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PHYSICS IV TERM PAPER

PHYSICS IV TERM PAPER

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Realizing truths on energy crisis tp Document Transcript

  • 1. Nuclear or Alternative? Submitted by: Shaina Michaela V. Heyres Fourth Year - Diamond Submitted to: Sir Ariel C. Lalisan Physics 4 - Adviser December 10, 2013
  • 2. I. INTRODUCTION Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but it can be transformed. This phrase has been living through the centuries since the law of conservation of energy has been stated and since Albert Einstein has developed his theory of relativity. According to him, matter and energy are connected. Matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed but they can be converted from one form to another. Humankind already has discovered so many great ideas and inventions out of sheer serendipity and some have been living up until today. With the continuous search for development and more answers to needs, scientists have soon discovered that energy can be transformed into Heat, Light, Sound, Mechanical, Chemical, Magnetic etc. Then on, these were later found out to be able to light up homes, establishments, malls, etc. and with the growing demand for energy to be able to get such mechanisms work, power plants have therefore been introduced. The plant that produces electricity is called as power plant. The other names for the power plant are power station, power house, and generating plant. In power plants the chemical energy within the fuel is converted into electrical energy, which can be used for various domestic purposes. The power plants can be either small or large. The small power plants are usually installed in the industries to fulfill their daily power needs without having to depend on the external power agency for supplying of the power. The large power plants can fulfill the power needs of the whole city or a number of cities where millions of people reside. The large power plants can also fulfill the electric power requirements of number of industries. In the ships, aircrafts and large vehicles the power generation units are also called as power plants. Such types of power plants
  • 3. fulfill the power requirements of the individual vehicles. http://www.brighthubengineering.com/power-plants/18686-what-are-power-plants/ Alternative energy is any form of energy that does not come from fossil fuels. They are considered alternative because they can be future replacements for fossil fuels that now meet a considerable portion of our energy needs. These sources are often renewable. Unlike most fossil fuels, they are easily available and do not have finite supply. Some well-known types of these are solar power and wind power. Among many types of renewable energy sources, solar power is the most essential to human beings because this is a resource that will not run out anytime soon and will be around for an estimate of 1 billion years. http://www.universetoday.com/74599/ Nuclear energy originates from the splitting of uranium atoms in a process called fission. At the power plant, the fission process is used to generate heat for producing steam, which is used by a turbine to generate electricity. http://www.westinghousenuclear.com/Community/WhatIsNuclearEnergy.shtm A Nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. As is typical in all conventional thermal power stations the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to a generator which produces electricity. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_plant. The economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, and multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. Nuclear power plants typically have high capital costs, but low direct fuel costs, with the costs of fuel extraction, processing, use and spent fuel storage internalized costs. Therefore, comparison with other power generation methods is strongly dependent on assumptions about construction timescales and capital financing for nuclear plants.
  • 4. Nuclear energy is one of the cleanest ways in providing energy and is also one of the most dangerous. If these were not put under standards, many will be affected by its radioactive composition and death tolls will rise. Somehow, this will be a great contribution in providing energy in the Philippines but then on, considerations are yet still to be made to decide whether which of these two power generating plants will be introduced to continue sustaining the growing demand of power in the nation.
  • 5. II. BODY In the 21st century, the world population of humanity has dramatically increased. Competition for spaces has become drastic, and humanity has furthermore been struggling for survival. Each one of us has been vying for personal spaces and homes to take shelter. Power plants have been introduced to sustain such . All over the country, there a big number of power plants that is operational. They range from coal-fired plants to diesel-fired plants. Although operating for years now, these plants have their own advantages and disadvantages that has been considered and debated upon before they were put up and began operating. The table below shows the different types of plants, its advantages, disadvantages and the source’s comments on these. http://ramblingsdc.net/index.html Fuel Advantages Coal Apparently plentiful: we will probably not run out of easily mined coal in the next few decades. It has been believed that the world's coal reserves would last a century or more, but some recent research has indicated that this was optimistic. Comments Not sustainable Low cost Disadvantages Coal has an 'unfair' advantage over 'cleaner' forms of power generation in that the power station operators do not have to pay for the damage that they are doing to the atmosphere. See: No level playing field. Requires around 1.7 million litres of fresh water for each gigawatt-hour of electricity generated. Produces more carbon dioxide (CO2) per Watt-hour of energy than any other generation method. The methods of mining coal can be very destructive, although responsible coal miners do a remarkably good job of restoring the land after the coal has been mined out. A coal-fired power station generates a large amount of energy in a relatively small area compared to most renewable methods. However, when all the land required for mining and disposal of ash is taken into account coal does not have any space advantage over several sustainable methods. Very large quantities of ash have to be disposed of and a lot of smoke is produced, although in The misleading term 'clean coal' is sometimes used to refer to coal-fired power stations that
  • 6. modern power stations most of the latter is separated from the waste gas stream and disposed of with the ash. Coal contains substances such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium, mercury and the radioactive elements uranium, thorium, radium and radon (see USGS). When the coal is mined and burned these substances can be released into the environment. Burned sulfur is one of the main causes of acid rain, but most modern coal-fired power stations remove most of the sulfur oxides from the released gasses. War time – For maximum efficiency coal fired power stations must be big. They therefore present a desirable target for enemy attack. Fuel Advantages Disadvantages efficiently extract substances like sulfur from the coal, either before or after burning. It is impossible to burn coal without producing carbon dioxide, so all coal-fired power stations are dirty in this sense. However, it is possible to dispose of (sequestrate) the carbon dioxide so that it is not released into the atmosphere for a long time. As of the time of writing (Feb. 2006) this has not been done for a commercial scale power station. It seems that some coal-fired power stations that are not economically viable are being kept in operation because decommissioning and cleaning up would be more expensive than keeping them going. Comments Not sustainable Low cost Generators are very compact Natural gas Produces less CO2 than oil and much less than coal Requires much less water than coal fired power stations Produces carbon dioxide. (CO2), which is an important greenhouse gas. The world's natural gas reserves are limited, but not so limited as oil reserves. Seismic surveys of the sea-bed cause death and injuries to marine species. Leakage of methane to the atmosphere, very difficult to quantify, increases the greenhouse effect. At the rate we are using natural gas our children will see the price rise so much that it will no longer be economical as a fuel. In a more far sighted world natural gas would be reserved for more valuable uses than burning as fuel. We are consuming our children's heritage. Also see: No level playing field.
  • 7. Fuel Advantages Disadvantages Comments Not sustainable Produces carbon dioxide (CO2), which is an important greenhouse gas. Requires a substantial amount of cooling water. Low cost Generators are very compact. Oil Produces less CO2 than coal and requires much less water than coal The world's oil reserves are limited. Oil spills, especially at sea, cause severe pollution. Some oils contain high levels of sulfur. See the note on sulfur under coal, above. The world's supply of oil is limited; see Peak Oil. Seismic surveys of the sea-bed cause death and injuries to marine species. At the rate we are using oil our children will see the price rise so much that it will no longer be economical as a fuel. In a more far sighted world oil would be reserved for more valuable uses than burning as fuel. We are consuming our children's heritage. Also see: No level playing field. Shale oil is oil that can be extracted from shale by mining a shale that is saturated with oil, and roasting it at about 500 degrees Celsius to extract the oil. For more detail see Shale oil in 'Notes' on my page Heating Efficiencies and Greenhouse. Non fossil fuel large-scale power generation methods: Table 2 The power stations considered in this section are large stand-alone operations that generally supply power to a distribution grid. Electricity generation methods on home heating efficiencies gives more information on the greenhouse gas production levels and efficiency of various electrical generation methods. The note, No level playing field is relevant to the true comparative cost of fossil fuel and non
  • 8. fossil fuel electricity. These power generation methods do not, in themselves, result in a net increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. http://ramblingsdc.net/index.html Technology Advantages Disadvantages Uses a renewable fuel. Biogas Consumes methane that might otherwise leak into the atmosphere and increase the greenhouse effect, so the waste is converted into a less harmful form at the same time and in the same operation; a winwin operation. Biogas can also be used on a small scale, eg. a pig farm. Technology Advantages Uses a renewable fuel. Biomass (including firewood) No net addition of carbon to the atmosphere (the CO2 released into the atmosphere by burning one crop is taken out by growing the next). Very limited in the quantity of electricity it can produce on the global scale. There is little or no control on the rate of gas production, although the gas can, to some extent, be stored and used as required. Comments The biogas that I am considering here is that produced from buried organic waste, as in a land-fill rubbish dump, or from sewerage. It is also possible to produce flamable gas from materials such as wood. It is non-polluting in that it does not produce any net increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide so long as the biological material being used is replaced sustainably. Disadvantages Comments A large area of land is required for the production of the fuel (eg. wood lot or cane field) per MW of power generated. Biomass includes firewood; see environmental aspects of burning firewood on this site. The sustainability of the Because of the above production and point, this method can replacement of the never generate enough biomass is of critical power to satisfy a major importance to the ethics part of current of using biomass as a demands. source of energy. Burns organic matter that might be better returned to the land for soil improvement. My page, Energy Calculator calculates the relative costs of firewood and several
  • 9. other fuels in terms of energy per dollar. Technology Advantages Disadvantages Comments It can only be developed in selected volcanic areas, so it can never be a major contributor to the world energy supply I have used 'geothermal' in relation to the capture and use of more-or-less natural steam in volcanic areas; distinct from 'hot dry rock', which is discussed elsewhere. Disadvantages Comments Sustainable Relatively low cost for renewable energy, US$0.06 to $0.08/kWh. Geothermal Non-polluting; little environmental impact since the steam would be released to the atmosphere with or without the power generation. Technology Advantages Compact; a large amount of electrical power can be produced by a moderately sized station. Hot dry rock There are huge volumes of very hot rocks at depths of 5km or so. The resource could not be significantly depleted in decades. In human terms it is close to sustainable. While there have been some trial operations, the technology remains unproven. The costs and technical problems with drilling to great depths in very hot rocks are considerable. Also see geothermal above A hot dry rock company in Australia: Geodynamics. It could provide a large part of the worlds baselevel electricity supply. Non-polluting Technology Advantages Disadvantages Comments Hydro (falling water) Compact; a large amount of electrical The building of dams is There is a trend toward usually environmentally modifying dams to
  • 10. power can be produced by a moderately sized station. Sustainable Once established it is fairly environmentally benign. destructive – river valleys are important ecosystems; it often requires great changes in many peoples' life styles; river valleys are often fertile and densely populated. Fermenting vegetation in hydro dams releases the greenhouse gas methane to the atmosphere. produce hydro-power where they were not originally designed for that purpose. This is sometimes called minihydro power. There is of course a continuous range of hydro-power stations from multi-megawatt down to a few hundred Watts or even less, see: micro hydro. The water released from a hydro-power station often comes from the bottom of a dam. If so, it is cold and may not suit species native to the region. Water is often released from a hydro-power dam at times that depend on power consumption (or possibly to suit downstream irrigators). The natural occasional highflows or floods that the river's ecosystem has adapted to is disrupted. Technology Conventional nuclear Advantages Disadvantages Comments Compact; a large amount of electrical power can be produced by a moderately sized station. Requires substantial amounts of cooling water. There is a great deal of uninformed emotional fear of nuclear power and nuclear radiation, some is justified, some not. Low levels of radiation are ubiquitous and the preponderance of the scientific Low fuel costs. Small number of It is expensive, especially in capital costs, maintenance costs, and due to the long lead time in
  • 11. accidents. Normally does not produce any significant atmospheric pollutants. Quantity of waste produced is small. planning and construction (around 15 years); see footnote. The equipment needed to produce the fuel for power reactors is the same as is used to produce fisile material for bombs. Large amounts of fossil fuels are used in mining and processing the uranium fuel; with consequent release of greenhouse gasses. There is a danger of radiation release, either from the reactors or from the waste. This can be enormously expensive, the Fukushima nuclear disaster has been estimated to cost US$257 billion. While there are few accidents the consequences of some accidents may be very serious. Decommissioning a nuclear power station at the end of its useful life is very difficult and expensive. Safe long-term disposal of nuclear waste is difficult. (It must be kept away from the literature seems to indicate that they are benificial rather than harmful. There is insufficient U235 (0.7% of natural uranium) to provide a major part of the current world electrical consumption for a long period. About 99.3% of natural uranium is in the form of U238 which cannot be used as a fuel in a simple nuclear power station. To use 0.7% of the uranium and dump the remainder, as is currently done, is terribly wasteful and, I believe, unethical in regard to future generations; the U235 can be thought of as the match that can be used to set fire to the U238 firewood, we are burning the match and denying the use of the firewood to future generations. Is Nuclear Power Globally Scalable?, (by Derek Abbott, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Adelaide) provides a convincing argument that nuclear power cannot replace fossil fuels as mankind's main
  • 12. biosphere for several tens of thousands of years). A tempting target for terrorist attack. War time – Nuclear power stations would produce a huge amount of radioactive contamination if bombed. Technology source of energy. It seems likely that some nuclear power stations that are not economically viable are being kept in operation because decommissioning and cleaning up would be more expensive than keeping them going. Advantages Disadvantages Comments Compact; a large amount of electrical power can be produced by a moderately sized station. The system is not proven on a commercial scale. Since this system could make use of most of the energy available from uranium, unlike conventional nuclear, in theory a major part of the current world electrical consumption could be generated for a long period. Abundant fuel is available from existing stored 'waste' nuclear fuel. Conventional reactors only use about 1% of the potential power in uranium, the Fast reactor system could utilise most of the other 99%. Just as expensive as conventional nuclear? See footnote. Requires substantial amounts of cooling water. It is claimed that the transuranic elements 'Fast' neutron recovered in the nuclear pyroprocessing are (combined with While the system seems "unsuited for weapons" pyrometallurgical to be sound, the because they include recycling of fuel) Should not produce any consequences of several isotopes of significant atmospheric accidents may be plutonium, not just the pollutants. catastrophic. plutonium 239 favoured for bomb making, some Quantity of waste Decommissioning a uranium 238, and produced should be nuclear power station at fission products. much smaller than for the end of its useful life conventional nuclear. is very difficult and Bad news for uranium expensive. miners. If Fast nuclear Nuclear waste from a takes over from fast reactor system will The lead time in conventional then no need to be isolated from building a nuclear uranium need be mined the biosphere for power station is around for several hundred There is a danger of radiation release.
  • 13. several hundred years, compared to the tens of thousands for conventional nuclear. Thorium, which is about three times as abundant as uranium, can be used as fuel in a fast neutron reactor. Technology ten years, since this system is 'new' its lead time will be more like fifteen years. A tempting target for terrorist attack. Advantages Disadvantages War time – Nuclear power stations would produce a huge amount of radioactive contamination if bombed. Solar energy is spread relatively thinly. If a solar thermal generator is to produce much electricity it has to cover a large area. Sustainable, nonpolluting Solar thermal Heat can be stored and used to generate electricity when the sun is not shining. This gives solar thermal an advantage over wind which can only generate electricity when the wind is blowing. years; the waste of the old power stations becomes the fuel for the new. Some forms of solar power require substantial amounts of cooling water. Comments Solar thermal energy has been most highly developed in the United States South West where clear skies are common. While the technology has great promise it has not yet been proven to be cost-competitive on a large industrial scale. The sun's position in the sky is continually changing so most solar thermal generators have to include expensive Solar power is most machinery to keep them effectively built on flat pointed in the right land. direction. Solar thermal electricity is more expensive than wind and solar PV; US$0.20 to $0.28/kWh.
  • 14. Technology Advantages Disadvantages Comments Must cover a very large area Sustainable, nonpolluting Requires little water Solar chimney (A type of solar thermal) Technology Unlike some other forms of solar energy this can produce electricity at night and for limited periods under clouds due to the heat stored in the 'greenhouse'. Advantages Sustainable, nonpolluting Wave Technology Wind, large turbines While a small (50KW) trial station has run in Spain for some years, the technology has never been proven on a commercial scale. War time – To maximise efficiency solar chimneys must be very tall. They would present conspicuous and desirable targets for enemy attack. Disadvantages Not proven on a commercial scale The solar chimney concept uses a large 'greenhouse' to convert solar radiation into warm air. The air is then allowed to rise up a very tall (around 1km to be highly effective) chimney, turning turbines and generating power as it rises. Comments One type (CETO) has been claimed by its designers to be capable of producing electricity at around Aus$80/MWh (US$70/MWh), similar to the cost of windpower (but it seems not to have been proven). This type can either produce electricity or desalinated water (at a claimed cost of around Aus$1.50-$2 per kilolitre (US$1.35$1.80/kL). War time – Spread over a large area, and some types completely under water, so they would be difficult to destroy Much more expensive than wind and solar PV Advantages Disadvantages Comments Sustainable, nonpolluting Does not produce power when the wind isn't blowing. If a large proportion of a power There are many misconceptions about wind farms. I have notes on problems, A well proven Installation would damage the sea-bed locally
  • 15. technology and lowpriced for a sustainable energy: US$60 to US$80/MWh at the wind farm. system's electricity is wind power then there will be a need for a correspondingly large backup power supply. (See Sustainable Wind farms can be built Electricity). by moderately sized local or regional To generate large businesses. amounts of electricity wind turbines must be Requires little water, no numerous and spread cooling water. over large areas. This creates visual and noise Reduces the exposure annoyance and a of an economy to fuel significant public price volatility. opposition has developed, much of Very resistant to which is based on the damage from NIMBY (not in my earthquakes and back yard) principle. tsunamis. alleged problems and objections at Wind Problems. War time – The scattered layout of turbines in wind farms would make it difficult for enemies to destroy more than a few at any one time. Non fossil fuel small-scale power generation methods: Table 3 The generators considered in this section are usually small and built to provide power to a homestead or perhaps a village or small factory. If these power supplies are to have a major global impact they will have to be very numerous.
  • 16. War time – Scattered, numerous, and small power stations would be more difficult for an enemy to put out of action than a few large power stations. Technology Advantages Disadvantages Sustainable Bio-voltaic or bioelectricity Can combine sewerage disposal with power generation. Unproven on anything other than a laboratory scale Comments Some bacteria have the ability to produce an electrical potential. These can be fed on something convenient, perhaps sewerage or sugar, and produce electrical power. Non-polluting Technology Advantages Sustainable Micro hydro Can be used in such a way as to minimise disruption of aquatic life and stream ecosystems. Disadvantages Comments Requires a flowing stream and a significant change in altitude from intake to outlet. A large flow can make up for a small fall, or vice-versa. If poorly designed and/or Does not necessarily operated, it can have require damming a similar disadvantages to stream. large hydro-power, but on a smaller scale. Non-polluting Technology Disadvantages Comments Sustainable Solar photovoltaic (Solar electrical panels) Advantages While the panels are environmentally benign once they are built, the manufacturing process requires large amounts of energy. A solar photovoltaic panel must operate for a considerable time before it produces more power than was required in its manufacture. The US National Renewable Energy Labaratory states on its energy payback page that "Paybacks for multicrystalline It is a well proven technology. Well suited to providing power in home or single building applications. One less common, expensive, but highly efficient type of solar
  • 17. panel, gallium arsenide, Roof-top contains toxins that need installations are well to be disposed of suited to highcarefully at the end of the consumption urban life of the panel. areas where it has the additional Solar energy is spread advantage of saving relatively thinly. If a on the cost of photovoltaic generator is building new to produce much transmission lines. electricity (ie. several megawatts) it has to Peak generation cover a large area. matches peak consumption fairly Produces little or no well. power when the sun isn't shining. The cost of solar PV has been expensive, but is decreasing more quickly than any other technology. In 2013 it is close to parity with wind and new coal or gas power generation. Technology Wind, small turbines modules are 4 years for systems using recent technology and 2 years for anticipated technology. For thin-film modules, paybacks are 3 years using recent technology, and just 1 year for anticipated thin-film technology". Advantages Disadvantages Comments Sustainable, nonpolluting Does not produce power when the wind isn't blowing so a back-up electrical supply is also needed. If batteries Units are available to suit single houses or several houses. Small scale wind turbines grade into large scale; turbines are available in A well proven technology. Can be combined with smallscale wind-generated electricity or with mains power. Alternatively, batteries can be charged when more electricity is being generated than is being consumed. Excess electricity can be sold to the grid in some cases. In the past photovoltaic panels have predominantly been based on silicon. It is possible that in future a larger proportion will use alternatives such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS). While these elements are much rarer than silicon, they can be used as a thin film; this makes the cost competitive. One wonders if there are pollution implications in their eventual disposal.
  • 18. provide the backup they have the disadvantage of being expensive and needing to be replaced every few years a great range of generating capacities. Can usefully be combined with photovoltaic electricity, so that power will be generated when either the wind is blowing or the sun is shining. Fossil fuel small-scale power generation methods: Table 4 Technology Advantages Disadvantages Comments Consume fossil fuels – therefore not sustainable. Expensive in fuel costs. Small. Diesel and petrol powered generators Technology Fuel cells Relatively low capital cost. Are net producers of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The smaller units are Produce varying amounts easily portable. of noise. Some petrol powered units are remarkably well muffled for internal combustion engines. Advantages Can be a highly efficient way of converting a fuel to useful energy, 45% or even better; 60% has been claimed Disadvantages Not yet available at commercially competitive costs At present they (directly or indirectly) consume fossil fuels – therefore they are not sustainable and are net producers of the greenhouse gas carbon Petrol engine powered generators are generally small; up to 5 or 10kW. Diesel powered units tend to be larger, heavier, and less portable. Comments If fuel cells were used for powering homes, and the 'waste' heat then used for tasks such as heating water or space heating, the effeciency could be higher again; 85% has been claimed.
  • 19. dioxide. Here in the Philippines, we have about 723 powerplants listed. Of these, 674 do not have a fuel type specified, and 66 do not have coordinates specified for them. Below is a table of the following powerplants, its location, coordinates, capacity (MW) and operating status. Hydroelectric Station Capacity Commissioned (MW) Community Coordinates Status Ref Agus 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant 80 1994 Marawi City, Lanao del Sur Operational Ambuklao Hydroelectric Power Plant 105 2011 Ambuklao, Benguet Operational Agus 6 Hydroelectric Power Plant 200 1953,1977 Iligan City, Lanao del Norte Operational Ampohaw Hydro 8 1991,1997 Sablan, Benguet Operational Angat Dam 256 1968,1978,1992 Norzagaray, Bulacan Operational Bakun AC Hydro 70 2001 Alilem, Ilocos Sur Operational [1] Bineng Hydro 1 3.2 1991,1994 La, Trinidad, Benguet Operational [1] Bineng Hydro 2 2 1991,1996 La, Trinidad, Operational [1] [1]
  • 20. Station Capacity Commissioned (MW) Community Coordinates Status Ref Benguet Bineng Hydro 2b .75 1992 La, Trinidad, Benguet Operational [1] Bineng Hydro 3 4.5 1992,1994,1996 La, Trinidad, Benguet Operational [1] Binga Hydroelectric Power Plant 132 2013 Itogon, Benguet Operational Casecnan Irrigation and Hydroelectric Plant 140 2002 Pantabangan, Nueva Ecija Operational Ferdinand L Singit Hydro 5.9 1993 Bakun, Benguet Operational [1] Irisan Hydro 1 3.8 2011 Tuba, Benguet Operational [1] Irisan Hydro 3 1.2 1991 Tuba, Benguet Operational [1] Kalayaan Pumped Storage Power Plant 685 1983 Kalayaan, Laguna Lon-oy Hydro 3.6 1993 Lon-oy, San Gabriel, La Union Operational [1] Lower Labay Hydro 2.4 1993 Bakun, Benguet Operational [1] Magat Dam 360 1984 Ramon, Isabela 16°49′ 03″ N Operational 121°27′ 11″ E 14°19′ 2″ N Operational 121°28′ 27″ E
  • 21. Station Capacity Commissioned (MW) Community Coordinates Status Pulangui Hydroelectric Power Plant 255 1986 Maramag, Bukidnon Operational Pantabangan Masiway Hydroelectric Power Plant 112 1977,1980 Pantabangan, Nueva Ecija Operational Sal-Angan Hydro 2.4 1991 Itogon, Benguet Operational Ref 14°43′ 00″ N Operational 121°05′ 00″ E [1] San Roque Dam 345 2003 San Manuel and San Nicolas Pangasinan Sibulan Hydro A 16.5 2010 Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur Operational [1] Sibulan Hydro B 26 2010 Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur Operational [1] Talomo Hydro 1 1 1992 Calinan, Davao City Operational [1] Talomo Hydro 2 .6 2005 Proper Mintal, Davao City Operational [1] Talomo Hydro 2A .65 2005 Upper Mintal, Davao City Operational [1] Talomo Hydro 2b .3 2005 Upper Mintal, Davao City Operational [1] Talomo Hydro 3 1.92 2005 Catalunan, Davao City Operational [1]
  • 22. Geothermal Station Capacity Commissioned Community (MW) Coordinates Status Ref Bacon-Manito Geothermal Power Plant 150 Bacon, Sorsogon Operational Leyte Geothermal Production Field 700.9 Ormoc City, Leyte (province) Operational Makiling-Banahaw Geothermal Power Plant 480 1979, 1980, 1984, 1996 Brgy. Bitin, Bay, Laguna 14°5′ 17″ N 121°13′ 35″ E Operational Malitbog Geothermal Power Station 232.5 1996 Malitbog, Southern Leyte 11°9′ 7″ N 124°38′ 58″ E Operational Mindanao Geothermal Production Field 106 Kidapawan City, North Cotabato Operational [2][3] Northern Negros Geothermal Production Field 49.4 NW of Kanlaon Volcano Operational Palinpinon Geothermal Power Plant 192.5 1983, 1993 1994, 1995 Valencia, Negros Oriental Operational Tiwi Geothermal Power Plant 275 1979 Tiwi, Albay 13°27′ 56″ N Operational 123°38′ 55″ E [3] [4] Solar Station CEPALCO Cagayan de Oro Capacity Commissioned (MW) 1.1 2012 Community Cagayan de Oro, Coordinates Status Ref Operational [5][6]
  • 23. Capacity Commissioned (MW) Station Photovoltaic Power Plant Community Coordinates Status Ref Misamis Oriental Surallah Photovoltaic Power Plant 5 Surallah, South Cotabato Underconstruction Ormoc Photovoltaic Power Plant 30 Ormoc, Leyte Approved [8] Badoc-Vintar Photovoltaic Power Plant 20 Badoc and Vintar, Ilocos Norte Approved [9] [7] Wind Station Capacity Commissioned (MW) Community Coordinates Status Philippine Wind Farm 48 2012 Puerto Galera, Mindoro Under 18°31′ 40″ N construction 120°42′ 50″ E Bangui Wind Farm 24.75 2005 Bangui, Ilocos Norte 18°31′ 40″ N Operational 120°42′ 50″ E Burgos Wind Farm 87 Burgos, Ilocos Norte Under18°30′ 58″ N 120°38′ 46″ E construction Ref [10] [11][12] Non-renewable Coal Station Capacity Commissioned (MW) Community Sual Coal Power Plant 1294 1999 600 1998 Masinloc, 15°34′ 02″ N Status Ref Operational Sual, Pangasinan Masinloc Coal Coordinates [13] Operational [14]
  • 24. Station Capacity Commissioned (MW) Community Zambales Thermal Power Plant Coordinates Status Ref 119°55′ 22″ E Pagbilao Coal Power Plant 728 1996 Pagbilao, Quezon 13°53′ 35″ N 121°44′ 42″ E Operational [13] Calaca Coal Power Plant 600 (350) 1984, 1995 Calaca, Batangas 13°55′ 49″ N 120°47′ 19″ E Operational [15] APEC 50 2006 Mabalacat, Operational [13] [13] Pampanga Toledo 88.8 1993 Toledo, Cebu Operational Cebu Thermal Power Plant 109.3 1981 Naga, Cebu Operational Mindanao Coal Plant 232 2006 Villanueva, Misamis Oriental Operational [13] Bataan Coal Power Plant 2/300 2012 Mariveles, Bataan Operational [16] PEDC Coal Fired Power Plant 164 14°13′ 44″ N 121°45′ 21″ E Lapaz, Iloilo [13] Operational Diesel Station Capacity Commissioned (MW) Community Coordinates Status Ref Bohol Diesel Power Plant 11 1978, 1986, 1996 Tagbilaran, Bohol Operational [17] Panay Diesel Power Plant 74.9 1999 Iloilo City, Iloilo Operational [17][18]
  • 25. Nuclear Station Bataan Nuclear Power Plant Capacity Commissioned Community (MW) N/A Morong, Bataan Coordinates Status 14°37′ 45″ N 120°18′ 49″ E Ref Completed but Never fueled In the many power plants the Philippines have, energy crisis still does not seem to cease. These plants cannot be able to sustain all the growing demands of the society that is needed by establishments, large factories, malls, subdivisions and such alongside with the growing population of human civilization. Thus, the writer would like to answer some questions related to these topic and will further elaborate and critic if possible. E-mail interview with anonymous personnel from SOCOTECO II: 1.) Does the Philippines have energy crisis? Is it real? We can't really speak in behalf of the Philippines. Luzon and Visayas are not experiencing power shortages lately but some groups are anticipating same scenario in the coming years, unless new power plants will be put up soon. But speaking in Mindanao aspect, yes, we do have power shortage. Our power plants' capacity cannot cope up with our electricity demands. Very limited plants were introduced in the late 90s. [But there are] Not much recently. 2.) If yes, what resources do the Philippines have to address to these problems? Renewable sources should be the most ideal but the technology is still very expensive. We should maximize our hydro sources but the government won't spend anymore for this. It's up
  • 26. to the private sector now. That's what's so ironic about our EPIRA law. Try to read our Electric Power Industry Reform Act (RA 9136) law. So many materials related to these. 3.) It is proven true that energy crisis here in Mindanao is real. People have been battering gates of electric distribution centers and cooperatives and letting them take the blame for the said issue when it is not really their fault but because of the government and the governance itself. On what aspect do you think SOCOTECO 2 have failed? Why? In a way, we can take the blame. Although SOCOTECO II anticipated these shortages way before it happened and even proposed so many plans, it was not able to fully execute these plans. Lack of networking and legislative support is the main problem attributed to this. Overall, it’s our national government should be responsible to our power industry because distribution utilities only acts with limited capacity. Our national agencies, particularly Department of Energy should be the lead actor in this situation. 4.) Why do you think Alternative Energy is better preferred than Nuclear Energy? Nuclear energy is supposed to be the "cleanest" given the right technology but the most dangerous. It's still a taboo in our country. [There is still] so much opposition yet to see the lights of its implementation. By your alternative energy, I take it you mean renewable energy? If so, renewable sources are safer to us and the world, but the technology to convert it is still very expensive. You can read ocean current and solar energy. 5.) If ever the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant will be fueled, will the other power stations still operate? Yes. The power plant will only be part of the network. The other power plants will still operate if its power generation is needed.
  • 27. 6.) If the nation's nuclear power plant will become operational, will other alternative energy plants still be of use? If Bataan nuclear power plant will ever operate, it will provide huge source of energy but it cannot cover the entire Philippines' needs. Other power plants will still be required to generate power to serve us. Further Discussions: The Electric Power Industry Reform Act (RA 9136) EPIRA ACT -