3 design of work system.ppt 2

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3 design of work system.ppt 2

  1. 1. 7-1 Design of Work Systems McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 7-2 Design of Work Systems Chapter 7 Design of Work Systems McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. 7-3 Design of Work Systems Job Design • Job design involves specifying the content and methods of job – What will be done – Who will do the job – How the job will bob will be done – Where the job will be done – Ergonomics McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. 7-4 Design of Work Systems Design of Work Systems • Specialization • Behavioural Approaches to Job Design • Teams • Methods Analysis • Motions Study • Working conditions McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. 7-5 Design of Work Systems Job Design Success Successful Job Design must be: • Carried out by experienced personnel with the necessary training and background • Consistent with the goals of the organization • In written form • Understood and agreed to by both management and employees McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. 7-6 Design of Work Systems Specialization in Business: Advantages For Management: For Labour: 1. Simplifies training 1. Low education and 2. High productivity 3. Low wage costs skill requirements 2. Minimum responsibilities 3. Little mental effort needed McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. 7-7 Design of Work Systems Disadvantages For Management: For Labour: 1. Difficult to motivate quality 1. Monotonous work 2. Limited opportunities for advancement 2. Worker dissatisfaction, possibly resulting in 3. Little control over work absenteeism, high 4. Little opportunity for turnover, disruptive self-fulfillment tactics, poor attention to quality McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. 7-8 Design of Work Systems Behavioural Approaches to Job Design • Job Enlargement – Giving a worker a larger portion of the total task by horizontal loading • Job Rotation – Workers periodically exchange jobs • Job Enrichment – Increasing responsibility for planning and coordination tasks, by vertical loading McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. 7-9 Design of Work Systems Methods Analysis The need for methods analysis can come from a number of different sources: • Changes in tools and equipment • Changes in product design or new products • Changes in materials or procedures • Other factors (e.g. accidents, quality problems) McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. 7-10 Design of Work Systems ge Stor a De l ay n ect io e nt Ins p Details of Method vem ANALYST PAGE Job Requisition of petty cash D. Kolb 1 of 2 Mo FLOW PROCESS CHART Op era tion Figure 7-2 Requisition made by department head Put in “pick-up” basket To accounting department Account and signature verified Amount approved by treasurer Amount counted by cashier Amount recorded by bookkeeper Petty cash sealed in envelope Petty cash carried to department Petty cash checked against requisition Receipt signed Petty cash stored in safety box McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. 7-11 Design of Work Systems Motion Study Motion study is the systematic study of the human motions used to perform an operation. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. 7-12 Design of Work Systems Motion Study Techniques • Motion study principles - guidelines for designing motion-efficient work procedures • Analysis of therbligs - basic elemental motions into which a job can be broken down • Micromotion study - use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze • Charts McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. 7-13 Design of Work Systems Developing Work Methods • • • • Eliminate unnecessary motions Combine activities Reduce fatigue Improve the arrangement of the workplace • Improve the design of tools and equipment McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. 7-14 Design of Work Systems Working Conditions Temperature & Humidity Ventilation Illumination Colour McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. 7-15 Design of Work Systems Working Conditions (cont’d) Noise & Vibration Work Breaks Safety Causes of Accidents McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. 7-16 Design of Work Systems Work Measurement • Stopwatch Time Study • Standard Elemental Times • Predetermined Time Standards • Work Sampling McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. 7-17 Design of Work Systems Compensation • Individual Incentive Plans • Group Incentive Plans • Knowledge-Based Pay System • Management Compensation McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. 7-18 Design of Work Systems Form of Incentive Plan • Accurate • Easy to apply • Consistent • Easy to understand • Fair McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. 7-19 Design of Work Systems Group Incentive Plans • Scanlon Plan – Encourage reductions in labour costs • Kaiser Plan – Committees suggest ways of reducing costs • Lincoln Plan – Profit sharing, job enlargement, and participative management • Kodak Plan – Wages/bonus related to profits McGraw-Hill Ryerson Operations Management, 2nd Canadian Edition, by Stevenson & Hojati Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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