TEXT TYPE AND FUNCTION OF THE LANGUAGE Newmark (1998) it is important to determine the text type at the beginning of the translation process. Therefore, we can say that our text has the informative function of the language:.
A) IT IS FOCUSED ON THE CONTENT• GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT PHARMACOLOGY• It is mainly about the drugs that are used to treat gastrointestinal sicknesses; the description of each one, side effects, dosage.
B) IT FITS THE STANDARDIZED FORMAT OFINFORMATIVE TEXTS; AS A SCIENTIFICARTICLE.• An informative text is a text that wants to advise or tell you about something.• Convey means to express or communicate.
INFORMATIVE TEXTS USUALLY:• avoid repetition• contain facts• give information in a clear way - introducing the subject and then developing it
C) IT ASSUMES A NEUTRAL ORINFORMAL STYLE WITH DEFINEDTECHNICAL FORMS• Informative texts use words that: are descriptive are precise and to the point relate to the subject are in the present tense.
WE CAN TELL OUR TEXT IS INFORMATIVE AS IT:• has one subject (DRUGS). For example: Anticholinergics• uses a specific type of language Example: “Anticholinergics are also used in the management of peptic ulcer.”• contains new information. For example: “A unique drug for the treatment of peptic ulcer is sucralfate (Carafate), which binds with protein at the ulcer site to form a protective covering.”
WE CAN TELL OUR TEXT IS INFORMATIVE AS IT:• uses facts and data. For example: “A unique drug for the treatment of peptic ulcer is sucralfate ... It is administered up to 8 weeks to promote healing of the ulcer. Very little of the drug is systemically absorbed. Adverse effects are minimal…”• has taught you something by the end of it. Example: “Antibiotics can be used to treat diarrhea caused by microbial infections. It must be noted, however, that antibiotics may also eradicate normal intestinal bacteria and cause diarrhea to occur.”
APPROACHNewmark (1998, p. 21) suggests to start reading the whole text twoor three times finding out the intention, register, tone and bymarking the difficult words or passages, so we can starttranslating it when we had a clear overview of the article.
TRANSLATION METHODFor our translation we are using three of the different methodssuggested by Newmark (1998, p. 46-47): Literaltranslation, Faithful translation and Communicative translation.
LITERAL TRANSLATIONNewmark (1998, 46) states that: “the SL grammatical constructions areconverted to their nearest TL equivalents, but the lexical words areagain translated singly, out of context”We started by creating a glossary that contains SL words with theirequivalents in the TL and their definition
FAITHFUL TRANSLATIONSecondly, we intent to use Faithful translation process to give the samecontextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TLgrammatical structures (Newmark, 1998, p.46). We do not want tochange the intention of the SL writer neither the properties of theinformation and the text.
EXAMPLE• The most effective • Los anti diarreicos más eficaces antidiarrheals are the son los opiáceos: cómo la opiates: codeine, codeína, el paregórico (2 a 4 paregoric (2 to 4 mg), mg), la loperamida (Imodium, de loperamide (Imodium, 4 4 a 16 mg), y el difenoxilato (15 a to 16 mg), and 20 mg, uno de los componentes diphenoxylate (15 to 20 de Lomotil). Los opiáceos mg, one of the interactúan directamente con los components of Lomotil). receptores en el tracto The opiates interact gastrointestinal para aumentar directly with receptors in el tono muscular de los the GI tract to increase esfínteres y disminuyen la muscle tone in sphincters motilidad del tracto and decrease GI motility. gastrointestinal superior.
COMMUNICATIVE TRANSLATIONTo achieve acceptable and comprehensible readership, which isfound in the original text according to Newmark (1998, p.47).In our translation we are trying to find balance between content andlanguage without losing the contextual meaning of the source.
EXAMPLE • Lamentablemente muchos antiácidos• Many antacids are available están disponibles sin receta y son mal without prescription and unfortunately are misused by utilizados por los consumidores. La consumers. Most antacids mayoría de los antiácidos tienen una stay within the GI tract, estancia prolongada en el tracto although the absorption of the gastrointestinal superior y como metal ion components can have adverse consequences. resultado, la absorción de los One antacid, sodium componentes de iones metálicos puede bicarbonate, is extensively crear consecuencias adversas. El absorbed and can lead to bicarbonato de sodio, al ser mal systemic alkalosis. This substance, in the form of empleado como antiácido, si es "baking soda ” is widely used absorbido en cantidades abundantes by the public for self- puede conducir a alcalosis sistémica. medication. Esta sustancia, conocida como "bicarbonato" es ampliamente utilizada por el público en general para la automedicación.