means “porous bones”, causes
bones to become weak and brittle- so brittle
that even mild stresses like bending over ,lifting
a vacuum cleaner or coughing can cause a
In most cases , bones weakens when low levels
of calcium , phosphorous and other minerals in
the bones and results as low bone density.
A common result of osteoporosis is fractures of
the spine , wrist and hip.
Although its often thought of as a women’s
disease , osteoporosis also affects many men .
pain , which can be severe if fractured or
Loss of height over time , with an
accompanying stooped posture.
Fracture of the vertebrae , wrists , hips or other
Normal has appearance of a honeycomb
matrix (left) .Under a microscope ,
osteoporotic bone looks more porous.
strength of bone depends on their size and
density : bone density depends in part on the
amount of calcium , phosphorous and other
minerals bones contains.
When the bones contains fewer minerals than
normal , they are less strong and eventually lose
their internal supporting structure.
The process of bone remodeling: Scientists
have yet to learn all the reasons
why this occurs, but the process involves how
the bone is made . Bone is continuously
changing – new bone is made and old bone
is broken down - a process called remodeling
or bone turnover.
A full cycle of bone remodeling takes 2-3
In young – the body makes new bone faster
than it breaks down old bone , and the bone
the peak bone mass in mid- 30’s
that , bone remodeling continues, but
loses slightly more than it gains.
menopause, when estrogen level drop,
bone loss increases dramatically.
factors contribute to bone loss, the
leading cause in women is decreased estrogen
production during menopause.
of developing osteoporosis depends on
How much bone mass attained during ages
25-35 (peak bone mass) and how rapidly
loses it rapidly, The higher peak bone mass ,
the more bones “in the bank” and less likely
to develop osteoporosis as ages .
getting enough vitamin D and calcium
in the diet may lead to a lower peak bone
mass and accelerated bone loss later.
What keeps bones healthy?
Adequate amount of calcium
Adequate amount of vitamin D , which is
very essential for absorbing calcium.
RISK FACTORS: SEX:-
Fractures from osteoporosis are about
twice more in women than in men . Risk in
women at menopause(45yrs) that accelerates
bone loss. Risk in men is greater than age 75
older, The higher risk of osteoporosis .
Bones become weaker as ages.
risk – White or of South-East
Asian descent . Black men and women have
HISTORY:-Osteoporosis runs in families.
Parent or siblings with osteoporosis puts at
greater risk , especially if having a family history
SIZE :- Men and women who are
exceptionally thin or have small body frames
tend to have higher risk because they may
have higher risk because they may have less
bone mass to draw from as they age.
EXPOSURE TO ESTROGEN:-The greater
a woman’s lifetime exposure to estrogen , the
lower her risk of osteoporosis.
DISORDERS:-Women and Men with
anorexia nervosa or bulimia are at higher risk
of lower bone density in their lower backs and
HORMONE :-Too much of thyroid
hormone can cause bone loss.
MEDICATIONS :- Long term use of the
blood thinning medication, the cancer
treatment drug , some anti-seizure
medications and aluminum containing
antacids also can cause bone loss.
CANCER:- Postmenopausal women who
have had breast cancer are at increased risk
of osteoporosis , especially if they were treated
with chemotherapy( which suppresses
CALCIUM INTAKE :-A lifelong lack of
calcium plays a major role in the development
PROCEDURES THAT DECREASES
CALCIUM ABSORPTION:-Stomach surgery can
affect the body’s ability to absorb calcium.
LIFESTYLE :-Bone health begins in
childhood . Children who are physically active
and consume adequate amount of calciumcontaining foods have the greatest bone
density . Exercise throughout life is important ,
but can increase bone density at any age.
SODA CONSUMPTION:-The link between
osteoporosis and caffeinated soda isn’t clear ,
but caffeine may interfere with calcium
absorption and its diuretic effect may increase
ALCOHOLISM:-For men, alcoholism is
one of the leading factors for osteoporosis .
Excess consumption of alcohol reduces bone
formation and interferes with body’s ability to
who experience serious
depression have increased rate of bone loss.
TESTS AND DIAGNOSIS
refers to mild bone loss that
isn’t severe enough to be called
osteoporosis , but that increases the risk of
Quantitative CT scanning
The best screening test is dual energy X-ray
absorptiometry (DEXA)- measures the
density of bone in the spine, wrist , hip , and
is used to accurately follow changes in
these bones over time .
TEST SHOULD: Older
than age 65, regardless of risk
Postmenopausal and have at least one risk
factor, including having fractured a bone.
Having vertebral abnormality.
Type 1 diabetes, liver disease, kidney
disease , thyroid disease or a family history
Experienced early menopause.
are most frequent and serious
complications of osteoporosis.
Often occurs in spine and hips – bones
that directly support your weight.
Hip fractures and wrist fractures from fall
Compression fractures can cause severe
pain and require a long recovery
Treatments and Drugs
selective estrogen receptor modulators
(SERM’S) , Calcitonin
therapies:-New physical therapy
program combines the use of a device called
a spinal weighted kypho-orthosis (wko) , a
harness with a light weight attached and a
specific back extension exercises.
ESTROGEN AND BONE
is essential for
healthy bone, and that
when the production of
estrogen is reduced (in
and exposure to radiation
drugs )bones become
brittle and break easily .
However the mechanisms
involved aren't clearly
The new study observed that one way
estradiol helps to maintain bone density is by
stopping the activation of an enzyme , known
as caspase-3, the central player in initiating
the process of programmed cell death of
osteoblasts, the bone cell that aid in the
growth of new bone and teeth.
exercise such as walking , running ,
skipping rope , jogging regularly.
Add soy in diet – plant estrogen found in soy
helps to maintain bone density and reduce
the risk of fracture.
Avoid smoking , it can reduce the level of
estrogen and increases bone loss.
Avoid excessive alcohol.
Avoid caffeine , which is very harmful.
Consider hormone therapy.
Lifestyle and home remedies
pain . Don’t ignore chronic pain.
good posture – keeping the head
held high , chin in, shoulders back , upper
back flat and lower spine arched – helps to
avoid stress on spine .when sit or drive ,
place a rolled towel in back . Don’t lean
while writing or doing handwork . When lifting
bend at knees , not at waist , and lift with
legs , keeping the upper back straight .