DIPLOMA IN ITALIAN      Strutture linguistiche               U2      Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
Strutture linguistiche Structures encountered in Unità 2: • Present tense of regular verbs • Irregular verbs: fare, stare ...
VERBI (2)PRESENTE DEI VERBIREGOLARI IN -ere/ -irePresent tense of regular verbsending in -ere; -ire            Dr Laura In...
Italian verb endings   As you already know, the infinitive of all Italian    regular verbs ends in –are, -ere or –ire.  ...
Verbs in–ere: CHIEDERE (to ask)–ire: SENTIRE (to hear/listen)      FINIRE (to finish)   Chiedere, sentire and finire are ...
chiedere                  sentire       finireio         chied-o                   sent-o        fin-iscotu         chied-...
Like finire   The following are some of the most common verbs    which follow the same pattern as FINIRE:   Capire (to u...
VERBI IRREGOLARIIrregular verbs            Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
Verbi irregolari   There are several irregular verbs in    Italian. We will learn a few at the time.   You already know ...
fare                                     stare              (to do / make)                           (to be / stay)io     ...
ESPRESSIONI CONAVEREPhrases with Avere           Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
Quanti anni hai? NB: To ask how old are you? we say:             Quanti anni hai? The answer is either just a number or ...
ARTICOLODETERMINATIVODefinite article (= the)             Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
FormsMASCHILE    SINGOLARE                                 PLURALE            IL             il gatto                   I ...
Use (1)   IL before a singular masculine noun starting with a    consonant.   LO before a singular masculine noun starti...
Use (2)    Unlike English, we use the definite article1)   with countries/continents: l’Italia, l’Irlanda, la     Francia...
PROFESSIONI:femminile e maschileProfessions: masculine and feminine           Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
Professioni: endings and              genderENDING                        MASCULINE                                FEMININ...
ACCORDO:ARTICOLI, SOSTANTIVIE AGGETTIVIAgreement: articles, nouns andadjectives(For singular/plural of nouns, see Unità Pr...
Agreement   Articles and adjectives must agree in    gender and number (singular/plural)    with the noun they refer to. ...
PREPOSIZIONI:A – DA – DI – INPrepositions: a – da – di – in             Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
Use of a / in – da – diA                  Abito a Galway.(to be in a town / La Fontana di Trevi è a Roma.city / small     ...
INTERROGATIVIInterrogative words and expressions            Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
InterrogativiCHI?                                 Who?CHE COSA / COSA/ CHE?                What?DOVE?                     ...
Strutture linguistiche u2
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Strutture linguistiche u2

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Strutture linguistiche u2

  1. 1. DIPLOMA IN ITALIAN Strutture linguistiche U2 Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  2. 2. Strutture linguistiche Structures encountered in Unità 2: • Present tense of regular verbs • Irregular verbs: fare, stare • Phrases with avere • Definite article • Professions: masculine / feminine • Agreement noun/adjective • Prepositions: in, a, da, di • Interrogative words Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  3. 3. VERBI (2)PRESENTE DEI VERBIREGOLARI IN -ere/ -irePresent tense of regular verbsending in -ere; -ire Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  4. 4. Italian verb endings As you already know, the infinitive of all Italian regular verbs ends in –are, -ere or –ire. In Unità 1, we have already seen the present tense of verbs in –are. Now we consider verbs ending in –ere and –ire. Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  5. 5. Verbs in–ere: CHIEDERE (to ask)–ire: SENTIRE (to hear/listen) FINIRE (to finish) Chiedere, sentire and finire are regular verbs. To form the present tense of these and all other regular verbs in –ere/ –ire, just drop ERE/IRE and add the endings shown in the table: Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  6. 6. chiedere sentire finireio chied-o sent-o fin-iscotu chied-i sent-i fin-iscilui/lei/Lei chied-e sent-e fin-iscenoi chied-iamo sent-iamo fin-iamovoi chied-ete sent-ite fin-iteloro chied-ono sent-ono fin-iscono Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  7. 7. Like finire The following are some of the most common verbs which follow the same pattern as FINIRE: Capire (to understand) Costruire (to build) Preferire (to prefer) Pulire (to clean) Spedire (to post) Unire (to unite, join, link) Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  8. 8. VERBI IRREGOLARIIrregular verbs Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  9. 9. Verbi irregolari There are several irregular verbs in Italian. We will learn a few at the time. You already know essere and avere. Here are fare, stare. NB: stare (to be) is used to express being well/unwell (sto bene/male) or being in a place (sto a casa). Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  10. 10. fare stare (to do / make) (to be / stay)io faccio stotu fai stailui/lei/Lei fa stanoi facciamo stiamovoi fate stateloro fanno stanno Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  11. 11. ESPRESSIONI CONAVEREPhrases with Avere Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  12. 12. Quanti anni hai? NB: To ask how old are you? we say: Quanti anni hai? The answer is either just a number or the full sentence: 38. Ho 38 anni. Ho 38 IS NOT CORRECT! Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  13. 13. ARTICOLODETERMINATIVODefinite article (= the) Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  14. 14. FormsMASCHILE SINGOLARE PLURALE IL il gatto I i gatti L’ l’amico GLI gli amici LO lo studente gli studenti lo zaino gli zaini lo psicologo gli psicologiFEMMINILE SINGOLARE PLURALE LA la gatta LE le gatte L’ l’amica le amiche Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  15. 15. Use (1) IL before a singular masculine noun starting with a consonant. LO before a singular masculine noun starting with S + consonant, Z, PS, GN. L’ before a singular masculine or feminine noun starting with a vowel. L’ is never used in the plural! I before a plural masculine noun starting with a consonant. GLI before a plural masculine noun starting with a vowel, S + consonant, Z, PS, GN. LE before a plural feminine noun. Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  16. 16. Use (2) Unlike English, we use the definite article1) with countries/continents: l’Italia, l’Irlanda, la Francia, l’Europa. (BUT: in Italia, in Irlanda, ecc.).2) with abstract nouns: la libertà, l’amore, ecc.3) with names of languages (however with the verbs studiare and parlare the use is optional): l’italiano è una lingua romanza. Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  17. 17. PROFESSIONI:femminile e maschileProfessions: masculine and feminine Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  18. 18. Professioni: endings and genderENDING MASCULINE FEMININE-aio / -aia operaio operaia-iere/-iera cameriere cameriera-ista giornalista-ore/oressa dottore dottoressa-tore/-trice* attore attrice• * Many professions in –tore do not have the feminine: agricoltore, minatore, ecc.• Many professions do not have a different ending for the feminine: ingegnere, avvocato, ecc. Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  19. 19. ACCORDO:ARTICOLI, SOSTANTIVIE AGGETTIVIAgreement: articles, nouns andadjectives(For singular/plural of nouns, see Unità Preliminare → Sostantivi) Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  20. 20. Agreement Articles and adjectives must agree in gender and number (singular/plural) with the noun they refer to. un lavoro faticoso, i lavori faticosi – una cameriera svelta – le cameriere svelte (fast) This DOES NOT mean that adjective and noun must have the same ending:un lavoro stressante, i lavori stressanti; una cameriera efficiente – le cameriere efficienti(stressante/efficiente end in –e in the singular and–i in the plural for both feminine and masculine.) Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  21. 21. PREPOSIZIONI:A – DA – DI – INPrepositions: a – da – di – in Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  22. 22. Use of a / in – da – diA Abito a Galway.(to be in a town / La Fontana di Trevi è a Roma.city / small Vivo a Capri.island )IN Abito in Irlanda.(to be in a La Fontana di Trevi è in Italia.country / Siamo in Europacontinent / large Vivo in Sicilia.island)DA Veniamo da Napoli.(to come from atown/city)(to express Da quanto tempo (+ present tense)? How long?length of time) Lavora a Pescara da tre anni – (S)he has been living in Pescara for three yearsDI Siamo di Milano.(to be from atown /city) Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  23. 23. INTERROGATIVIInterrogative words and expressions Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin
  24. 24. InterrogativiCHI? Who?CHE COSA / COSA/ CHE? What?DOVE? Where?QUANDO? When?DA QUANTO TEMPO? How long?PERCHÉ? Why?COME MAI? Why?COME? How?QUANTO/A - QUANTI/E How much / how many? Dr Laura Incalcaterra McLoughlin

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