Ways of the World Assignment 2 part 1

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  • 1. Assignment II Part I: Themes from Ways of the World
    The European Moment in World History
    Ivana Lopez
  • 2. Chapter 17:The North American Revolution(1775-1787)
    Grew in an effort to keep the existing freedoms of the colonies
    Caused by the British government trying to enforce more control over the colonies by collecting revenue from them
    Because of the conflicts with France, Britain had more debt
    Britain looked to America to make up these losses
    Colonists were angry and went to war with aid from France
    In the century that followed the US became the world’s most democratic country; however, it was not from the revolution that this occurred but more from the Declaration of Independence
  • 3. Chapter 17: The French Revolution(1789-1815)
    War efforts led France close to bankruptcy
    King Louis XVI called together representatives of the legal orders of France
    The National Assembly drew up the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen which stated that men are born and remain free and equal in rights
    Launched the French Revolution
    1793: King Louis XVI and his queen were executed
    Maximilien Robespierre and his Committee of Public Safety took over leading the Terror of 1793-1794
    Robespierre himself was arrested and executed accused of leading France into tyranny and dictatorship
    National resistance mostly from Russia and Britain brought down Napoleon Bonaparte (the new leader) and his amazing empire by 1815
  • 4. Chapter 17: The Haitian Revolution(1791-1804)
    Caused by the ideas and example of the French Revolution
    Led to a spiral of violence that lasted more than a decade
    1791: the only successful slave revolt; caused by rumors that the French king ended slavery
    Led by Toussaint Louverture, a former slave
    Defeated an attempt by Napoleon to reestablish French control and persuaded him to sell the US and French territories (Louisiana Purchase)
    Slaves, whites, and free colored people battled one another
    Spanish and British added to the turmoil by seeking to enlarge their own empires at the expense of the French
    After the revolution, renamed San Domingue, Haiti, meaning “mountainous” or “rugged” in the language of the original Taino people
    Formal declaration of independence on January 1, 1804
  • 5. Chapter 18: Europe and the Industrial Revolution
    Other parts of the world experienced a different time of technological and scientific advancement
    However, it had slowed down by the early modern era, when the technological change in Europe began to flourish
    Two reasons why industrialization occurred so rapidly in Europe:
    Certain patterns of Europe’s internal development favored innovations
    The need for revenue of the European monarchs and the newness of the states led them to form an alliance
  • 6. Chapter 18: Britain and the Industrial Revolution
    Britain was the most commercialized of Europe’s larger countries
    Agricultural advancements increased the production and kept food prices low; additionally, it freed up labor for more people
    A rapid growing population guaranteed industrial workers
    Aristocrats took part in mining and manufacturing which led to more open labor
    Politics encouraged commercialization and economic advancement
    Britain already had a supply of coal and iron ore
  • 7. Chapter 18: The United States and the Industrial Revolution
    Began in the textile industry of new England
    Grew in after the Civil War
    The US became the world’s leading industrial power by 1914 because of the country’s huge size, the ready availability of natural resources, its growing domestic market, and its relative political stability
    About 1/3 of the capital investment that led to growth came from Europe
  • 8. Chapter 19: China’s Downfall
    Just like the Ottoman Empire, China was once the center of a remarkable civilization; however, it went through the consequences of a quickly shifting balance of global power
    Unfortunately, China was unable to create an industrial economy
    They had enough independence for efforts towards modernization but it was not enough to bring back their previous status in the world
    In addition, the collapse of the imperial system led to a Communist regime
  • 9. Chapter 19: The Ottoman Empire
    1750: The Ottoman Empire was still the central of the Islamic world
    Ruled over much of the Arab world
    Ruler: sultan
    By the middle of the century, however, the Ottoman Empire was no longer able to deal with Europe
    What was once known as Known as “the strong sword of Islam” now became “the sick man of Europe”
    Led to a dependency on Europe
  • 10. Chapter 19: Japan and the Tokugawa Family
    Tokugawa family was a military ruler who acted in the name of a powerless emperor
    They sought to prevent the return of a civil war among daimyo
    Gave Japan more than two centuries of internal peace
    Regulated internal travel and communication
    Issued rules that governed daily life of the Japanese society, most of which were ignored
    They failed to deal successfully with the 1830s famine which diminished the regime’s confidence
    This led to a riot which eventually led to the regime’s downfall
  • 11. Chapter 20: Women in the Colonial Era
    African women had an amount of economic independence
    They acquired jobs from farming to childcare to trading
    Colonial economy demands grew and women’s lives separated even more
    In rural areas, women were forced to live away from their husbands
    Led some to be even more independent
    The new empire offered women opportunities
  • 12. Chapter 20: Education in the Colonial Era
    A new identity came from a Western education
    Being able to read or write of any kind suggested an almost supernatural power
    An education gave access to better paying positions
    It provided social mobility
  • 13. Chapter 20: Religion in the Colonial Era
    Just like education, religion provided the basis for a new identity
    Because of the military defeat, the hope in previous gods slowly eroded
    This opened new doors to other supernatural powers
    Christianity was associated with education and was widespread among New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, and non-Muslim Africa
    Hinduism became an equivalent to Christianity in India
  • 14. Chapter 21: World War I Beginnings
    Two rivalries had a balance of power:
    The Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy
    The Triple Entente of Russia, France, and Britain
    On June 28, 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austrian throne)
    By early August 1914, the Great Powers of Europe were brought into a general war
    Men from all around the world participated in the war and United States was forced to join when Germany threatened American shipping
  • 15. Chapter 21: The Outcome of World War I
    The Great War ended in November 1918 with a German
    Since the collapse of the German, Russian, and Austrian empires, Central Europe emerged
    Communism grew in Russia with the Bolsheviks in power and Russia withdrew out of the war in 1917
    The Treaty of Versailles formally concluded the war in 1919
    Germany lost its colonial empire, was to pay for reparations to the winners, and was to accept responsibility for the outbreak of the war
    The Great War brought the United States to the spotlight as a global power
    Their manpower contributed much to the defeat of Germany and its financial resources turned it from a debtor nation to Europe’s creditor
  • 16. Chapter 21: The Great Depression
    During the 19th century, European industrial capitalism raised the standards of living
    This created a troubling system for many
    Those wealthy people found that the instabilities of capitalism meant narrowing stock prices
    The American stock market crashed on October 24, 1929
    Banks closed and people lost their life’s savings
    Many people lost work
    The New Deal (proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt) sought to reduce unemployment
    Mnimum wage, relief and welfare programs, the Social Security system
  • 17. Chapter 22: Communism in Russia
    By February 1917, Tsar Nicholas II lost all support and was forced to step down
    This was all caused by the pressures of WWI
    The temporary government was inadequate and a social revolution occurred
    It was not willing to take Russia out of the war as many were demanding
    The Bolsheviks and Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) took a position and believed that Russia was ready for a socialist revolution
    A Civil War broke out and the Bolsheviks battled many enemies
    A peace treaty helped the Bolsheviks win with Germany, which took Russia out of WWI
    The Bolsheviks claimed to be defending Russia from imperialists
    Russia was then renamed the Union of Societ Socialist Republics (USSR)
  • 18. Chapter 22: Chinese CommunistParty (CCP)
    Since the Chinese imperial system had collapsed, a small organization, CCP, aimed its efforts at organizing the country’s working class
    For the next 28 years, the small party of 60 grew tremendously
    Mao Zedong became the leader in 1949 after battling the Japanese
    The next in line was the Nationalist Party, which governed China (promoted modern development)
    Japan’s invasion of China led the CCP to attack and destroy National Party control
    CCP won support by pursuing the struggle against Japanese invaders during WWII
  • 19. Chapter 22: The End of Communism
    The death of Mao Zedong in China in the late 1970s led the CCP to abandon almost everything that had been associated with Maoist socialism
    In 1989, the miracle year, movements towered over communist governments one after the other
    In 1991, the USSR’s reformist leader Mikhail Gorbachev led to political disintegration
  • 20. Chapter 23: Nelson Mandela
    South Africa’s nationalist leader
    Was put to trial for treason, sabotage, and conspiracy to overthrow the government of his country
    Convicted and put to prison for 27 years
    Was released in 1990
    Became South Africa’s president in 1994 (first black African president)
    Linked South Africa to dozens of other countries
    Marked dramatic change in the world’s political architecture
    Independence was equally significant in the following decades
  • 21. Chapter 23: Mahatma Ghandi
    Personally experienced racism which led him to become involved in organizing Indians to protest policies of racial segregation
    Political philosophy “truth force” was an active confrontational, nonviolent approach to political action
    Called for the moral transformation of individuals
    Assassinated in 1948 by a Hindu extremist
  • 22. Chapter 23: Before and After Apartheid
    Before: all black Africans were designated as residents of small, scattered Bantustans
    Many lived in white South Africa where they worked
    After 1994: the Bantustans were abolished
    The country was divided into nine provinces
  • 23. Chapter 24: The World Economy
    Technology contributed largely to the acceleration of globalization
    Countries like North America and Europe are served by India-based call centers
    Customers have become a common experience of globalization for many
  • 24. Chapter 24: Globalization and Trade
    In trade there are importers and exporters
    World trade has skyrocketed in the last half century
    The United States and Europe are both major givers and receivers of foreign investment
  • 25. Chapter 24: Che Guevara
    Uncompromising but failed revolutionary
    Became an inspiration to third-world liberation movements after death
    Became a symbol of radicalism to many in the West