Healing wholecommunities weber_gc2b_v2:  Industrial ecology to repair and restore whole landscapes
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'Industrial ecology' is key to design methods to 'heal' this region, severely polluted over hundreds of square miles by historical mining activities. Biogeochemical engineering methods are known and ...

'Industrial ecology' is key to design methods to 'heal' this region, severely polluted over hundreds of square miles by historical mining activities. Biogeochemical engineering methods are known and available, but EPA and the affected states will not marshall the will to act with resources that will benefit residents.

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Healing wholecommunities weber_gc2b_v2: Industrial ecology to repair and restore whole landscapes Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Healing Whole Communities Tar Creek Beyond Superfund  through Integrative  Sustainability Design Ivan  Weber – Weber Sustainability Consulting – Salt Lake City, Utah
  • 2. Tar Creek among ‘Legacies’ Community Integrative Design Problem on  truly grand scale • > 500,000 abandoned mines in US • None exceeds devastation of NE Oklahoma ‘Tar  Creek’ Superfund area – “Superfund No. 1” • Recipient of > a century of lead‐zinc mining impacts:   toxic wastes, acid/metals water, collapse‐prone  ground
  • 3. Legacies almost Countless • Clear‐cut forests, Appalachia and the West • Wetlands drained almost completely • Toxic compounds found in every living  organism • ‘Mountain‐top’ coal mining in Appalachia • Climate Change
  • 4. Orr, again: • “This is a design challenge like no other.  It is  not about making greener widgets but how to  make decent communities that fit their places  with elegant frugality.  The issue is whether  the emerging field of ecological design will  evolve as a set of design skills applied as  patchwork solutions on a larger pattern of  disorder or whether design will eventually  help to transform the larger culture that is  badly in need of a reformation.”
  • 5. Integrative Processes  Regenerative Redevelopment Essentials: Political Power Intercultural Cooperation Economic Creativity Finance Compassion Humility Inclusive, Integrative Processes ‐‐‐ all appropriate  disciplines, stakeholders • Design  • • • • • • •
  • 6. Oklahoma’s Tar Creek:  Part of Larger  Tri‐State Pb‐Zn Mining District KS OK MO Tri‐State  District
  • 7. Location: Tri‐State Pb‐Zn Mining District  ca. 1850‐1970  ~ 2,500 Sq. Mi. KS OK Tri‐ State Mining  District MO Tar Creek  Superfund Site ( )
  • 8. Great Diversity of Peoples in a Fertile,  Dangerous Land • Lush native prairie grasslands on rolling hills • Dense oak and riparian forests • Close relationship with rivers, wildlife and  shell art appearing in archeological and  historical record • Abundant living for Indigenous Peoples before  European Settlement
  • 9. Tar Creek Region:  Home to 10 Native  American Tribes  • • • • • Quapaw Peoria Cherokee Miami Ottawa • • • • • Eastern Shawnee Wyandotte Modoc Seneca Cayuga Shawnee
  • 10. THE TRIBES OF TAR CREEK ‐ 1 Ottawa Modoc Eastern Shawnee
  • 11. THE TRIBES OF TAR CREEK ‐ 2 Shawnee Miami Peoria
  • 12. THE TRIBES OF TAR CREEK ‐ 3 Wyandotte Cherokee Seneca‐Cayuga
  • 13. THE TRIBES OF TAR CREEK ‐ 4 Quapaw
  • 14. Approximate Tribal Boundaries – Tar  Creek Region Kansas Oklahoma MIAMI Quapaw lands were  most ‘mineralized,’ most heavily mined,  and are site of much of mining’s direct  legacy.  Watershed  effects have spread  beyond, onto other  Tribes’ lands. QUAPA W Missouri PEORIA EAST. MODOC OTTAWA SHAWNEE CHEROKEE WYANDOTTE SENECA‐ CAYUGA
  • 15. Mining’s Progress • Missouri – Lead‐Zinc mining from 1740s, began  ca. 1850 in ‘Oronogo‐Duenweg’ area east of  Joplin, in Jasper County • Kansas – Pb‐Zn mining 1870s onward to ca. 1970  in Cherokee County • Oklahoma – 1890s  ~ 1978, Pb‐Zn  mining/smelting concentrated on Quapaw Tribal  lands, Ottawa County • ‘Strategic Metals’ area, munitions for American  wars depended on Tri‐State lead and zinc.
  • 16. Tri‐State Lead for Projectiles, Zinc for Brass:  America’s Wars, Civil War – Viet Nam Civil War WWI WWII Korea Viet  Nam
  • 17. Tar Creek Superfund Area 
  • 18. Tar Creek:  Extreme Barriers to  Regenerating Communities and Lands • 130 years of neglect  Environmental and Socio‐ Economic Sacrifice Zone • Many Divisions:  Ten First Nations Tribes, Two EPA  Regions, Three States, many Counties and Municipalities • Pollution extensive and severe. • Geographical context:  Dead zone in what should be  biologically, agriculturally and economically productive  area • No “deep pockets” ‐‐‐ Companies have vacated  responsibilities or ceased to exist. • Superfund has been feeble or abdicated. • Environmental justice has not been served, by any  measure.
  • 19. Picher, OK
  • 20. Homes,  Businesses,  Towns among  Mining Wastes  and  Contaminated  Water April, 2004 TIME aerial,  Picher, OK
  • 21. Can we leave it like this? • David Orr:  Environmental problems  come from miscalibration of intentions.   • But can’t “intentions” become calibrated  to regenerative redevelopment, safe  housing, vibrant towns, and ecological  restoration?  • Can’t  intentions be initiated, ramped up  and maintained into a sustainable future  for places like Tar Creek?
  • 22. Tar Creek Superfund Site:   Approx. 40 Sq. Mi. KS Baxter  Springs Joplin Galena Picher Quapaw Commerce OK MO Miami
  • 23. How Did Tar Creek Become Such a  Mess?  History Informs Action • Legacies: – Poisoned Water:  Ground water filled mines, became  acidic & metals‐laden, Emerged to surface waters  in  Tri‐State’s topo low area, NE Oklahoma, beginning ~  1979.  Tar Creek, Neosho River watershed, Grand  Lake of the Cherokees contaminated – Mine Waste:  Millions of tons of ‘chat’ (pulverized ore  remnants, some with lead content up to 15%, high  zinc & cadmium) remains on surface – Unstable Ground:  Surface subsidence and cave‐ins  common over shallow underground mines
  • 24. Acid‐Metals Contaminated Tar Creek
  • 25. Sinkholes and Acid
  • 26. Mine Shafts Disgorge Pervasive Acid  Waters
  • 27. 100 million tons + of ‘Chat’ – Lead‐Bearing  Milling Waste:  Region’s Dangerous Playground 
  • 28. …With Predictable Health  Consequences • • • • • • Pervasively high child blood‐lead levels  Asthma rates abnormally high Diabetes reportedly >40% among Quapaw Learning disabilities common High blood pressure Apparently elevated cancer rate
  • 29. Productivity of Land Devastated • Once Productive, Tar Creek area now cannot be  cultivated • Unsafe for Gardening • Agriculture has not been possible for Decades • Pervasive Airborne Smelting/Refining Pollution  and Lead‐Rich Dust • Forests Cut for Mine Timbers (well into Ozarks to  east and southeast)
  • 30. We propose the following  Regenerative Approach to Tar Creek: ! Understanding ‘Place,’ Culturally, Ecologically,  Economically ! Envisioning an integrative process of holistic,  creative stimuli to regenerative ‘eco‐economic’ activity ! Applying community/place‐centered, industrial  ecology methodologies ‐‐‐ encouraging what can be  strong in order to remedy what is deficient and  weak. ! Recognizing that it is a design problem, a public  financial problem, a political problem, an  intercultural problem ‐‐‐ but not just the  technological problem as it has been made out to  be
  • 31. Regenerative Redevelopment  Vocabulary • ‘Sustainability’ – Ability to Sustain:  by Design • Restoration – Seek Endpoint resembling  predecessor condition • Regeneration – Seek Dynamic, Sustainable  Condition • Redevelopment – Focus on Sustainable Human  Economies as Most Effective Path toward  Sustainable Ecology of ‘Place’ envisioned by  residents of the Place • Regenerative Redevelopment
  • 32. First Steps: •Environmental and Ecological Engineering ‐ Stabilize  from Danger •Control Sources of Toxic Hazards •‘Re‐Set’ Ecological Succession, Restorative Processes •Reclaim where Appropriate •Seize Control of  Acid Water Seeps, Flows at Effective REGIONAL and  LOCAL Scales (i.e., Do what it takes) Chat ‘Crater’, Picher  OK
  • 33. Next Steps: • Assess Economy and Present  Interrelationships, Politics • Recognize Barriers and Damaged  Attributes  • Identify Strengths, Latent Resources • Apply ‘INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY’ Principles 
  • 34. Industrial Ecology  ‐ Sustainable  Economies Mimic Ecosystems Principles of Ecology: • “Energy (from Sun) is the currency of the  economy of Nature.  Energy relationships  dictate community structure.” F. Montague,  “Environment Notebook” and text “Wa‐Maka‐Skan”, U. of Utah • Matter cannot be created or destroyed.  • Nutrients cycle: used by organisms and  returned to environment.  • Trophic structure is established as energy  and nutrients flow through community  hierarchies of organisms.
  • 35. Ecology and Economies:  both seek stable  interrelationships among community  members & natural systems/beings ECOSYSTEM ECONOMY TOP  CARNIVORES CONSUMERS CARNI‐ FAB‐DISTRIB‐SALES VORES HERBIVORES GREEN PLANTS MANUFACTURER S PRIMARY INDUSTRIES SUN ENERGY
  • 36. Community‐Focused Industrial Ecology • Sustainable Jobs for Productive Regeneration  & Ecological Restoration • Can’t Wait for EPA, State or Others for  Ecological Restoration • Only Reasonably Healthy, Content People  ‘Sustain’ their Environments. • Sustainable Jobs Engender Stewardship. • Industrial Ecology’s Primary Tool:  Eco‐ Industrial Park
  • 37. EIP:  Eco‐Industrial Park • Old Practice, New Realization • Communities of Businesses Cooperating for  Environmental, Economic, and Technological  Performance Advantage • EIP Demands Interdisciplinary, Inter‐ Organizational Cooperation, Planning, O&M  and Finance • ‘Primary Producers’ Recruit ‘Niche’ Businesses • Joint Marketing for Long‐Term Commitment
  • 38. EIP Metabolism and Purpose • Energy Flows Understood and Managed for  Efficiency, Renewable Productivity • Material Flows Constantly Analyzed for  Resource Opportunities, Material Recovery • ‘Niche’ Users Recruited, With New Regional  Resource Utilizers • EIP Strategic Planning Can Integrate  Restoration, Regeneration, Socio‐Economic  and Community Goals and Objectives
  • 39. Energy at the EIP Core RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY • Solar Energy in All Forms • Wind, Geothermal, other Renewables • Biomass Conversion, Biofuels, MSW‐to‐Energy • Strengthen Agriculture by Crops & Ag Waste  Conversion • Energy Efficiency within EIP  • Energy Efficiency for Community and Region • Energy Efficiency in All Design Projects
  • 40. Integration:  Energy, Materials,  Ecosystems Recovery thru Economy • ‘Integrated Biorefinery’ – EIP Complex of  Industries, R&D and Complementary  Businesses  • Focus is on Full Range of Uses of Woody, Crop  and Organic Wastes • Conversions Include Cellulose & Lignin‐to‐ Energy, Cellulose/Hemicellulose‐to‐Value‐ Added Chemicals, Fibrous Materials to Value‐ Added Architectural Products
  • 41. EIP:  Interdisciplinary‐Integrative: Every  Applicable Sustainability Discipline Required • Environmental  Engineering • Ecological Engineering • Geochemistry &  Biogeochemistry • Agricultural Engineering • Agribusiness • Sustainable Forestry &  Wood Sciences • Materials Sciences • Energy Sciences &  Engineering • Landscape Planning &  Design • Urban Planning • Land Development &  Finance • Economic Design &  Geographic Analysis • Industrial Planning, Design  & Engineering • Industrial Finance • Sustainable Architectural  Planning & Design • Sustainable Construction
  • 42. Green Design is Extended to Whatever  It Takes to ‘Get It Done’ • Green Design and Building is a Subset of  Sustainability ‐‐‐ a Core, Essential Subset! • Community and Its ‘Place’ in  Regional/Historical Context Must be at Center • We Must Find Ways to Design an Economy  Appropriate for Each Community in Need of  Regenerative Redevelopment and Ecological  Restoration
  • 43. High‐Performance Industries and  Communities • HP – Axiomatic for EIP Facilities and  Surrounding Community • ‘Greensburg Principle’:  Strive for best  possible performance in restoring distressed,  damaged communities. • Housing development, Architectural  restoration & Energy Efficiency Retrofits =  Basic Industries of Sustainable Economy • Center HP Industries in EIP
  • 44. VISION:  Tar Creek Integrative EIP Process Toward Regenerative Strategies EIP Visioning & Regenerative Redevelopment Environmental Remediation & Restoration Integrative Biorefinery Plan & Recruitment Sustainable Land/Industries Development,  Town Restoration, Housing Improvement • Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy  • Financial Investment for Regenerative  Redevelopment • • • • •
  • 45. ‘PROCESS’ Essential to Integrative  Design • Process Envisioned and Managed by Residents  and Stakeholders • Possibly Extend ‘Eco‐Charrette’‐Type  Facilitated Intensive Process • All  Communities, Tribes, Governments,  Institutions, Corporations • PATIENCE Essential:  Determined, not  Resigned Patience, to Establish Baseline  Expectations at Outset, then Progress Toward  Long‐Term Productivity Regeneration 
  • 46. EIP Strategies • One EIP?  More than one? • Inventory and Assess Assets and Opportunities – ID Existing Industries & Employers in Region’ – Inventory Regional Resources – Envision Sustainable Employment from Resources – Inventory Unique Locational  and Cultural Attributes  & Opportunities – ID Possible ‘Niche’ Enterprises – ID Financial Support Mechanisms • Formulate Recruitment Plan
  • 47. Envision Primary and ‘Symbiotic’ Economic Activities • Primary Industries (possible):  Biorefinery – Biomass Energy – Organic Waste, Municipal  Waste, Ag Waste, Dedicated Crop Byproducts – Biofuels, Value‐Added Cellulosic Chemicals – Ag Fiber for Value‐Added Architectural Products  (‘Agriboard’ type panels, etc.) – Soil Restoration Nutrients, Compost Amendments  for Land Productivity Restoration
  • 48. Envision Primary and ‘Symbiotic’ Economic Activities ‐ 2 • Primary Industries (possible):  Re‐Mining  Metals and Best Utilization of Mine Wastes • Primary Industries (possible):  Solar, Wind,  other Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency • Housing – Efficient/Affordable • Attractive Places Creation (Reverse the  Cancer)
  • 49. Environmental Remediation &  Restoration • Restoration of Land and Waters to Healthful  Productivity:  Core Activity • Creation of Safe, Efficient and Attractive Community  Infrastructure:  Core Activity • Strategic Regional and Localized Water Clean‐Up  and AMD Prevention • Sequester Chat:  Back into Mines, Use as Building  Aggregate, or Cap Safely • Confirm Surface Safety:  Long‐Term Strategy for  Earth Support, Controlled Collapse, other Assurance  of Firm Ground
  • 50. Restoration and Regeneration:  Tar  Creek is Target # 1
  • 51. Integrative Biorefinery Plan &  Recruitment • Conceptualize Integration of Biorefinery  Activities over Development Schedule • Match Activities to Market Development • Secure Local/Regional Resources for StartUp • Initiate R&D for Critical Future Technologies  • Recruit Primary Participants
  • 52. Sustainable Land/Industries &  Community Development Draft Iterative Landscape‐Scale Master Plan Assure that Other Strategies are Based on Plan ID Key Areas to Return to ‘GreenField’ Status First Coordinate with Land Development Investment  Planning • Watershed Planning Must Take Precedence • Sustainable Agriculture Must Take Precedence • Cluster EIP, Business and Town Developments to  Minimize Footprint, for Optimum Bio‐ Productivity • • • •
  • 53. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy  Development • Community Energy Efficiency Investment:  ESCos,  Government Programs, Incentive‐Based Programs  to Improve EE in Buildings • LEED Everywhere @ ‘Greensburg Principle’ Levels • Renewable Energy Integration • Solar‐Thermal & PV on Buildings • District Heat • Secondary Water Systems:  Avoid ‘Engineering’ Water Needlessly (save energy!)
  • 54. Financial Investment for Regenerative  Redevelopment • Establish Regional Regenerative Investment Funds • Designate Area as Target for Investors • Mining Companies Should be Key Participants  (without assurances) • US Government MUST INVEST HEAVILY (Remember  Century of Wars) • Focus On Clean, Sustainable Jobs • Always Mindful of Restoring and Regenerating  Environment
  • 55. Financial Investment for Regenerative  Redevelopment ‐ 2 • Cleaned Land Lender Verification and Liability Relief  ESSENTIAL • Regional Redevelopment Fund/Authority • Business Incubator(s) and Recruitment Center • R&D and Grants‐Seeking Management Center • By‐Products Exchange and EIP Infrastructure  Management for EIP Optimization • Environmental Assurance for Business Discipline:   Zero‐Discharge/Zero‐Emissions Performance • ISO‐14000 Certification for EIP
  • 56. Conclusions:  Extending  Understandings of ‘Sustainable Design’ • Must Extend Capacities to Manage Integratively the Many  Disciplines Needed by ‘Tar Creek,’ Neighboring Sites, and  Other Similar Areas.  • Must Extend  Our Sensibilities Toward Assisting Damaged,  Disadvantaged Communities and Landscapes. • Not About Us:  Must Direct Attention and ‘Intention’ Toward Picher and All the Other Towns, First Nations,  Communities and Regions , to Help Them to Help  Themselves through Community Regenerative Design. • ‘Community‐Centered EIP’ Concept can Help Restore Pride  of Place, a Regional Guiding Intelligence (across borders),  and a Unified Conscience about the Land.
  • 57. Tar Creek:  Voice of Devastated Lands,  Damaged Economies Time April 2004
  • 58. Ivan Weber, Principal/Owner LEED-AP / USGBC 953 1st Avenue Salt Lake City, Utah 84103 801-355-6863 / 801651-8841 cellular ivan@webersustain.co m www.webersustain.com The Green Man