THE HEAD NOUN   Noun Phrase       NP
What is a head noun?                                  Noun Phrase                                        Head             ...
NPElements:                                     Head                                      Head(determiners)   (pre-modifie...
NPElements:                                    Head                                     Head(determiners)   (pre-modifiers...
NPElements:                                     Head                                      Head(determiners)  (determiners)...
NPElements:                                     Head                                      Head                (pre-modifie...
Example:                   NP               Det                   N              POSS               NP      Det           ...
Where:                   NP              Det                   N             POSS              NP     Det            N’   ...
Where:                 NP            Det                 N           POSS            NP     Det          N’           AdjP...
Where:                    NP              Det                   N             POSS              NP     Det            N’  ...
Where:                    NP              Det                   N             POSS              NP     Det            N’  ...
Where:                    NP              Det                   N             POSS              NP     Det            N’  ...
Where:                    NP              Det                   N             POSS              NP     Det            N’  ...
Where:                    NP              Det                   N             POSS              NP     Det            N’  ...
How do we find the head noun         inside a NP?• According to (Greenbaum p. 88, 2002) we had  to:  Remember, that the he...
NPElements:                                    Head                                     Head      (post-modifiers) (determ...
What is a relative clause?• A noun phrase can contain a sentence which is  called a relative clause (Fabb, p. 59 2002).• O...
Embedded?• According to Celce-Murcia & Larsen-Freeman  (p. 572, 1999) the embedding         process  consists of a clause ...
The fans who were attending the rock concert had to              wait in line for three hours.The embedded clause [who wer...
What is the function of a relative             clause?• It introduces a kind of subsidiary sentence into  the main one Tho...
Example:        NP             N’                    N’Det      AdjP                              S2             N      Ad...
Where:       NP             N’Det      AdjP          N’                              S2             N      Adjmy crazy fri...
Where:        NP             N’                    N’Det      AdjP                              S2             N      Adjm...
Where:        NP             N’                    N’Det      AdjP                              S2             N      Adjm...
Where:        NP             N’                    N’Det      AdjP                              S2             N      Adjm...
Where:        NP             N’                    N’Det      AdjP                              S2             N      Adjm...
(pre-modifiers)(pre-modifiers)            Head           Head                                           (post-modifiers)  ...
NP                     N’                             PP                                  NP AdjP              P          ...
VerbIs   word   that   expresses   time   whileshowing an action, condition , or the factthat something exists. Some verbs...
Types of verbsAccording to Thomas (1993,pg. 37-53)• Transitive verb  – Normally has to have a direct object to be    compl...
Types of verbs• Intensive  – Include the verb like: be (most commonly)    seen, appear, become, look. Follows the    verb ...
Types of verbs• Complex transitive  – The complement relates to the object not    the subject, the complement is therefore...
Verb group• Verbs can consist of one or more than  one element to form the VERB GROUP  (Vgp).The part of the Vgp which  ca...
Verb group• These additional elements are called  AUXILIARIES (AUX). Auxiliary verbs  modify the lexica verb by indicating...
TENSEThomas (1993, pg. 62-77) says that:• There are two tenses in English:  PRESENT and PAST. (future does not  exist as a...
Modal auxiliaryExpresses whether a state of               affairs    is  likely, possible, necessary and so on.Example wil...
Primary Auxiliaries• Have, be ,do. Signify aspect and voice.• Aspect: has to do with time and  relationship of actions or ...
Do• Do turns up to lend support to the lexical  verb only in certain constructions and  where there is no other auxiliary ...
Perfect Aspect• Is indicated by the presence of the  auxiliary verb have.• It carries tense and is always the first  eleme...
Progressive Aspect• Indicated by the presence of auxiliary  verb be (Thomas, 1993, pg. 69).• The form of the verb which fo...
Passive Voice• Voice refers to whether a sentence is  in the ACTIVE or PASSIVE.• The passive is signified within the verb ...
Order of auxiliaries1.   Tense or modal + infinitive2.   Perfect: have + -en3.   Progressive: be + -ing4.   Passive: be + ...
Examples:                                   VgP                               (transitive)                                ...
It is THE DIRECT OBJECT = D.O.My beautiful girlfriend’s father and my crazy friend who is living in New York city mayhave ...
THE DIRECT OBJECT = D.O.• so many questions         =    D.O.• The Direct Object (D.O): Refers to a person or  thing direc...
• Whenever you have a transitive verb, it  means a main verb which requires a direct  object   to  complete    the    sent...
• For example, in this case: …may have been asking WHAT?         so many questions = D.O.• The D.O. can often be replaced ...
It is THE DIRECT OBJECT = D.O.My beautiful girlfriend’s father and my crazy friend who is living in New York city mayhave ...
THE INDIRECT OBJECT                 = I.O.• to my girlfriend who met them last  night at my mother’s house. = I.O.• The In...
• The I.O. is usually equivalent to phrase introduced by “to” or “for” (Greenbaun & Nelson, 2002, pag.30).• The I.O. answe...
• For example; in this case:• …may have been asking          so   many  questions to whom?        To my girlfriend I.O.• ...
• It means there is no I.O. without a D.O.• If you have a D.O. then you can have an I.O.• You will never find an I.O. alon...
ReferencesCelce-Murcia, M., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1999). The Grammarbook. London: International Thompson Publishing.Fabb, ...
Team• Islas Sandoval Nallely• Chávez Granillo Saratiel• Tapia Fernández Diana
Headnoun vgp do&io
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Transcript of "Headnoun vgp do&io"

  1. 1. THE HEAD NOUN Noun Phrase NP
  2. 2. What is a head noun? Noun Phrase Head Head(determiners) (pre-modifiers) noun noun (post-modifiers) The word that is modified by other elements in a noun phrase, Verspoor & Sauter (p. 120, 2000).
  3. 3. NPElements: Head Head(determiners) (pre-modifiers) (post-modifiers) noun noun Possible constituents
  4. 4. NPElements: Head Head(determiners) (pre-modifiers) noun noun (post-modifiers) Central element of a noun phrase
  5. 5. NPElements: Head Head(determiners) (determiners) (pre-modifiers) noun noun (post-modifiers) Introduce the noun phrase.(Greenbaum, p. 47 , 2002)
  6. 6. NPElements: Head Head (pre-modifiers)(determiners) (pre-modifiers) noun noun (post-modifiers) •Adjective phrases •Other nouns •Genitive noun Phrases (Greenbaum, p. 47 , 2002)
  7. 7. Example: NP Det N POSS NP Det N’ AdjP N Adj My beautiful girlfriends father
  8. 8. Where: NP Det N POSS NP Det N’ AdjP N Adj My beautiful girlfriends father
  9. 9. Where: NP Det N POSS NP Det N’ AdjP N Adj My beautiful girlfriends father My beautiful girlfriends father
  10. 10. Where: NP Det N POSS NP Det N’ AdjP N Adj My beautiful girlfriends father
  11. 11. Where: NP Det N POSS NP Det N’ AdjP N Adj My beautiful girlfriends father
  12. 12. Where: NP Det N POSS NP Det N’ AdjP N Adj My beautiful girlfriends father
  13. 13. Where: NP Det N POSS NP Det N’ AdjP N Adj My beautiful girlfriends father
  14. 14. Where: NP Det N POSS NP Det N’ AdjP N Adj My beautiful girlfriends father
  15. 15. How do we find the head noun inside a NP?• According to (Greenbaum p. 88, 2002) we had to: Remember, that the head of a noun phrase may be preceded by a determiner or pre-modifier, but NOT by a preposition. Remember also that the head of a noun phrase cannot be terribly far into the phrase, unless there happen to be a bunch of pre- modifiers, which is very seldom the case.
  16. 16. NPElements: Head Head (post-modifiers) (determiners) (pre-modifiers) noun (post-modifiers) noun •Relative clauses •Prepositional Phrases (Greenbaum, 2002):
  17. 17. What is a relative clause?• A noun phrase can contain a sentence which is called a relative clause (Fabb, p. 59 2002).• One very common type of (head noun) post- modifier is the relative clause which is embedded in the NP. (Greenbaum, p. 47 2002).
  18. 18. Embedded?• According to Celce-Murcia & Larsen-Freeman (p. 572, 1999) the embedding process consists of a clause within an NP that at the same time modifies the head noun.Example: The fans who were attending the rock concert had to wait in line for three hours.
  19. 19. The fans who were attending the rock concert had to wait in line for three hours.The embedded clause [who were attending the rockconcert] is closely associated with the head N of the NP“fans”, it tells us which "fans” had to wait in a longline.This relative clause identifies for us which noun[s] ofall nouns in the same set we are speaking about (inOther words: anybody who could be called "a fan").
  20. 20. What is the function of a relative clause?• It introduces a kind of subsidiary sentence into the main one Thomas (p. 95, 2002).• It may be added to a noun phrase to help identify the head noun Verspoor & Sauter (p. 127, 2000) .
  21. 21. Example: NP N’ N’Det AdjP S2 N Adjmy crazy friend who is living in New York City
  22. 22. Where: NP N’Det AdjP N’ S2 N Adjmy crazy friend who is living in New York City
  23. 23. Where: NP N’ N’Det AdjP S2 N Adjmy crazy friend who is living in New York City
  24. 24. Where: NP N’ N’Det AdjP S2 N Adjmy crazy friend who is living in New York City
  25. 25. Where: NP N’ N’Det AdjP S2 N Adjmy crazy friend who is living in New York City
  26. 26. Where: NP N’ N’Det AdjP S2 N Adjmy crazy friend who is living in New York City
  27. 27. (pre-modifiers)(pre-modifiers) Head Head (post-modifiers) noun noun (post-modifiers)so many questions to my girlfriend who met them last night at my mother´s house.
  28. 28. NP N’ PP NP AdjP P N’ N Det N S3Adv Adjso many questions to my girlfriend who met them last night at my mother´s house.
  29. 29. VerbIs word that expresses time whileshowing an action, condition , or the factthat something exists. Some verbs tellwhat the subject does.
  30. 30. Types of verbsAccording to Thomas (1993,pg. 37-53)• Transitive verb – Normally has to have a direct object to be complete.• Intransitive – Is a class of verb which does not take an object, requires nothing else to complete the verb phrase.• Di-transitive – Requires two objects one of these is the familiar direct object, the other an indirect object.
  31. 31. Types of verbs• Intensive – Include the verb like: be (most commonly) seen, appear, become, look. Follows the verb in a sentence relates back to what precedes the verb. The bit that comes after the verb functions as the SUBJECT COMPLEMENT.
  32. 32. Types of verbs• Complex transitive – The complement relates to the object not the subject, the complement is therefore an object complement. Two elements are obligatory to complete the verb phrase.
  33. 33. Verb group• Verbs can consist of one or more than one element to form the VERB GROUP (Vgp).The part of the Vgp which carries the meaning is called LEXICAL VERB.• All complete verb groups have to include a lexical verb which appears last in the group and form the HEAD of the verb group.(Thomas, 1993,pg. 61)
  34. 34. Verb group• These additional elements are called AUXILIARIES (AUX). Auxiliary verbs modify the lexica verb by indicating MODALITY, or ASPECT , or VOICE and TENSE. (Thomas, 1993,pg. 61)
  35. 35. TENSEThomas (1993, pg. 62-77) says that:• There are two tenses in English: PRESENT and PAST. (future does not exist as a tense in English but is indicated in other ways, for example by the use of auxiliaries.)
  36. 36. Modal auxiliaryExpresses whether a state of affairs is likely, possible, necessary and so on.Example will, would, can, could, may, might, shall,should, must, ought to and marginally.• Will and would signify volition or prediction.• Can, could, may, and might indicates possibility or probability.• Shall, should, must, and ought signify obligation.A modal auxiliary does not carry tense.
  37. 37. Primary Auxiliaries• Have, be ,do. Signify aspect and voice.• Aspect: has to do with time and relationship of actions or states to periods of time or duration. PERFECT and PROGRESIVE.
  38. 38. Do• Do turns up to lend support to the lexical verb only in certain constructions and where there is no other auxiliary verb already present.• Do as an auxiliary is the first constituent of the verb group and therefore carries tense.• Do when it appears as an auxiliary is followed by a bare infinitive.
  39. 39. Perfect Aspect• Is indicated by the presence of the auxiliary verb have.• It carries tense and is always the first element which is marked. for tense; that is the element immediately following TENSE (Thomas, 1993, pg. 66)
  40. 40. Progressive Aspect• Indicated by the presence of auxiliary verb be (Thomas, 1993, pg. 69).• The form of the verb which follows the progressive auxiliary is called the PRESENT PARTICIPLE. It is easy to spot as it is the –ing form of the verb.
  41. 41. Passive Voice• Voice refers to whether a sentence is in the ACTIVE or PASSIVE.• The passive is signified within the verb group by the presence of the verb be.• When it is acting as a passive auxiliary, the verb be is followed by the past participle or –en form.
  42. 42. Order of auxiliaries1. Tense or modal + infinitive2. Perfect: have + -en3. Progressive: be + -ing4. Passive: be + -en
  43. 43. Examples: VgP (transitive) V AUX MOD PERF PROG PASSThe dog may have been being given a bone.
  44. 44. It is THE DIRECT OBJECT = D.O.My beautiful girlfriend’s father and my crazy friend who is living in New York city mayhave been asking so many questionsto my girlfriend who met them last night at my mother’s house. It is THE INDIRECT OBJECT= I.O.
  45. 45. THE DIRECT OBJECT = D.O.• so many questions = D.O.• The Direct Object (D.O): Refers to a person or thing directly affected by the action described in the sentence (Greenbaun & Nelson, 2002, pag.26).
  46. 46. • Whenever you have a transitive verb, it means a main verb which requires a direct object to complete the sentence (Greenbaun & Nelson, 2002, pag.26), you should answer the questions “what” or “whom” after the verb (Vespoor & Sauter, 2000, pag. 69).
  47. 47. • For example, in this case: …may have been asking WHAT? so many questions = D.O.• The D.O. can often be replaced with the word “it” (Vespoor & Sauter, 2000, pag. 69).
  48. 48. It is THE DIRECT OBJECT = D.O.My beautiful girlfriend’s father and my crazy friend who is living in New York city mayhave been asking so many questionsto my girlfriend who met them last night at my mother’s house. It is THE INDIRECT OBJECT= I.O.
  49. 49. THE INDIRECT OBJECT = I.O.• to my girlfriend who met them last night at my mother’s house. = I.O.• The Indirect Object (I.O.): Refers to a person indirectly involved in the action affected by the action described in the sentence. (Greenbaun & Nelson, 2002, pag.30).
  50. 50. • The I.O. is usually equivalent to phrase introduced by “to” or “for” (Greenbaun & Nelson, 2002, pag.30).• The I.O. answers the questions: to/ for what? and to/for whom?
  51. 51. • For example; in this case:• …may have been asking so many questions to whom? To my girlfriend I.O.• The I.O. comes after the direct object (Greenbaun & Nelson, 2002, pag.30).
  52. 52. • It means there is no I.O. without a D.O.• If you have a D.O. then you can have an I.O.• You will never find an I.O. alone in a sentence.
  53. 53. ReferencesCelce-Murcia, M., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1999). The Grammarbook. London: International Thompson Publishing.Fabb, N. (2002). Sentence Structure. Longdon/New York:Routledge.Greenbaum, S. (2002). An introduction to English grammar.London: Longman.Thomas, L. (1993). Beginning Syntax. Oxford: BlackwellPublishers.Verspoor, M., & Sauter, K. (2000). English sentence analysis.An Introductory Course. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: JohnBejamins Publishing Company.
  54. 54. Team• Islas Sandoval Nallely• Chávez Granillo Saratiel• Tapia Fernández Diana
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