Standards can’t stand aloneSchools need to develop a clearer, more holistic roleSchools can’t go it alonelocal strategiespartnerships with other schools & agenciesGenuine community involvementFunding, accountability & governance in line with these principles
Case 1: Full service extended schools: evaluation of education systems that aim to tackle inequality Presentation on 5th Feb 2011 Second Round Table: How can we evaluateEvaluation of Education Effectiveness, Efficiency and Policies: International Improvement of Educationpractice and evidences. Policies? International perspectives, practices and evidences Professor Liz Todd email@example.com
What I am going to talk about…… What are extended schools? What do they look like and why? What do they hope to achieve? How did we evaluate full service extended schools nationally?What is theory of change and why did we use Is possible to be flexible and robust? it? What did we find? What are the issues in having extended Do extended schools really work? schools?
Extended schools in England• Multiple initiatives since 1997• Typically: childcare; parent support; out of hours activities; adult learning; inter-agency working• Shift from extended schools to extended services• Emergence of area-based initiatives• Similar patterns in many other countries
What can extended schools achieve?•Student learning: Community school students show significant and widely evident gains inacademic achievement and in essential areas of nonacademic development.•Family engagement: Families of community school students show increased stability,communication with teachers and school involvement. Parents demonstrate a greater senseof responsibility for their children’s learning success.•School effectiveness: Community schools enjoy stronger parent-teacher relationships,increased teacher satisfaction, a more positive school environment and greater communitysupport.•Community vitality: Community schools promote better use of school buildings, and theirneighborhoods enjoy increased security, heightened community pride, and better rapportamong students and residents. (Blank, Melaville, & Shah, 2003)
Every Child Matters 2003• A response to child tragedy• Systemic change: funding, integration of services• ‘joined-up’ services• Getting help fast• Record keeping
A dominant rationale...even if we found all the factors that make schools more or less effective, we would stillnot be able to affect more than 30 percent of the variance in pupils’ outcomes. It hastherefore become increasingly clear that a narrow focus on the school as an institutionwill not be sufficient to enable work on more equitable educational outcomes toprogress… Interventions will need to impact more directly on pupils’ environment and lifechances. (Muijs, 2010)Extended schools are a key vehicle for delivering the Government’s objective oflifting children out of poverty and improving outcomes for them and their families…Akey priority, and challenge, for schools is to reach the most disadvantaged familieswithin a universal framework of providing mainstream services for all families. (HM Government, 2007)
What aboutSchool improvement unemployment,crucial – but can only social and health go so far problems, housing? Child poverty fallen in UK Standards aren’t over 10yrs – but still 1 in everything 3 children in povertyHow can we raise school Shouldn’t agencies work standards? more in partnership? 8-15% variation in Around 50% variationachievement is as a result achievement due to SES of the school
Principles Standards don’t stand alone Schools can’t go it aloneMore holistic role for schools
Achieving clarityWithin this new model, it’s important to ask: – What activities will the school undertake? – How will these relate to the work of others? – Why are these important things to do? – What’s the evidence and who says? – How will the activities achieve the desired ends?
The FSES evaluation• Detailed theory of change studies of 17 projects;• Statistical analysis of NPD;• Cost benefit analysis of FSES provision in a sample of 10 projects;• Brief case studies of comparator schools• Questionnaire survey of pupils, parents and staff in FSESs and comparators;• Final questionnaire survey of all FSESs.
Statistical analysis: outcome measures Cost- benefit analysis:10 schools Case study and development of theory of change: 17 schools.
Theory of ChangeA systematic and cumulative study of the links between activities, outcomes and context of the initiativeFullbright-Anderson, Kubisch and Connell, 1998: 16
The situationHigh deprivation, low aspirationHigh unemploymentDecline of manufacturing base Main strands of actionHistorically low schoolreputation Community re- engagement in learning and parental involvement in schooling Services for young people Raised school performance/profile Outcomes Raise aspirations of community Raise achievement and attainment in school Removal of barriers to learning Thriving school
The situation• Persistent absenteeism• Area of high deprivation• Lack of value placed on education by parents and children• Culture of non-participation in activities led by school• Low aspirations• New school building in progress
Main strands of actionCommunity involvement:• Support services• Community support for pupils• Pupil support for communityPupils:• Rewards for participation• Rewards for attainment• Swift and easy referral• Transition support• Early intervention• One to one support for parents
OutcomesFor pupils and community• Increased attendance• High achievement/attainment (maintenance of progress at least)• Increased citizenship/community cohesion• Increased social capital• Raised aspirations• Seeing school as supportive
Theory of change reflections• Schools as participants in the evaluation ‘do we have to pay?’• Double-edged sword: – Helps inform their actions – Demands their willing contribution – A developmental process for schools – FSESs change• Practitioner thinking – shaped by immediate demands – characterised by taken for granted assumptions• Evaluation best built into planning stage
Findings on outcomes…• Important (transformative?) impacts on individuals & families• Some evidence of cultural change in school• Possibility of change in communities• Benefits outweigh costs – and are redistributive• Variable association with school ‘improvement’• Weak evidence of overall attainment gains• No evidence of fundamental transformation at societal level
Findings…• FSESs achieve less highly than majority of schools – explained by disadvantaged intake• No evidence that being educated in an FSES enables the majority of pupils to attain more highly than they would do if they were educated in schools that did not have this status• Attainment gaps between pupils entitled to free school meals (FSM) and with special educational needs (SEN) on the one hand, and all other pupils on the other hand are smaller in FSESs than in other schools• FSESs targeted children in difficulties and did so in ways which had impacts on their attainments
£144,000 …The financial benefits if one pupil achieves 5 A*-C GCSEgrades or equivalent when predicted A*-G (anestimate)
More is happening for young people, It has improved thefor example football and homework reputation of the school andclubs…We’ve broken down barriers it is improving all the timeand our doors have opened…There with the full service school,are the sports hall [new build]more adults walking the corridors…It and the healthy school.feels less like a young person’s (student)ghettoand more of a community.(ES co-ordinator) I don’t eat breakfast at home and twelve parents attended so coming here means I the smoking get breakfast cessation course and one (student) parent stopped smoking (school nurse)
I was finding, because of the nature ofthe community, when I looked atmy role as a headteacher which isabout leading the learning and theteaching, so much of my time was We’ve got parents in the schoolbeing taking up dealing with the social working as learning supportwork issues… I did a review over a four assistants, two are learningweek period of my time and 60% support assistants, our collegeof that time was social work related assistants were our dinnerand that’s not where my strengths ladies…We’ve trained them upare. My strengths are in teaching and through NVQs and they are nowlearning. (primary head teacher – now our college assistants. Theyhas time to commit to teaching and work full time for us. Two oflearning) them work on reception and repro-graphics having also got desk top computer skills, three of them in student support helping with issues to do with the school.(head teacher)
It’s kind of like we’ve been doingthis and now we can finance it You cannot work in an innerproperly. city and say this [extendedIn the past it’s been like on a schooling] belongs outsidewing and a prayer. (Assistant our curriculum. It isHeadteacher, absolutely why we got intoLA20) this work. (Deputy headteacher, LA18) We can help other people Previously, you called school and spoke with the SENCO and not the teachers. Now, achieve their targets. The I get to speak with teachers and get Health Authority have targets additional information and my they need to achieve and we’ve assessments are ten times longer. I have a got sitting clients to help them much rounder picture of the children. There achieve some of those really is lots of information I can pick up [around difficult targets. school] from speaking with the dinner (ES coordinator) ladies. (Social worker)
The community is a very Weak management could be afractured place and hard problem as the extended schoolto define let alone could take over the school and lose theconsult with. focus on schooling.(ES manager) (secondary head teacher) In terms of the other agencies and regeneration issues, no, they haven’t made contact with the school and thatAn inhibiting factor is the capacity is really frustrating because theissue. My staff work very hard and school is in the heart of the communityput in long hours and lots of extracurricular activities go on and we have and I think we should beto ensure that we have the capacity and consulted about central changes…but Ienergy and right personnel in have to hear about these things. Iplace. I regularly do a 70-80 hour week. mean, I wasn’t consulted about Sure(secondary head teacher) Start and Sure Start affects my families. (head teacher)
Some process issues• Sustainability• Disconnection of individual school model• Aims – unreasonable?• Management and co-ordination• Partnership• Evaluate• Politics of extended services – Dominance of deficit perspectives
Some ways forward? Promise of area-based initiatives?• Promise of participatory/assets-based models?
Making sense of it all• ESs are no substitute for school ‘improvement’ – but may support it• ESs have important (if limited) supportive & redistributive effects• ESs offer a vehicle for area change• Strategic approaches beyond the single school are important• ESs raise fundamental questions about: – The outcomes we want from schools – The relationship between schooling and other aspects of public services & policy – Who owns schools
Further informationFSES final report:https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/standard/p ublicationDetail/Page1/RR852Cummings, C., Dyson, A, Todd, L. (2011) Beyond the school gates (London, Routledge)