on how to prevent happening of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia, government could implement some of the suggestions given by the respondents with the help of PR professional. Preventing babies’ abandonment will not only benefits the society but for the infants too. This could reduce death of innocent lives as well as other negative effects to the infant who survive. <br />3.1.5 Other finding: Public Relations (PR) still not famous enough in Malaysia<br />One unexpected finding from this research is researcher found out that there is still a small number (12%) of respondents that did not know what Public Relations is and they didn’t hear about PR before. This could probably explain that PR is still not famous in Malaysia. There is one respondent has misunderstood PR as a girl who sit with people in pubs instead of PR is a professional career.<br />Therefore, researcher believes that by publish more useful information on PR professionals’ career, people could understand PR well in the future. This may educate Malaysian to become more knowledgeable which will bring many benefits to the society. <br />3.2 Achieving Research Goals<br />After finalizing and discussing the findings, researcher found out that the four objectives above have been achieved. This means that the three goals that have to be achieved by researcher for this study which are listed as below have been accomplished through the findings done from the questionnaire surveys:<br />3.2.1 How Public Relations experts can contribute themselves in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases<br />This goal have been achieve through the findings for Question 10, Question 3, and Question 11 which has been discussed in details in section 3.1.2, research objective 2 on page 39.<br />3.2.2 What are the most effective public relations tools that could be used by the PR experts in building awareness in the case of babies’ abandonment in Malaysia<br />Findings from Question 5 and Question 8 have identified that press releases or advertisement on TV and radio are the most effective PR tools in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. These have been discussing in details in section 3.1.3, research objective 3 on page 41.<br />3.2.3 Figure out what are the main reasons that cause babies’ abandonment cases to happen<br />Findings from Question 9 has stated that the respondents think that lack of sex education is the very main reason that cause babies’ abandonment cases to happen. Other reasons such as unwanted pregnancies, lack of support and services to single mothers and etc have been suggested by the respondents too. These have been discussing in details in section 3.1.1, research objective 1 on page 37.<br />3.3 Limitations of Research / Research Problems<br />Due to this is a brand new study, there is no any research papers that can be used by researcher as a guideline. Hence, researcher spent a lot of time in searching for journals and articles which are related to PR roles and babies’ abandonment issues that could be used as references as well as literature review. For the truth, researcher thinks that this is a very tough job for researcher as this is the first time researcher get in touch with dissertation. This leads researcher to put more efforts in seeking advisory from lecturers and friends in order to complete this smoothly. <br />Furthermore, the questionnaire survey which is conducting online at the same time caused most of the questionnaire conducted have been disqualified. This is because for this study, researcher is targeting on 20 to 40 years old respondents only. Respondents who are not in this range are not calculated as an answer. Therefore, respondents deleted all the data and re-create a questionnaire by restricting the age range from 20 to 40 years old. However, it’s an online community after all. People may cheat on their age which made the researcher determine not to conduct questionnaire online in the future.<br />Time, another big limitation that faced by researcher when doing this research. Because of there are only two and a half months for researcher to complete this dissertation, researcher knows that there is still a lot of improvements that have to be made in this study. Researcher has draw a timetable for the progress researcher has to accomplish in time so that everything could be done smoothly. <br />3.4 Future Research and Recommendations<br />In the future study, researcher wants to focus on how Public Relations practitioners themselves think that they could contribute themselves in babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. The respondents will be focus on PR practitioners only while the questionnaire will be designed in all open-ended questions. All questions will be asked in very details rather than gender questions like this research done. This is to understand more on professionals’ opinion on PR roles in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia instead of public opinion which may bring more interesting and useful findings. <br />3.5 Conclusion<br />At the end of this study: determining Public Relations roles in creating awareness of babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia, researcher found out that most of the public think that PR could play as a communication expert instead of problem solver that assumed by researcher in the very beginning. Nonetheless, as the respondents stated, PR is about everything. They are always bringing benefits to the public. <br />Therefore, researcher believes that PR practitioners not only could contribute themselves in managing communication between government and the public but PR practitioners could also help to evaluate public opinions. Running awareness campaigns targeting on babies’ abandonment issues will improve the awareness of babies’ abandonment as claimed by many respondents that it’s lacking of babies’ abandonment issues information and awareness campaigns.<br />Moreover, PR professionals could contribute themselves in spreading more informative news on babies’ abandonment cases via various PR tools (especially press releases and TV or radio advertisements) to build public awareness on the seriousness of babies’ abandonment issues in Malaysia and to increase knowledge on how to prevent these cases from happening.<br />Finally, as stated by Brett Artwood (2007), persuasion is the main goal for a PR professional. Since the public think that the government should provide sex education to the teenagers in order to reduce babies’ abandonment cases in Malaysia. PR professional could try to persuade the government to implement the strategy provided by public while persuading the public to become more responsible to their babies and children at the same time. <br />References<br />BERNAMA. (2010). Four strategies to tackle issue of abandoned babies. Retrieved September 2, 2010, from http://www.mmail.com.my/content/31614-four-strategies-tackle-issue-abandoned-babies <br />Bernard Richard. (2009). Protection of Vulnerable Newborn Children: A Holistic Approach. Retrieved October 5, 2010, from http://www.gnb.ca/0073/PDF/newbornchildren-e.pdf <br />Brett Atwood. (2007). PR Theory Basics. Retrieved October 5, 2010, from http://www.slideshare.net/Brett509/public-relations-theory-537389<br />Charley Angel. (2010). Green Campaign – Its Roles in Creating Awareness Among Malaysian to Protect the Environment. 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Retrieved October 5, 2010, from http://www.prii.ie/show_content.aspx?idcategory=11&idsubcategory=25<br />Satcher, D. (2001). The Surgeon General’s call to action to promote sexual health and responsible sexual behavior. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Surgeon General’s Office, Centers for Disease Controland Prevention.<br />Sharon Sim-Krause. (2010). Five Roles of Public Relations. Retrieved October 5, 2010, from http://www.thedailymba.com/2010/03/11/five-roles-of-public-relations/<br />Statistic of Baby Abandonment among Teenagers in Malaysia from 2005 to 2010. Adapted from “Statistic of Baby Abandonment Among Teenagers in Malaysia following of area from 2005-2010” by bius2010.<br />StatPac Inc. (2010). Advantages of Written Questionnaires. Retrieved October 4, 2010, from http://www.statpac.com/surveys/advantages.htm <br />Susan Jan. (2006). The Important Roles of Public Relations. 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Retrieved October 5, 2010, from http://pkukmweb.ukm.my/~mtn2007/paper/zulhamri.pdf<br />Appendix: Sample Questionnaire<br />Section A<br />Gender :<br /> Male<br /> Female<br />Age :<br /> 20 - 25<br /> 26 - 30<br /> 31 - 35<br /> 36 – 40<br />Occupation : ______________________________________<br />Education Level :<br /> Diploma / Advanced Diploma<br /> Degree<br /> Master<br /> Others, please specify:____________________<br />Section B<br />1. Have you heard of Public Relations (PR) before?<br /> A. Yes B. No<br />2. Can you briefly explain what is PR in your opinion?<br /> ___________________________________________________________________________<br />3. In your opinion, what are PR roles for an organization? (You can choose more than one answer)<br /> Problem Solver<br /> Communication Experts<br /> Managing Relationships with different audience including media and stakeholders<br /> Management Counselor<br /> Others, please specify ___________________________________<br />4. Do you think that PR tools are important for a PR professional to reach his/her goal? Why?<br /> A. Yes. __________________________________________________________________ <br /> B. No. __________________________________________________________________<br />5. In your opinion, what are the most effective PR tools? (You can choose more than one answer)<br /> TV and Radio Advertisements<br /> Newsletter / News Release / Feature Story<br /> Special Events or Campaigns<br /> Websites and Online Communities<br /> Others, please specify ___________________________________<br />Section C<br />1. Can you briefly explain what babies’ abandonment is? <br /> _____________________________________________________________________<br />2. In your opinion, how many babies' abandonment cases had occurred in Malaysia the past few years?<br /> Below 200<br /> 201 to 300<br /> 301 to 400<br /> 401 to 500<br /> Above 501<br />3. From where do you know about babies' abandonment cases? (You can choose more than one answer)<br /> News on TV or Radio<br /> Newspapers<br /> Websites and Online Communities<br /> Friends, Families, Colleague and etc.<br /> Others, please specify ___________________________________<br />4. Why would a mother abandon a newborn in your opinion? (You can choose more than one answer)<br /> Unwanted Pregnancies (Accidents, secrecy, shame, etc. )<br /> Lack of Sex Education<br /> Lack of Supports and Services to single mother<br /> They simply don't want to be responsible<br /> Others, please specify ___________________________________<br />5. Do you think that it's an urge for government to employ PR professional in creating awareness for babies' abandonment cases in Malaysia? Why?<br /> A. Yes. __________________________________________________________________ <br /> B. No. __________________________________________________________________<br />6. In your opinion, what are the most effective ways for PR to build awareness in babies' abandonment cases in Malaysia among the public?<br /> Run an on ground event on babies' abandonment issues<br /> Provide sex education to the teenagers<br /> Provide helps to single mother<br /> Publish more informative news on babies' abandonment issues<br /> Others, please specify ___________________________________ <br />

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