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Reaserch and academic integrity
Reaserch and academic integrity
Reaserch and academic integrity
Reaserch and academic integrity
Reaserch and academic integrity
Reaserch and academic integrity
Reaserch and academic integrity
Reaserch and academic integrity
Reaserch and academic integrity
Reaserch and academic integrity
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Reaserch and academic integrity

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  • 1. Module: Academic skillsTutor: B TattonAssignment title: Research and academic integrityAssignment No: 1.1Student: Iveta Ermane, 1105617 Academic writing is very important for anyone who is doing any type or levelresearch. This essay had been written to identify different types of research and explain-why research is very important. Also explain why references are important anddifferent types of cheating and consequences of cheating. The main reason why people research is that there are many issues andsubjects about what people do not have knowledge, and also the need for researchis related to the human compulsive need for growth. Global publisher of academic books- Routledge states that “The definingresearch is less important than understanding its nature.” Research can be split in different types, depending on the purpose, logic,outcome, and the process of the research. There are different styles of research and data collection methods: Casestudies, focus groups, large-scale surveys, action research, ethnographic, fieldexperiments, forecasting, different questionnaires etc. Business research is mainlyfor to help understand how business organisations works. Researcher should follow four steps. Firstly set up research problem orquestion and to select research topic. After that next step is to decide what type ofstrategy researcher will use and tactics. The selection of strategy is one of mostimportant decisions made by researcher. Third step is to collect information andanalyse data. And the last step is to present results.It is very difficult to research into management, lots of factors beyond the techniqueof research, for example philosophical or political issues. 1
  • 2. “Philosophical issues in to management research can persuade the selectionof methods and judgements about the quality and value of outcomes.Political issues are important because of the frequent of need to gain access toorganisation and handle the dynamics of power within and between theorganisations.” Management research (1993,pp viii) There are some main philosophical questions about research, example: “Whyresearch? What to research? Where to research? When to research? And How toresearch?”Understanding of the philosophical issues is very important. It will help to simplifyresearch plan by which data is collected, analysed, decide what kind of evidence isused and also knowledge of philosophy can help to recognise, what type of researchwill work and what type of research will not. There are two types of research: Primary and secondary research. Primaryresearch is also known as “Field research” and secondary research is also known as“desk research”. Primary research is brand new information, example, face to faceinterviews, telephone surveys, postal surveys, mystery shoppers and questionnaires,but secondary research is “second hand” information. Secondary research may begovernment reports, statistics, newspapers etc.Information from primary research is “primary data” and information from secondaryresearch is “secondary data”. An advantage of primary research is that it is alwaysup to date, but main disadvantage that primary research may be very expensive.Secondary research is often much cheaper than primary research, but secondarydata may be out of day.The most common type of primary research involves the use of questionnaires. Aquestionnaire is a list of planned, carefully structured questions to find out whatrespondents think, feel, as example, questionnaires are used for market research.After researcher get answers from respondents, then researcher doing sampling. Hussey R., and Collis J(2003) pp.10-12 suggests that there are three differentpurposes of research: exploratory research, descriptive research and analytical orexplanatory research. The exploratory research aim is to look for patterns,hypotheses or ideas. And this type of research provides both – qualitative orquantitative data. Descriptive research is known as “statistical research”. Forexample, descriptive research may answer a question such as:”How many people 2
  • 3. use Open Athens WEB site and why do they do it?” The data collected in thisresearch is often quantitative.Analytical research is deeper than descriptive research. The analytical researcherexplains why and how it is happening. An analytical research question couldbe:”How we can improve Open Athens WEB site?” Also the process of the research can be split into two parts: qualitativeresearch and quantitative research. Quantitative research is about collecting andanalysing numerical data. Qualitative research is when reason for something must tobe found and described.Quantitative variable can also be split in two parts: discrete quantitative orcontinuous quantitative. In discrete research the variable values can be only 0,1,2,3,4,5, but in the continuous research have more accurate measurement,example, 45.6, 34.5, 1.09 etc. There are also three various types of research: pure research, appliedresearch, and action research. Pure research (fundamental) may be split in three parts: discovery, inventionand reflection. (See appendix 3) Discovery is when coming up absolutely brand new idea. English Oxforddictionary describes discovery as “an act or the process of findingsomething/somebody, or learning about something that was not known before.”A more general type of pure research is invention. Invention means that there iscreated method or idea, how to deal with exacting problems. Example to inventionresearch would be scientific Taylor.Third type of pure research – reflection is when existing theory or ideas are re-examined, maybe even in different organisation or social group. Applied research usually involves searching for solutions for specific problemsand mostly involves working together with different people. Genuine researchalways must have thought lots of “Why” questions and it is very important to becritical sometimes on some of the ideas and methods which has been used and thinkabout quality of evidence.The main examples of applied research are reorganisation of department, trainingnew graduates in company, or introduction with new technology. The third type of research- action research (developed the 1960s) usuallystarts from idea and if someone wants to understand it then it may be changed. 3
  • 4. Mostly it is used in Organisational development. The main type of action research isto go into a situation, try to bring change and keep an eye on results. There is also theory in research – Grounded theory. Grounded theory isqualitative research method. “The purpose of Grounded theory is to build theory thatis faithful to and which illuminates the area under investigation.” Hussey R.,Collis J.(2003) . Using this theory researchers will start research by collecting data, andsubject is chosen by theoretical sampling. In research are important four concepts: reliability, accuracy, validity, andconfidentiality. Reliability refers to the problem, whether the evidence and themeasures used are consistent and firm, and it is very important for findings.Oxford English dictionary describe –reliable as “able to be trusted” and “good inquality.”Validity of research shows whether the researcher has enough knowledge.Therefore, it is important with using secondary data, firstly to research and be sure,about who the author is. There are three types of validity: Internal, population andecological validity.Johnson Phil,Gill John(1991)pp.88 describes:”Validity refers to the accuracy of themeasurement process while the reliability of measurement refers to its consistency;that is the extent to which a measuring device will produce the same results whenapplied more than once to the same person under similar conditions. The moststraightforward way of testing reliability is to replicate; either by administering thesame questions to the same respondents at different times and assessing thedegree of correlation, or by asking the same question in different ways at differentpoints in questionnaire. It is important to note that questionnaire designers need tobe aware that, although they may have a highly reliable measure, it may notnecessarily be measuring what it is intended to measure: Reliability does notnecessarily imply validity, whereas if the measure is valid it will be reliable. “ When we are doing any type of research it is important to not breakIntellectual property rights.Intellectual property rights‟ is a generic term,which refers to copyright, trademarks,patents,and other claims for „ownership‟ of a resource –whether it is registered orunregistered.Academic integrity is very important moral policy, because that is how we showrespect to another person work. 4
  • 5. There are different types of academic integrity, -plagiarism, different types ofcheating (example cheating in exams), falsifying the results, false statements,falsifying important documents etc.Plagiarism is one of the most abused types of academic integrity.English Oxford dictionary describes plagiarism as “the practise of taking someoneelse‟s work or ideas and passing them off as own”. There are different types ofplagiarism and different sources. Most popular source of plagiarism is World WideWeb. WEB gives access to a variety of different materials available 24/7 and itmakes it extremely easy to copy someone else work. Sometimes researchers mayrely too much on another people work without acknowledging the source.To avoid plagiarism, firstly: anyone should give a credit when using someone else‟swork, idea, theory, slogans, or even when paraphrasing someone else‟s words.When using someone else words they always must be in quotation marks andreferenced. If the researcher does not acknowledge the original author‟s work orreference it that means researcher is breaking Copyright.Copyright provides protection for any intellectual property. The basis for copyrightlegalisation is Copyright, Design, and Patent Act 1988.It is very important to understand the Copyright Act, because you not only avoid thepossibility of copying someone else work, but you also protect your own intellectualproperty. Academic integrity requires that all new intellectual property should haveauthorship.There are lots different types of consequences by unfair means. Using someoneelse‟s work, trademark, copyright or idea is breaking of the law. If a student cheatsthen can have different type of consequences such as, failure in exams, butin some cases it may be even a crime. Nowadays in universities there is availableservice, where student submit their work online, e.g. “TurnitinUK” which helps decidewhether or not plagiarism is present.Oxford English dictionary describes Copyrights as “the exclusive and assignablelegal right, given to the originator for a fixed number of years, to print, publish,perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical materials”. In the UK there is not a Copyright register, because it works automatically, buthowever there are some options to protect your work. One of the options isIntellectual Property office- executive agency from department for Business 5
  • 6. Innovation and skills (BIS).Intellectual Property office provides a goodunderstandable IP system. To summarise this essay- it is very important to know how to research. Afterthe researcher has chosen the topic, the next step is to decide, what type of sourcesresearcher will use and what style of research. The most important step of research is referencing and giving credit to theoriginal author.Research without references is plagiarism. If we do not referencing, we breaking theCopyright, Design, and Patent Act 1988.There are different types of consequences of unfair means. 6
  • 7. Appendices Appendix 1Essay plan Introduction Importance Different types Difference of research of research between (10%) skills primary and secondary data Different sources of Evaluate primary and Concepts of primary secondary accuracy, methods and Consequences data validity, data collection of unfair reliability and confidentiality means Concepts of “Intellectual ownership”, “academic Consequences of Conclusion integrity”, and unfair means “unfair means”. 7
  • 8. Appendix 2Management research Philosophical Political Technical 8
  • 9. Appendix 3 Research types Research Pure Action Applied Discovery Invention Reflection Method or idea existing theory orBrand new idea how to deal with ideas is re- exacting problems examined 9
  • 10. BibliographyHoward K., Sharp J. (1983), The management of student research, Gower, AldersotHussey R., Collis J.(2003) Business research,2ed, Hampshire, Palgrave MacmillianIntellectual Property Office, IP Mission, available Online, http://www.ipo.gov.uk/Johnson P., Gill J. (1997) Research Methods for managers, 2ed, London, PaulChapman Publishing LTDOxford English dictionary,(2005),Electronic resource, 2ed, Oxford, Oxford Universitypress, http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/BOOK_SEARCH.html?book=t140Remenyi D, Williams B, Money A,Swartz E (2005), Doing research in Business andmanagement, London, SAGE PublicationsRoutledge (2011), PowerPoint presentation, What is research?, Global publisher ofacademic sources, Available Online,cw.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415493932/downloads/ch01.ppt,Smith M,Thorpe R,Lowe Andy,(1993) Management Research An Introduction,London,Tatton B.(2011),Handout on Importance of research skills, Access to HE Businessmanagement, Intake 2011/12, University of BoltonTatton B.(2011) PowerPoint presentation Intellectual ownership, Access to HEBusiness management, Presented in University of Bolton 10

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