Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Pr in malaysia
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Pr in malaysia

8,954
views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology

3 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
8,954
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
287
Comments
3
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Page 1 of 241.0 IntroductionMalaysia, a well-known country with its diversify races, religions and cultures, is locatedbetween 2º and 7º to the North of the Equator line. Malaysia consist 13 states and threeFederal Territories which is divided into 11 states and two Federal Territories inPenisular Malaysia (West Malaysia) while the rest in East Malaysia. One of the mainattractions is the multiculturalism in Malaysia. The majority population (57%) is formbyMalays;Chinese has the second largest population in Malaysia(25%), while thesmallest population group is the Indians that bring about 10% of the 28.3million totalpopulation.Other religious such as Buddhism and Taoism majorly practiced by Chinese, Hinduismby Indians and other religious are allowed although Islam is the dominant religion inMalaysia. People with different religious, races and cultures are living together withpeace and harmony has caused Malaysia to become a gastronomical paradise and a placethat full of colorful heritage.On the other hand, Public Relations (PR) as skilled publicists is able to present acompany or individual to the world in the best light (Paul, 2010). As a result, PR inMalaysia has become essential yet a challenge due to having a good reputation or imageis essential to gain support for a country (Adnan, 2009). This paper is going to discussabout history of PR in Malaysia and issues on PR practices in different areas.2.0 Public Relations DefinitionsAn earlier PR definition by the first World Assembly of Public Relations Associations,held in Mexico City in August 1978, defined the practice of public relations as "the artand social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counselingorganizational leaders, and implementing planned programs of action, which will serveboth the organization and the public interest" (Zhao, 1999).Cutlip, Center and Broom (1994), on the other hand, claimed that PR is “the managementfunction that establish and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between anTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 2. Page 2 of 24organization and the public on whom its success and failure depends.”Both of thesedefinitions had been supported by the latest PR definition by Public Relations Society ofAmerica (PRSA).PRSA has recently redefine PR as“a strategic communication process that buildsmutually beneficial relationships between organization and their publics” after reviewingmore than 1000 submission from PR practitioners. This definition has explainedeverything about PR. A strategic communication process is related to managementfunctions that require skills of planning, implementing, evaluating as well as the power ofcontrol, which are able to bring the organizations and its public together in order toachieve both parties interest.3.0 Public RelationsStages of Development in MalaysiaThe development of PR in Malaysia had been divided into three stages which are PRbefore independence, PR after independence and PR in new era. PR used to be anapproach used by the Malaysian government to send the information to the public. Itslowly transform from one way communication to two-way communication, then beingwidely use in private sectors.3.1 Public Relations before Independence of MalaysiaThe Information Agency of the Malay States was formed in 1926 to carry out PRfunctions for the government. 19 years later, the Department of Publicity and Printingwas established to take responsible for radio broadcasting and any printing materialsneeded by the government. Beginning 1 April 1946, both departments had been mergedinorder to adapt to the civil administration with a new name, Department Public Relations.The government re-names the department again as Department of Information afterorganized and expanded its duties and responsibilities in 1950 (Department ofInformation, n.d.).The objective of the Department of Informationwas to restore British Government imageafter the Japanese occupation in Malaya due to the people starting to lose their trust andTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 3. Page 3 of 24confidence in the British government.At that time, there are some nationalistorganizationstried to seek for the independence of the country as well. As a result, thedepartment is given the responsibilities to provide information in order to calm andcontrol the negative situation. Furthermore, the department acts as a cornerstone toremove communication barriers in term of languages and cultural with the people.Various activities had been carried out (See Appendix A). The British government alsorequested the department to collect and evaluate public opinion of the government(Department of Information, n.d.).During the emergency threats from the communist, the Information Department played amajor role in communicating with the communists as well as the public. The departmenthad put a lot of effort in pleading people supportiveness to the government and standtogether to fight against the communists. Public announcements sent also spreading theinfo to persuade people not to help or join the communists.Negotiators were sent to thejungles to persuade the communists give up what they want to do. At the same time,pamphlets and appeal letters were address to the communists. Counter-subversioncampaign was launched to enhance people understanding of dangers posed by subversiveelements in 1957 (Department of Information, n.d.).The Department obligations had become more crucial before and on the IndependenceDay. The practitioners had worked hard in shaping public perceptions and fostering themutual loyalty to the Federation of Malaya through delivering speeches andannouncements to the public. On the Independence Day, the Department set up mobileunits and radio sets at places of public gatherings throughout the country so that everyonecan follow the live broadcast from the Merdeka Stadium and experience the excitementof celebrating the historical occasion – the independent declaration. This is to spread thespirit of loving the nation too (Department of Information, n.d.).3.2 Public Relations after Independence of MalaysiaAfter the Independence Day, the PR functions had been changed from „inform‟, one waycommunication to „obtain‟, two-way communication. The new role for PR practitionersTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 4. Page 4 of 24of the Department of Information is to obtain the people support and participation inorder to implement government programs successfully. Furthermore, in amulticulturalism country, the Department needs to implant people with the concept ofharmony and unity between different races and ethnic through various campaigns. CivicCourses, Civic Gatherings and Civic Day in every state had been held to educate thecitizens on state as well as nation issues (Department of Information, n.d.).When the public is facing some disordered occasion, the PR practitioners also provideddifferent services so that the people is able to comprehend the government departments‟roles and functions. Additionally, the Department had plant some Mobile Units to helpthe police control and maintain public calm by broadcasting reports and counteringrumors via Radio Malaya and Redifusion (Department of Information, n.d.).The Department of Information continued to play its rolesto instill people mindsets andensure that they accepted, adopted and assimilated towards achieving nationaldevelopment objective through various activities, interpersonal communications and PRcampaigns. These campaigns and activities include New Economic Policy, theConstitution, Rukun Negara (Principles of Nationhood), National Education Policy, thehistory of the struggle for independence of the nation, AmanahSahamNasional, thethreats and dangers of drug abuse, national security, and various government policies(Department of Information, n.d.).In 1961, the Department of Information was placed under Ministry of Information andBroadcasting, which was new established under the Prime Minister‟s Department andwas placed under the purview of the Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Hajwith Syed JaafarAlbar as his Junior Minister (Department of Information, n.d.).There was a confrontation faced by the country in 1962-1963 when there was apropaganda campaign launched by Indonesia in collaboration with the opposition ofMalaysia which had successfully makes up leftist political organizations in Brunei andSarawak. This had become a challenge to the Department. DatukMohsSopee IbrahimTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 5. Page 5 of 24who was the Department Director-General travelled all over Malaysia to give briefingsand explanations to Department officers so that they are able to remind the public aboutlandings made by the enemy and convince the public to inform the police if they detectedant strangers in their villages. Along with that, the Department also engaged in requestingpeople not to believe or join the propaganda by Indonesia through Media Units. Massgatherings were held to keep the public informed with the real situation and seek forinternational support until the end of the confrontation (Department of Information, n.d.).The tragedy of May 13 1969 had once again increase the issue of harmony amongdifferent ethnic groups. PR practitioners of the Department were given theresponsibilities to restore the harmony and unity of the society. Various PR programs hadbeen implemented to promote unity and build national resilience. Rukun Negara and NewEconomic Policy used to be the major post of May 13 activity to secure the support of thepeople and since then, these had become the main activities of the Department(Department of Information, n.d.).3.3 Public Relations in New Era of MalaysiaPR had been widely practice in the private sectors since Malaysia former Prime Minister,Tun Mahathir introduced Wawasan2020 (Vision 2020) in 1991. The government wants tobecome a well-development country in year 2020. Besides from the traditional mediaused to communicate the Vision 2020 philosophy to the public, the Department ofInformation had also utilized the new media, internet. PR had been exercise fully inachieving the Vision 2020 (Baharum, 2011).Through promoting the importance of the PR, many big private organization such asTelekom Malaysia, Pos Office Malaysia, Tenaga National and etc started to use PR as atool to build and maintain mutual relationships with their public (Idid, 2004).Nowadays,more and more universities had offered Public Relations courses and PR agencies areincreasing from year to year. The larger the organization is, the greater the need for theorganization to employ PR or set up its own PR department (Idid, 2004).TONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 6. Page 6 of 244.0 Public Relations issuesIn this part, we are going to discuss on PR issues in the political, mass media, educationand private sectors. This is to increase the understanding of how PR involve in differentenvironment. PR code of ethics is discussed in the end of this section.4.1 PoliticalMalaysia executes parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarch. His Majesty theYang di-PertuanAgong, as the supreme head of the country is granted the powerto assignsenators on the advice of the Prime Minister, the head of the government. Malaysia has amultiparty political system which guided by the current government, BarisanNasional(formed by five main parties - UMNO,MCA,MIC,Gerakan,PPBB,and SUPP). Meanwhile,the main opposition parties include Parti Islam Semalaysia (PAS), the Democratic ActionParty (DAP) and the PartiKeadilan Rakyat (PKR).Public relations as a formally recognized practice in Malaysia have its roots in thegovernment sector (Kaur&Shaari, 2006). Political PR encourages a rich interaction at arange of different levels between those active, interested or even uninterested in thepolitical process and political discourse (Jackson, 2010). The president of Institute ofPublic Relations Malaysia (IPRM), YBhg Prof. Dato‟ HjMohdHamdanHj Adnan (2009)had pointed out that: The main role of government public relations is to enhance an interactive, ethical and sustainable communication to win the understanding and support of the publics or their targeted groups. They must gauge public opinion, analyzed and determine its impact on the government and advising them accordingly so as enjoy the people continuous support.Furthermore, the existence of the permanent PR campaigns appear to have influenced thegrowth of political spin as a means of winning short-term policy, personality and electioncampaigns (Jackson, 2010). During election, candidate put forward by political partiesTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 7. Page 7 of 24seeks to persuade voters that he or she is the best qualified person for the job andpossesses the best ideas and plans for moving forward (Culbertson, 2009).DrDzulkeflyAhmad who is a member of Kuala Selangor parliament, claimed that currentPrime Minister NajibTunRazak, his predecessor Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and SimeDarby chairman Musa Hitam. Taib has spent millions to hire FBC Media, a media andpublic relations company based in London, for image building-advice (Dzulkefly,2011).The government implemented various public relations campaigns such as“Malaysia Boleh” campaign, aimed to tell Malaysians that they are capable to achievewhat they want, and the 1-Malaysia campaign to promote “one-nation movement” as aPR strategy to build its image and gain people trust.The Malaysian government‟s agenda to establish cultural acceptance amongst its variousethnic groups has been achieving considerable success via its various public relationscampaigns (Hashim, 2011).However, Wong (2012) critics that PR in Malaysia, with itspolitical enthusiasm fails to understand that everything is not racist or some affiance. PRturns everything into a racist agenda if it does not fit his or her own agenda (Wong,2012).This racist agenda have provoked extremism and intolerance, factors that canundermine the stability of society during period of political, which have been soundlycontained in Malaysian society (Lee, 2000).4.2 Mass MediaThe Malaysian conventional print, audio, and visual media play a crucial role indeveloping the transmission of data and information to the Malaysian public (Hamzah,2009). Since the past decades, Malaysia government had mainly relied on the printedmedia to help to inform or convey message to the public. These printed media includeBernama owned by the government, New Straits Times and Utusan Malaysia owned byUMNO alliance, The Star which is mainly acquire by MCA, Sin Chew Daily, ChinaPress and etc. Other electronic media (Radio and Television) is mainly owned by thegovernment.TONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 8. Page 8 of 24With the fast growing of the technology,Nielsens Mobile Insights Malaysia 2010 surveyrevealed that the internet usage in Malaysia has increase to 41% and social networkingstands the highest rate of usage (Nielsen, 2011). Among the five popular online socialnetworks usage in Malaysia, Facebook has the highest usage (80.68%) in Malaysia (Alam,Yeow& Loo, 2011). This has indicated that in order to reach the public easier, using socialnetworking sites as PR tools is significant.Yet, Grunig (2009) argued that digital mediahave the potential to truly revolutionize public relations only if a paradigm shift in thethinking of many practitioners and scholars takes place.In response, the Malaysian politicians, even the current Prime Minister of MalaysiaNajibTunRazak, had adapted to the changes and set up their own Facebook account andpage. The purpose for them to do so is to tell the people that they are listening to peoplevoices and to interact with the people.4.3 EducationIn the past, Malaysian PR professionals typically were former journalists but the crossingover from journalism to PR seems to be declining (Idid, 2004). Today, PR in Malaysiahas matured to meet a number of conditions to support professionalism but the passage oftime alone will not ensure the attainment of professional status for PR practitioners inMalaysia (Rahman, 2010).This has been supported by a study done by Zulhamri and Terry (2002), which disclosedthat forming an independent professional association for public relations is vital, providedthat it follows global standards in terms of several key elements (strategic plans, universalaccreditation, global benchmarking standards, international relations, continuousprofessional development, a code of ethics, membership benefits, and training andqualification) of the professional project. Therefore, it‟s an urge for PR professionals andinstitute to educate and guide the art to professionalism.The Institute of Public Relations Malaysia (IPRM), set up in 1962, is an independentorganization that hopes to enhance local PR practitioners‟ professionalism. With 50yearsTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 9. Page 9 of 24of history, IPRM has played a significant role in the training and development of morethan 5,000 Malaysian in preparing and qualifying them for a career in public relations(IPRM, 2010). IPRM also provides internships to various universities‟ students. Inaddition to that, a new public relations training company, intelectasia™Consultancy wasestablished in January 2009 to provide high quality learning and development programsto PR practitioners of Malaysia (Intelectasia, n.d.). Besidea, the Public RelationsConsultants‟ Association (PRCA) of Malaysia was founded in 1999 to serve as aplatform for the exchange of information and views, while striving to set industrystandards, develop young consultants and provide a unified voice for practitioners (PRCA,n.d.).There are 16 universities and colleges that offer PR course in Malaysia. These consist ofSEGi University College, LimKokWing University of Creative Technology (LUCT),University Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Help University College (HUC), Taylor‟sUniversity, University Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Tunku Abdul Rahman College(TARC), University Sains Malaysia (USM), University Putra Malaysia (UPM), KDUUniversity College, INTI International University, Stamford College, Management andScience University (MSU), Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan University College (KLMUC),Brickfields Asia College, and Curtin University Sarawak Malaysia. Nevertheless, amongthese universities, only three universities (USM, UPM, and LUCT)provide master coursein PR and USM is the only university that offer PhD in PR.4.4 Private SectorA research done by Ling (1993) indicated that the management of organizations still feelthat anyone can do PR with the assumption that requires little formal education andcommon skills. It might be true because an organization may survive without PR but awell-established PR plan can produce better results and enhance organization‟s reputationand image (Solehin, 2009).Solehin (2009) further stated that with the changing trends of the industry towardsglobalization, the role of Malaysian PR professionals has changed from handlingTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 10. Page 10 of 24publicity in the production line to being involved in policy making in the dominantcoalition within an organization due to cultural diversity is seen as a universal concept asevery country has different religious and tribal groups (Zulhamri, 2007). Hence, PRpractitioners in Malaysia should be more sensitive and professional in handlingmulticultural issues than other country PR practitioners because in a developing multi-ethnic country like Malaysia, it is essential to understand the cultural diversity andmulticulturalism to clearly identify sensitive and multi-aspect approach to PR (Solehin,2009).This changing has also increase the number of PR firm and consultancy in Malaysia suchas Asia PR Consultants, Epic Communications, Eric Pringle Associates PR, EssenceCommunications, Oglivy PR (Malaysia), Rantau PR, JP & Associates PR, and etc. Torecognize the achievements of public relations professionals and the best PR campaignsover the year, PRCA Malaysia has organized an annual Malaysia Public RelationsAwards (MPRA). The fourth MPRA ceremony was held on 3 November 2010 and thewinners list is presented in Appendix C.4.5 Code of EthicsMany critics argue that there can be no ethical public relations because the practice itselfis akin to manipulation and propaganda (Bowen, 2007). However, Lieber (2003) claimedthat to be successful, public relations practitioners are required to make intelligent, split-second decisions on situations laden with ethical dilemmas.Harrison (n.d.) had introducedeight practical guidelines that can help resolve ethical dilemmas: 1. Define in writing the specific issue or conflict. 2. Identify the relevant internal or external factors that may influence the decision. 3. Identify and rank the key values and principles involved. 4. Identify the parties who will be affected by the decision and define your obligation to each. 5. Select ethical principles to guide your decision-making process. 6. Make a decision. 7. Develop and implement an action plan that is consistent with the ethical priorities you have determined as central to the dilemma. 8. Reflect on the outcome of this ethical decision-making process.TONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 11. Page 11 of 24International professional public relations bodies have also established ethics codes in anattempt to regulate members‟ ethical behavior (Harrison & Chris, 2005).In Malaysia,IPRM used international code of ethics for PR as their code of Athens (See Appendix D)for members. PRCA Malaysia, on the contrary, announcedits own five key areas of theassociation code of ethics, which need to be followed by its members. These areasinclude professional service to clients, honesty, fees of services, business code of conductand respect for member firms and employees.5.0 ConclusionIt‟s no doubt that PR in Malaysia is moving towards the professionalism no matter it‟s inpolitical, education, industry or the media fields. However, the development of PR shouldnot depend on the government alone. Professionals from private sectors should alsocontribute to the PR development. This might be achieving through various professionaltraining programs for the practitioners and professional education for the youths inMalaysia. Only by the collaboration betweengovernment and private sectors, PR is ableto become a real profession in the country.6.0 ReferencesAdnan, HjMohdHamdan. (2009). Government Public Relations and GovernmentRelations Synergizing for Business Success. Retrieved 2012, May 5, fromhttp://www.iprm.org.my/resources/articles/24-government-public-relations-and-government-relations-synergising-for-business-successAlam, S.S., Yeow, P.H.P., & Loo, H.S. (2011).An Empirical Study on Online SocialNetworks Sites Usage: Online Dating Sites Perspective. International Journal of Businessand Management, 6(10), 155-161.Baharum, Fatin (2011). Public Relations in Malaysia. Retrieved 2012, May 6, fromhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/52935327/PUBLIC-RELATION-IN-MALAYSIATONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 12. Page 12 of 24Bowen, S.A. (2007). Ethics and Public Relations. Retrieved 2012, May 5, fromhttp://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/ethics-and-public-relations/Culbertson, Hugh. (2009). Role-Taking: An Important Public Relations Process.Malaysian Journal of Media Studies, 11(1), 1-8.Cutlip, S., Center, A., and Broom, G. (1994). Effective Public Relations. EnglewoodCliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Department of Information Official Website.(n.d.).History. Retrieved 2012, May 6, fromhttp://www.penerangan.gov.my/index.php/en/organisation-profile/history.htmlDzulkefly Ahmad. (2011). Najib and Co spent millions for PR. Retrieved 2012, May 5,from http://blog.drdzul.com/2011/08/02/najib-and-co-spent-millions-for-pr/Grunig, J. E. (2009). Paradigms of global public relations in an age ofdigitalisation.Prism, 6(2).Hamzah, Azizah. (2009). Malaysia’s Role in National Development: Media Policy andNational Stability. Malaysian Journal of Media Studies, 11(1), 49-58.Harrison Karey and Chris Galloway.(2005). Public Relations Ethics: A Simpler (but notsimplistic) Approach to the Complexities. Prism 3, 1-17.Harrison Kim. (n.d.). PR Ethics: Ensure you bring ethics into your PR activities.Retrieved 2012, May 5, from http://www.cuttingedgepr.com/articles/bring-ethics-into-pr-activities.aspHashim, Mohd. Adnan. (2011). Tackling Multiculturalism via Human Communication: APublic Relations Campaign of 1Malaysia. International Journal of Business and SocialScience, 2(4), 114-127.TONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 13. Page 13 of 24Idid, S.A. (2004). Public Relations in Malaysia from its Colonial Past to CurrentPractice. In Sriramesh, K. Public relations in Asia: An Anthology. Singapore: Thomson.Institute of Public Relations Malaysia. (2010). About IPRM. Retrieved 2012, May 5, fromhttp://www.iprm.org.my/about-us/about-iprmIntelectasia Consultancy. (n.d.). About Us. Retrieved 2012, May 5, fromhttp://www.intelectasia.com/about-usJackson, Nigel. (2010). Political Public Relations: spin, persuasion or relationshipsbuilding?. Retrieved 2012, May 5, fromhttp://www.psa.ac.uk/journals/pdf/5/2010/1192_1076.pdfKaur, K. (2005). Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management inMalaysia: An Exploratory Study. Retrieved 2012, May 5, fromhttp://eprints.ptar.uitm.edu.my/3616/1/LP_KIRANJIT_KAUR_05_24.pdfKaur, K., and Shaari, H. (2006). Perceptions on the relationship between public relationspractitioners and journalists. Kajian Malaysia, XXIV (1&2), 9-32.Lee, Hock Guan. (2000). Ethnic Relations in Peninsular Malaysia: The Cultural andEconomic Dimensions. Social and Cultural Issues, 1.Lieber, P. S. (2003). Ethics in public relations: Gauging ethical decision-making patternsof public relations practitioners. Unpublishedmaster‟s thesis, Louisiana StateUniversity,Baton Rouge. Retrieved January 27, 2005,fromhttp://etd02.lnx390.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-0707103-111615/unrestricted/Paul_Lieber_Thesis.pdfTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 14. Page 14 of 24Ling, LiongIng. (1993). Correlates of Public Relations’ Role Types in Malaysia.Unpublished master‟s thesis, University Putra Malaysia Institutional Repository.Retrieved 2012, May 5, from http://psasir.upm.edu.my/11107/1/FPP_L_1993_10_A.pdfNielson Company. (2011). Malaysian Internet Usage Take off in 2010. Retrieved 2012,May 6, from http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/global/malaysian-internet-usage-takes-off-in-2010/Paul Hannah. (2010). Public Relations. Retrieved 2012, May 5, from http://www.mba-tutorials.com/marketing/425-public-relations.htmlPublic Relations Consultants‟ Association of Malaysia. (n.d.). Code of Ethics. Retrieved2012, May 5, from http://www.prcamalaysia.org/index.asp?menuid=249&pageid=186Public Relations Society of America. (2012). Public Relations Definition: PRSA OfficialStatement. Retrieved 2012, May 5 fromhttp://www.prsa.org/AboutPRSA/PublicRelationsDefinedRahman, Poziah A. (2010). The Great Need for a PR Act. Retrieved 2012, May 5, fromhttp://thestar.com.my/columnists/story.asp?col=atyourservice&file=/2010/3/6/columnists/atyourservice/5796264&sec=At+Your+ServiceSolehin. (2009). Analyse Issue of PR in Malaysia: A Study on CommunicationManagement. Retrieved 2012, May 6, fromhttp://www.docstoc.com/docs/10992504/Issue-On-Public-Relations-in-MalaysiaThe Economist. (2009). Malaysia: Political Structure. Retrieved 2012, May 5, fromhttp://www.economist.com/node/14117008TONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 15. Page 15 of 24The Malaysia Government‟s Official Portal (n.d.). About Malaysian Government.Retrieved 2012, May 5, fromhttp://www.malaysia.gov.my/EN/Main/MsianGov/Pages/AboutMsianGov.aspxTourism Malaysia. (2012). About Malaysia. Retrieved 2012, May 5 fromhttp://www.tourism.gov.my/about_malaysia/index.phpWong, MunChee. (2012). PR is more politically racist than UMNO. Retrieved 2012,May 5, from http://malaysiansmustknowthetruth.blogspot.com/2012/02/pr-is-more-politically-racist-than-umno.htmlZhao Jensen. (1999). Public Relations. Retrieved 2012, May 5, fromhttp://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5209/is_1999/ai_n19125848/Zulhamri Abdullah. (2007). Towards International Cultural Diversity Management ofPublic Relations: Viewpoints of Chairmen/CEOs. International Journal of Economics andManagement, 1(2), 285-299.Zulhamri Abdullah and Terry Threadgold. (2002).Towards the Professionalisation ofPublic Relations in Malaysia: Perception Management and Strategy Development. PublicRelations Quarterly, 66(3), 298-320.TONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 16. Page 16 of 24APPENDIX A: Activities carried by the Department of Information in1940sMobile Units and Film ShowsThe Department was well known for its mobile units that were conspicuous throughoutthe country. The functions of the mobile units were outlined in an official directive to theDepartment dated May 20, 1946 (Department Instruction No. 2). The duties andresponsibilities of the Mobile Units were as follows: • To provide accurate information and proper advice to the public. • To nurture good relationship between the people and the government as well as to cooperate with local officers. • To establish good relationships between the people and the Mobile Units of the Department. • To obtain feedback from the people for submission to the government. • To submit reports on the relationships between the units and the people.Film shows were the most popular activities of the Department in those days. In everystate there were Mobile Units equipped with 16 mm projectors. State Public RelationsOfficer and staffs of the Department were very popular in their respective states due totheir duty in delivering speeches and screening films. Usually, the Units would travel toevery nook and cranny of the state to show films at locations that would attract largegatherings, especially the school playing fields.Information CentresTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 17. Page 17 of 24Information Centres were established in the major towns throughout the country since1945 to carry out such activities as are at present performed by Information Bureaus.Among the earliest Information Centres was the Information Centre at Java Street KualaLumpur which was opened on October 20, 1945. Information Centres became placeswhere members of the public came to read books, listen to the radio and look at picturesof events within and outside the country that were on display These Centres served asimportant channels for the purpose of disseminating information in urban areas.Press CommunicationsPress Communications had been an important element ever since 1945. The function ofPress Communications was performed at the headquarters by the Press Relations Officerswho were assisted by Reporters. They were responsible for carrying out news coverageand issuing Press Releases especially on official events related to governmentadministration. Important topics included government programs such as food production,health, education and others. This division also conducted Press Conferences and ensuredaccurate reporting by the Media.Until 1947 this division was divided into five sections:1. Press Releases Section2. Essential News Section3. Newspaper Cuttings Library4. Production of articles for publications in foreign magazines, especially in England,for the purpose of making Malaya known.5. Translation Section.PublicationsThe Department had published various campaign materials such as posters and pamphletsever since its inception. In 1946, the Department published 14 book titles besides thedepartmental newsletter knwon as the Malayan Observer. Malayan Observer containednews about government activities and current events in Malaya. A Tamil edition of thisnewsletter was also published for distribution in the estates. The Department alsopublished books that could be used as reference materials. In 1946, the DepartmentTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 18. Page 18 of 24translated and published „The History of the Second World War‟ which was used inschools. Besides that, the Department published pamphlets especially on hygiene andcleanliness, food production, and aspects of the constitution and nationhood. Posters alsofeatured as a channel for the dissemination of important information on hygiene andcleanliness, thrift and savings, welfare and dieting.ExhibitionsActivities on exhibitions were managed by a division called Artist and Caption WritersDivision. This division produced the pictures and captions for display at all InformationCentres and on the display boards provided. Exhibitions served as very usefulinformation channels for conveying vital information to members of the public,especially to those with lower reading ability. The Department participated in thisactivity and also provided its expertise to exhibitions sponsored by other agencies. At theend of 1946, for instance, the Department participated in the Royal Australian Exhibitionin Sydney and the exhibition British Industries Fair.Stage PerformancesIn October 1946, the Department established a theatrical group comprising amateurartistes. They performed in Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan. Their stageperformances consisted of plays and singing and dancing themed on the virtue of savingmoney and the importance of education. In 1947, Tamil Drama Party was set up andperformed in estates especially in Kedah and Perak. This entertainment media hadsucceeded to attract the interest of the public.TONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 19. Page 19 of 24APPENDIX B: Malaysia as a Fully Developed Country - One Definition:Nine Challenges of Vision 2020)By the year 2020, Malaysia can be a united nation, with a confident Malaysian society,infused by strong moral and ethical values, living in a society that is democratic, liberaland tolerant, caring, economically just and equitable, progressive and prosperous, and infull possession of an economy that is competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient.Therecan be no fully developed Malaysia until we have finally overcome the nine centralstrategic challenges that have confronted us from the moment of our birth as anindependent nation. The first of these is the challenges of establishing a united Malaysian nation with a sense of common and shared destiny. This must be a nation at peace with itself, territorially and ethnically integrated, living in harmony and full and fair partnership, made up of one Bangsa Malaysia with political loyalty and dedication to the nation. The second is the challenge of creating a psychologically liberated, secure, and developed Malaysian Society with faith and confidence in itself, justifiably proud of what it is, of what it has accomplished, robust enough to face all manner of adversity. This Malaysian Society must be distinguished by the pursuit of excellence, fully aware of all its potentials, psychologically subservient to none, and respected by the peoples of other nations. The third challenge we have always faced is that of fostering and developing a mature democratic society, practicing a form of mature consensual, community- oriented Malaysian democracy that can be a model for many developing countries.TONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 20. Page 20 of 24 The fourth is the challenge of establishing a fully moral and ethical society, whose citizens are strong in religious and spiritual values and imbued with the highest of ethical standards. The fifth challenge that we have always faced is the challenge of establishing a matured,liberal and tolerant society in which Malaysians of all colors and creeds are free to practice and profess their customs,cultures and religious beliefs and yet feeling that they belong to one nation. The sixth is the challenge of establishing a scientific and progressive society, a society that is innovative and forward-looking, one that is not only a consumer of technology but also a contributor to the scientific and technological civilization of the future. The seventh challenge is the challenge of establishing a fully caring society and a caring culture, a social system in which society will come before self, in which the welfare of the people will revolve not around the state or the individual but around a strong and resilient family system. The eighth is the challenge of ensuring an economically just society. This is a society in which there is a fair and equitable distribution of the wealth of the nation, in which there is full partnership in economic progress. Such a society cannot be in place so long as there is the identification of race with economic function, and the identification of economic backwardness with race. The ninth challenge is the challenge of establishing a prosperous society, with an economy that is fully competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient.TONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 21. Page 21 of 24APPENDIX C: Winners of the Malaysia Public Relations Awards 2010Product Brand Development Campaign of the YearCertificate of Excellence – Best Use of Digital: Fleishman-HillardFor Detik-Detik MH: Rediscovering the Essence of Malaysian Hospitality for MalaysianAirlines System BhdCertificate of Excellence – Best Use of Digital: Text 100For Spread the Smile Movement - The Journey for Cleft campaign for ING InsuranceBerhadHonourable Mention -Technology Campaign of the Year: Text 100For Avoid Being a Cybercrime Statistic With Norton 360 for Norton from Symantec(Malaysia)Finalist: Text 100For Lenovo Breakthrough campaign for LenovoConsumer Launch Campaign of the YearAward Winner: Essence Communicationsfor Delta Strike campaign for Lifebuoy (Unilever) MalaysiaCertificate of Excellence: Kim Chew CommunicationsFor Nippon Odour-less Aircare campaign for Nippon Paint (Malaysia) SdnBhdFinalist – Technology Campaign of the Year: AstroFor AstroB.yond campaign for AstroHealthcare: Ethical Campaign of the YearCertificate of Excellence: Fleishman-HillardFor Power Over Cervical Cancer (POCC) campaign for GlaxoSmithKlinePharmaceuticals MalaysiaTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 22. Page 22 of 24Certificate of Excellence: Golin HarrisFor Breathe: World Asthma Day campaign for GlaxoSmithKline PharmaceuticalsMalaysiaFinalist: EdelmanFor Say Goodbye to Premature Ejaculation campaign for Janssen-CilagPublic Affairs Campaign of the YearCertificate of Excellence: Weber ShandwickForCorporate Positioning Framework for EkuitiNasionalBerhad (EKUINAS) forEkuitiNasionalBerhad (EKUINAS)Financial Communication Campaign of the YearFinalist: Ogilvy PRForMalaysia’s International Headlining Act of 2009 for Maxis BerhadCorporate Social Responsibility Campaign of the YearAward Winner: Text 100For Spread the Smile Movement - The Journey for Cleft campaign for ING InsuranceBerhadEnvironmental Campaign of the YearCertificate of Excellence: Text 100For Spread the Smile Movement - The Journey for Cleft campaign for ING InsuranceBerhadCertificate of Excellence – Best Use of Digital: Fleishman-HillardFor Detik-Detik MH: Rediscovering the Essence of Malaysian Hospitality for MalaysianAirlines System BhdHonourable Mention: Weber ShandwickFor Green Fingers Eco-project for Standard Chartered Bank Malaysia BerhadPromotional Activity of the YearAward Winner: Weber ShandwickFor Youth ‘10: Malaysia’s Largest Youth Festival for Youth AsiaCertificate of Excellence: Ogilvy PRForShell Fuelsave 1 Litre Challenge for Shell Malaysia Trading SdnBhdTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 23. Page 23 of 24Campaign of the YearGold Award: Essence CommunicationsFor Delta Strike campaign for Lifebuoy (Unilever) MalaysiaAPPENDIX D: IPRM – Code of Athens International Code of Ethics for Public RelationsCONSIDERING that all Member countries of the United Nations Organisation haveagreed to abide by its Charters which reaffirms “its faith in fundamental human rights, inthe dignity and worth of the human person” and that having regard to the very nature oftheir profession, Public Relations practitioners in these countries should undertake toascertain and observe the principles set out in this Charter.CONSEDERING that, apart from “rights”, human beings have not only physical ormaterial needs but also intellectual, moral and social needs, and that their rights are ofreal benefit to them only insofar as these needs are essentially met,CONSIDERING that, in the course of their professional duties and depending on howthese duties are performed, Public Relations practitioners can substantially help to meetthese intellectual, moral and social needs.And lastly, CONSIDERING that the use of techniques enabling them to comesimultaneously into contact with millions of people gives Public Relations practitioners apower that has to be restrained by the observance of a strict moral code.On all these grounds, the Public Relations Associations which have recognized thepresent document declare that they accept as their moral charter the principles of thefollowing Code of Ethics, and that if, in the light of evidence submitted to the Council, amember of these associations should be found to have infringed this Code in the courseof his professional duties, he will be deemed to be guilty of serious misconduct callingfor an appropriate penalty.Accordingly, each Member of these Associations:SHALL ENDEAVOUR1. To contribute to the achievement of the moral and cultural conditions enabling human beings to reach their full stature and enjoy the indefeasible rights to which they are entitled under the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”;2. To establish communication patterns and channel which, by fostering the free flow of essential information will make each member of the society in which he lives feelTONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012
  • 24. Page 24 of 24 that he is being kept informed, and also give him an awareness of his own personal involvement and responsibility, and of his solidarity with other members;3. To bear in mind that, because of the relationship between his profession and the public, his conduct – even in private – will have an impact on the way in which the profession as a whole is appraised;4. To respect, in the course of his professional duties, the moral principles and rules of the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”;5. To pay due regard to, and uphold, human dignity and to recognize the right of each individual to judge for himself;6. To encourage the moral, psychological and intellectual conditions for dialogue in its true sense, and to recognize the right of the parties involved to state their case and express their views;SHALL UNDERTAKE7. To conduct himself always and in all circumstances in such a manner as to deserve and secure the confidence of those with whom he comes into contact;8. To act, in all circumstances, in such a manner as to take account of the respective interests of the parties involved: both the interests of the organization which he serves and the interest of the public concerned;9. To carry out his duties with integrity, avoiding language likely to lead to ambiguity or misunderstanding, and to maintain loyalty to his clients or employers, whether past or present;SHALL REFRAIN FROM10. Subordinating the truth to other requirements;11. Circulating information which is not based on established and ascertainable facts;12. Taking part in any venture or undertaking which is unethical or dishonest or capable of impairing human dignity and integrity;13. Using any “manipulative” methods or techniques designed to create subconscious motivations which the individual cannot control of his own free will and so cannot be held accountable for the action taken on them.The Code of Athens was adopted by the International Public Relations Association (IPRA)at its General Assembly held in Athens, Greece, in May 1965, and was modified as aboveat the annual meeting of the IPRA Council held in Teheran, Iran, on 17th April 1968.TONG TIONG VEE MAY 2012